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  • 1.
    Arkema, Elizabeth V
    et al.
    1Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratories, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Simard, Julia F
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Case definitions in Swedish register data to identify systemic lupus erythematosus2016Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and investigate the utility of several different case definitions for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using national register data in Sweden.

    METHODS: The reference standard consisted of clinically confirmed SLE cases pooled from four major clinical centres in Sweden (n=929), and a sample of non-SLE comparators randomly selected from the National Population Register (n=24 267). Demographics, comorbidities, prescriptions and autoimmune disease family history were obtained from multiple registers and linked to the reference standard. We first used previously published SLE definitions to create algorithms for SLE. We also used modern data mining techniques (penalised least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression, elastic net regression and classification trees) to objectively create data-driven case definitions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the case definitions identified.

    RESULTS: Defining SLE by using only hospitalisation data resulted in the lowest sensitivity (0.79). When SLE codes from the outpatient register were included, sensitivity and PPV increased (PPV between 0.97 and 0.98, sensitivity between 0.97 and 0.99). Addition of medication information did not greatly improve the algorithm's performance. The application of data mining methods did not yield different case definitions.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of SLE International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes in outpatient clinics increased the accuracy for identifying individuals with SLE using Swedish registry data. This study implies that it is possible to use ICD codes from national registers to create a cohort of individuals with SLE.

  • 2.
    Arkema, Elizabeth V
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palmsten, Kristin
    University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmon, Jane E
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
    Simard, Julia F
    Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA ;Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What to Expect When Expecting With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A Population-Based Study of Maternal and Fetal Outcomes in SLE and Pre-SLE.2016Ingår i: Arthritis care & research, ISSN 2151-464X, E-ISSN 2151-4658, Vol. 68, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal and fetal outcomes associated with subclinical (pre-systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] and SLE presenting up to 5 years postpartum) and prevalent maternal SLE during pregnancy compared with the general population.

    METHODS: This prospective cohort study used population-based Swedish registers to identify 13,598 women with first singleton pregnancies registered in the Medical Birth Register (551 prevalent SLE, 65 pre-SLE within 0-2 years, 133 pre-SLE within 2-5 years, and 12,847 general population). SLE was defined as ≥2 SLE-coded discharge diagnoses in the patient register with ≥1 diagnosis from a specialist. Unadjusted risks of adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes were calculated by SLE status, and Cochran-Armitage tests evaluated trend across exposure groups.

    RESULTS: Maternal outcomes such as preeclampsia, hypothyroidism, stroke, and infection were more common among women with SLE. Sixteen percent of prevalent-SLE pregnancies were diagnosed with preeclampsia compared with 5% of those from the general population. Among the pre-SLE women, preeclampsia was found in 26% of those with SLE within 2 years postpartum and 13% in those with SLE within 2-5 years postpartum. Similarly, infant outcomes, such as preterm birth, infection, and mortality, were worse among those born to mothers with prevalent SLE and pre-SLE during pregnancy. The test for trend was significant for most outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that adverse maternal and fetal outcomes are more common in SLE pregnancies. Furthermore, these unfavorable outcomes are observed in pregnancies occurring prior to the diagnosis of SLE. Thus, the underlying immunologic profile of SLE and alterations preceding clinical SLE may contribute to these pregnancy complications.

  • 3.
    Bentow, C.
    et al.
    Inova Diagnost, CA USA.
    Lakos, G.
    Inova Diagnost, CA USA.
    Martis, P.
    Inova Diagnost, CA USA.
    Wahl, E.
    Inova Diagnost, CA USA.
    Garcia, M.
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Vinas, O.
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Espinosa, G.
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Cervera, R.
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Carmona-Fernandes, D.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos, M. J.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hanly, J. G.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Mahler, M.
    Inova Diagnost, CA USA.
    International multi-center evaluation of a novel chemiluminescence assay for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies2016Ingår i: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 864-872Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Anti-double stranded desoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA) antibodies are considered fairly specific for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their quantification is useful for the clinical management of SLE patients. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the QUANTA Flash dsDNA chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) in comparison to an ELISA, using patients from five participating countries. The main focus was to evaluate the correlation between anti-dsDNA antibody results from the CIA and global SLE disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). Patients and methods: A total of 1431 samples (SLE, n=843; disease controls, n=588) from five countries (Canada, USA, Portugal, Sweden and Spain) were tested with QUANTA Flash dsDNA (Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA, USA). Data obtained with the QUANTA Lite dsDNA SC ELISA (Inova Diagnostics) were available for samples from three sites (Canada, USA and Sweden, n=566). The SLEDAI-2K scores were available for 805 SLE patients and a cut-off ofamp;gt;4 was used to define active disease. Results: QUANTA Flash dsDNA had a sensitivity of 54.3% for the diagnosis of SLE, combined with 89.8% specificity. Anti-dsDNA antibody levels were significantly higher (pamp;lt;0.0001) in active SLE (SLEDAI-2Kamp;gt;4; n=232; median value 83.0IU/mL) versus the inactive patients (n=573; median value 22.3IU/mL), and the SLEDAI-2K scoring correlated with their dsDNA antibody levels (Spearmans rho=0.44, pamp;lt;0.0001). Similar but less pronounced findings were also found for the ELISA, in relation to disease activity. Conclusions: The QUANTA Flash dsDNA assay showed good clinical performance in a large international multi-center study. Additionally, the strong correlation between anti-dsDNA antibody results and SLEDAI-2K scores supported the potential utility of QUANTA Flash dsDNA for monitoring disease activity.

  • 4.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Rehabenheten. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Quality of life and acquired organ damage are intimately related to activity limitations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2015Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 16, nr 188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multi-organ disease, characterized by episodes of disease flares and remissions over time, which may restrain affected patients ability to perform daily activities. The purpose of the present study was to characterize variation in activity limitations among well-defined SLE patients, and to describe disease phenotypes, acquired organ damage and their relations to activity limitation and self-reported health, respectively. Methods: The disease phenotypes were organized into 4 different clinical groups and logistic regression analyses were used to identify how an elevated health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score was related to disease variables such as phenotypes, disease activity and damage accrual. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between each group of variables - background variables, disease variables and self-reported measurements - and the degree of elevated HAQ. Results: We found a higher proportion of activity limitation in patients with skin and joint involvement compared to others. The presence of activity limitation, as detected by the HAQ instrument, was significantly associated with quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and accrual of organ damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/ACR damage index. Conclusions: The findings highlight the differing requirements of the multi-professional rehabilitation interventions for the various SLE phenotypes in order to optimize the clinical care of the patients.

  • 5.
    Blomgran, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Brodin Patcha, Veronika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Verma, Deepti
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bergström, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sarndahl, Eva
    University of Örebro.
    Common Genetic Variations in the NALP3 Inflammasome Are Associated with Delayed Apoptosis of Human Neutrophils2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neutrophils are key-players in the innate host defense and their programmed cell death and removal are essential for efficient resolution of inflammation. These cells recognize a variety of pathogens, and the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) have been suggested as intracellular sensors of microbial components and cell injury/stress. Some NLR will upon activation form multi-protein complexes termed inflammasomes that result in IL-1 beta production. NLR mutations are associated with auto-inflammatory syndromes, and our previous data propose NLRP3 (Q705K)/CARD-8 (C10X) polymorphisms to contribute to increased risk and severity of inflammatory disease by acting as genetic susceptibility factors. These gene products are components of the NALP3 inflammasome, and approximately 6.5% of the Swedish population are heterozygote carriers of these combined gene variants. Since patients carrying the Q705K/C10X polymorphisms display leukocytosis, the aim of the present study was to find out whether the inflammatory phenotype was related to dysfunctional apoptosis and impaired clearance of neutrophils by macrophages. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods and Findings: Patients carrying the Q705K/C10X polymorphisms displayed significantly delayed spontaneous as well as microbe-induced apoptosis compared to matched controls. Western blotting revealed increased levels and phosphorylation of Akt and Mcl-1 in the patients neutrophils. In contrast to macrophages from healthy controls, macrophages from the patients produced lower amounts of TNF; suggesting impaired macrophage clearance response. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The Q705K/C10X polymorphisms are associated with delayed apoptosis of neutrophils. These findings are explained by altered involvement of different regulators of apoptosis, resulting in an anti-apoptotic profile. Moreover, the macrophage response to ingestion of microbe-induced apoptotic neutrophils is altered in the patients. Taken together, the patients display impaired turnover and clearance of apoptotic neutrophils, pointing towards a dysregulated innate immune response that influences the resolution of inflammation. The future challenge is to understand how microbes affect the activation of inflammasomes, and why this interaction will develop into severe inflammatory disease in certain individuals.

  • 6.
    Bolin, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Zickert, Agneta
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Association of STAT4 Polymorphism with Severe Renal Insufficiency in Lupus Nephritis2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 84450-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lupus nephritis is a cause of significant morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its genetic background has not been completely clarified. The aim of this investigation was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with lupus nephritis, its severe form proliferative nephritis and renal outcome, in two Swedish cohorts. Cohort I (n = 567 SLE cases, n = 512 controls) was previously genotyped for 5676 SNPs and cohort II (n = 145 SLE cases, n = 619 controls) was genotyped for SNPs in STAT4, IRF5, TNIP1 and BLK. Case-control and case-only association analyses for patients with lupus nephritis, proliferative nephritis and severe renal insufficiency were performed. In the case-control analysis of cohort I, four highly linked SNPs in STAT4 were associated with lupus nephritis with genome wide significance with p = 3.7x10(-9), OR 2.20 for the best SNP rs11889341. Strong signals of association between IRF5 and an HLA-DR3 SNP marker were also detected in the lupus nephritis case versus healthy control analysis (pless than0.0001). An additional six genes showed an association with lupus nephritis with pless than0.001 (PMS2, TNIP1, CARD11, ITGAM, BLK and IRAK1). In the case-only meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the STAT4 SNP rs7582694 was associated with severe renal insufficiency with p = 1.6x10(-3) and OR 2.22. We conclude that genetic variations in STAT4 predispose to lupus nephritis and a worse outcome with severe renal insufficiency.

  • 7.
    Boström, E A
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Bokarewa, M I
    University of Gothenburg.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Resistin is Associated with Breach of Tolerance and Anti-nuclear Antibodies in Patients with Hepatobiliary Inflammation2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 74, nr 5, s. 463-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistin is a cysteine-rich protein, which is abundantly expressed at the site of inflammation, and acts as a regulator of the NF-kB-dependent cytokine cascade. The aim of this study was to evaluate resistin levels in relation to inflammatory mediators, disease phenotype and autoantibody status in a spectrum of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Resistin levels were measured with an ELISA in sera originated from 227 patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). Fifty patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 53 ulcerative colitis (UC), 51 Crohns disease (CD), 46 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 27 primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were included. The sera were analysed with respect to biochemical parameters of systemic inflammation and liver function and to the presence of antibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA), mitochondria (AMA) and smooth muscle (SMA). Compared with HC, resistin levels were raised in AIH (P = 0.017) and PSC (P = 0.03); compared with NAFLD, levels were elevated in CD (P = 0.041), AIH (P andlt; 0.001) and PSC (P andlt; 0.001). Patients with elevated levels of resistin were more often treated with corticosteroids, but no difference was found between active disease and clinical remission. Resistin levels were significantly higher in ANA-positive individuals compared with ANA-negative (P = 0.025). Resistin levels were directly correlated with IL-6 (r = 0.30, P = 0.02) and IL-8 (r = 0.51, P andlt; 0.001). Elevated levels of resistin were prominent in patients with hepatobiliary inflammation and were associated with breach of self-tolerance, i.e. ANA positivity. Thus, we propose that resistin may be an important marker of disease severity in autoantibody-mediated gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases.

  • 8.
    Crisci, Elisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Rondahl, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Bergström, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Complement opsonization promotes HSV-2 infection of human dendritic cells2016Ingår i: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 90, nr 10, s. 4939-4950Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections globally with a very high prevalence in many countries. During HSV2 infection viral particles become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both existent in the genital fluids, which could influence the activation of the immune responses. In genital mucosa, the primary target cells for HSV2 infection are epithelial cells, but resident immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are also infected. The DCs are the activators of the ensuing immune responses directed against HSV2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects opsonization of HSV2, either with complement alone or with complement and antibodies, had on the infection of immature DCs and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses. Complement opsonization of HSV2 enhanced both the direct infection of immature DCs and their production of new infectious viral particles. The enhanced infection required activation of the complement cascade and functional complement receptor 3. Furthermore, HSV2 infection of DCs required endocytosis of viral particles and their delivery into an acid endosomal compartment. The presence of complement in combination with HSV1 or HSV2 specific antibodies more or less abolished the HSV2 infection of DCs.Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of studying HSV2 infection under conditions that ensue in vivo, i.e. when the virions are covered in complement fragments and complement fragments and antibodies, as this will shape the infection and the subsequent immune response and needs to be further elucidated.

    IMPORTANCE: During HSV2 infection viral particles should become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both existent in the genital fluids, which could influence the activation of the immune responses. The dendritic cells are the activators of the immune responses directed against HSV2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects of complement alone or complement and antibodies, on the HSV2 infection of dendritic cells and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses.Our results demonstrate that the presence of antibodies and complement in the genital environment can influence HSV2 infection under in vitro conditions that reflect the in vivo situation. We believe that our findings are highly relevant for the understanding of HSV2 pathogenesis.

  • 9.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Crisci, Elisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Burgener, Adam
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Birse, Kenzie
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Westmacott, Garrett
    Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D.
    Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, MD, USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Complement Opsonization of HIV-1 Results in Decreased Antiviral and Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells via CR32014Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 193, nr 9, s. 4590-4601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in genital and rectal mucosa may be one of the first cells to come into contact with HIV-1 during sexual transmission of virus. HIV-1 activates the host complement system, which results in opsonization of virus by inactivated complement fragments, for example, iC3b. We investigated antiviral and inflammatory responses induced in human iDCs after exposure to free HIV-1 (F-HIV), complement-opsonized HIV-1 (C-HIV), and complement and Ab-opsonized HIV-1 (CI-HIV). F-HIV gave rise to a significantly higher expression of antiviral factors such as IFN-beta, myxovirus resistance protein A, and IFN-stimulated genes, compared with C-HIV and CI-HIV. Additionally, F-HIV induced inflammatory factors such as IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, whereas these responses were weakened or absent after C-HIV or CI-HIV exposure. The responses induced by F-HIV were TLR8-dependent with subsequent activation of IFN regulatory factor 1, p38, ERK, PI3K, and NF-kappa B pathways, whereas these responses were not induced by C-HIV, which instead induced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and Lyn. This modulation of TLR8 signaling was mediated by complement receptor 3 and led to enhanced infection. The impact that viral hijacking of the complement system has on iDC function could be an important immune evasion mechanism used by HIV-1 to establish infection in the host.

  • 10.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Interferon-alpha Mediates Suppression of C-Reactive Protein Explanation for Muted C-Reactive Protein Response in Lupus Flares?2009Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 60, nr 12, s. 3755-3760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. C-reactive protein (CRP) is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. Despite raised IL-6 levels and extensive systemic inflammation, serum CRP levels remain low during most viral infections and disease flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because both viral infections and SLE are characterized by high levels of interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine can inhibit the induction of CRP. Methods. The interference of all 12 IFN alpha subtypes with CRP promoter activity induced by IL-6 and IL-1 beta was studied in a CRP promoter- and luciferase reporter-transfected human hepatoma cell line, Hep-G2. CRIP secretion by primary human hepatocytes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. CRP promoter activity was inhibited by all single IFN alpha subtypes, as well as by 2 different mixtures of biologically relevant IFN alpha subtypes. The most prominent effect was seen using a leukocyte-produced mixture of IFN alpha (56% inhibition at 1,000 IU/ml). The inhibitory effect of IFN alpha was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. CRP promoter inhibition was dose dependent and mediated via the type I IFN receptor. Transferrin production and Hep-G2 proliferation/viability were not affected by IFN alpha. Conclusion. The current study demonstrates that IFN alpha is an inhibitor of CRP promoter activity and CRP secretion. This finding concords with previous observations of up-regulated IFN alpha and a muted CRP response during SLE disease flares. Given the fundamental role of both IFN alpha and CRP in the immune response, our results are of importance for understanding the pathogenesis of SLE and may also contribute to understanding the differences in the CRP response between viral and bacterial infections.

  • 11.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: A valuable biomarker in systemic lupus erythematosus?2015Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 444, s. 234-241Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially severe autoimmune condition with an unpredictable disease course, often with fluctuations in disease activity over time. Long term inflammation and drug-related side-effects may subsequently lead to permanent organ damage, a consequence which is intimately connected to decreased quality of life and mortality. New lupus biomarkers that convey information regarding inflammation and/or organ damage are thus warranted. Today, there is no clinical biomarker that indicates the risk of damage accrual. Herein we highlight the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and especially its soluble form (suPAR) that besides having biological functions in e.g. proteolysis, cell migration and tissue homeostasis, recently has emerged as a promising biomarker of inflammation and prognosis of several disorders. A strong association between suPAR and organ damage in SLE was recently demonstrated, and preliminary data (presented in this review) suggests the possibility of a predictive value of suPAR blood levels. The involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of SLE remains obscure, but its effects in leukocyte recruitment, phagocytic uptake of dying cells (efferocytosis) and complement regulation suggests that the central parts of the SLE pathogenesis could be regulated by suPAR, and vice versa.

  • 12.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ronnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity2015Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 817-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Analysis of antibodies against dsDNA is an important diagnostic tool for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and changes in anti-dsDNA antibody levels are also used to assess disease activity. Herein, 4 assays were compared with regard to SLE specificity, sensitivity, and association with disease activity variables. Methods. Cross-sectional sera from 178 patients with SLE, of which 11 were followed consecutively, from a regional Swedish SLE register were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-dsDNA by bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS; Theradig), fluoroenzyme-immunoassay (EliA; Phadia/Thermo Fisher Scientific), Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT; ImmunoConcepts), and line blot (EUROLINE; Euroimmun). All patients with SLE fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC-12) classification criteria. Healthy individuals (n = 100), patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 95), and patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (n = 54) served as controls. Results. CLIFT had the highest SLE specificity (98%) whereas EliA had the highest sensitivity (35%). When cutoff levels for FIDIS, EliA, and EUROLINE were adjusted according to SLICC-12 (i.e., double the reference limit when using ELISA), the specificity and sensitivity of FIDIS was comparable to CLIFT. FIDIS and CLIFT also showed the highest concordance (84%). FIDIS performed best regarding association with disease activity in cross-sectional and consecutive samples. Fishers exact test revealed striking differences between methods regarding associations with certain disease phenotypes. Conclusion. CLIFT remains a good choice for diagnostic purposes, but FIDIS performs equally well when the cutoff is adjusted according to SLICC-12. Based on results from cross-sectional and consecutive analyses, FIDIS can also be recommended to monitor disease activity.

  • 13.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Association of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels With Lupus Disease Activity in the Absence of Measurable Interferon-α and a C-Reactive Protein Gene Variant2014Ingår i: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), ISSN 2326-5191, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1568-1573Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The type I interferon (IFN) system is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously demonstrated an inhibitory effect of IFNα on interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced C-reactive protein (CRP) in vitro, hypothetically explaining the poor correlation between disease activity and CRP levels in SLE. Herein we investigated disease activity, IL-6 and CRP in relation to a CRP gene polymorphism and IFN.

    Methods: Sera from 155 SLE patients and 100 controls were analyzed for CRP. Patients were genotyped for a CRP single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1205) associated with low CRP levels. Serum IFNα and IL-6 was quantified by immunoassays. Clinical disease activity was assessed by SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K).

    Results: CRP levels were increased in SLE patients compared to controls, but were not associated with SLEDAI-2K or IL-6 levels. However, exclusion of patients carrying at least one rs1205 minor allele revealed an association between disease activity and CRP levels (p=0.005). We found a strong association between disease activity and CRP levels (p<0.0005) when patients with measurable IFNα as well as the minor allele of rs1205 where excluded from the analysis. Similarly, when patients with raised IFNα and/or the rs1205 polymorphism were excluded, IL-6 associated with CRP levels.

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that serum IFNα as well as CRP genotype affects the CRP response in SLE patients. Lack of correlation between serum levels of CRP and disease activity could therefore be explained by activation of the type I IFN system and polymorphisms in the CRP gene. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.

  • 14.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Limited Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor As a Disease Activity Marker in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, vol 63, issue 10, pp S556-S5572011Ingår i: ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, Wiley-Blackwell , 2011, Vol. 63, nr 10, s. S556-S557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 15.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus2013Ingår i: Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 1931-5244, E-ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 162, nr 5, s. 287-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors- and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physicians global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P andlt; 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had.a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  • 16.
    Frodlund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Associations between antinuclear antibody staining patterns and clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a regional Swedish register2013Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy remains a diagnostic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical relevance of ANA fine-specificities in SLE has been addressed repeatedly, whereas studies on IF-ANA staining patterns in relation to disease manifestations are very scarce. This study was performed to elucidate whether different staining patterns associate with distinct SLE phenotypes.

    Design Observational cohort study.

    Setting One university hospital rheumatology unit in Sweden.

    Participants The study population consisted of 222 cases (89% women; 93% Caucasians), where of 178 met ≥4/11 of the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR-82) criteria. The remaining 20% had an SLE diagnosis based on positive IF-ANA (HEp-2 cells) and ≥2 typical organ manifestations at the time of diagnosis (Fries’ criteria).

    Outcome measures The IF-ANA staining patterns homogenous (H-ANA), speckled (S-ANA), combined homogenous and speckled (HS-ANA), centromeric (C-ANA), nucleolar (N-ANA)±other patterns and other nuclear patterns (oANA) were related to disease manifestations and laboratory measures. Antigen-specificities were also considered regarding double-stranded DNA (Crithidia luciliae) and the following extractable nuclear antigens: Ro/SSA, La/SSB, Smith antigen (Sm), small nuclear RNP (snRNP), Scl-70 and Jo-1 (immunodiffusion and/or line-blot technique).

    Results 54% of the patients with SLE displayed H-ANA, 22% S-ANA, 11% HS-ANA, 9% N-ANA, 1% C-ANA, 2% oANA and 1% were never IF-ANA positive. Staining patterns among patients meeting Fries’ criteria alone did not differ from those fulfilling ACR-82. H-ANA was significantly associated with the 10th criterion according to ACR-82 (‘immunological disorder’). S-ANA was inversely associated with arthritis, ‘immunological disorder’ and signs of organ damage.

    Conclusions H-ANA is the dominant IF-ANA pattern among Swedish patients with SLE, and was found to associate with ‘immunological disorder’ according to ACR-82. The second most common pattern, S-ANA, associated negatively with arthritis and organ damage.

  • 17.
    Ighe, Anna
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Application of the 2012 systemic lupus international collaborating clinics classification criteria to patients on a Regional Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus register2015Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 17, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) network presented a new set of criteria (SLICC-12) to classify systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study is the first to evaluate the performance of SLICC-12 in an adult European study population. Thus, SLICC-12 criteria were applied to confirmed SLE cases in our regional SLE register as well as to individuals with a fair suspicion of systemic autoimmune disease who were referred to rheumatology specialists at our unit.     

    Methods

    We included 243 confirmed SLE patients who met the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR-82) classification criteria and/or the Fries ‘diagnostic principle’ (presence  of antinuclear antibodies on at least one occasion plus involvement of at least two defined organ systems) and 55 controls with possible systemic autoimmune disease, including the presence of any SLE-related autoantibody.     

    Results

    SLICC-12 showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 94% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90 to 0.96) compared with 90% (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.93) for the updated set of ACR criteria from 1997 (ACR-97), whereas ACR-82 failed to identify every fifth true SLE case. However, the disease specificity of SLICC-12 reached only 74% (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.84) and did not change much when involvement of at least two different organs was required as an indicator of systemic disease. In addition, SLICC-12 misclassified more of the controls compared to ACR-82, ACR-97 and Fries.     

    Conclusions

    Establishing a standard definition of SLE continues to challenge lupus researchers and clinicians. We confirm that SLICC-12 has advantages with regard to diagnostic sensitivity, whereas we found the diagnostic specificity to be surprisingly low. To accomplish increased sensitivity and specificity figures, a combination of criteria sets for clinical SLE studies should be considered.

  • 18.
    Isine Bolstad, Anne
    et al.
    University of Bergen.
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    University of Bergen.
    Kristjansdottir, Gudlaug
    Uppsala University.
    Vasaitis, Lilian
    Uppsala University.
    Kvarnstrom, Marika
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Joar Auglaend Johnsen, Svein
    Stavanger University Hospital.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Omdal, Roald
    Stavanger University Hospital.
    Brun, Johan G
    University of Bergen.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Institute.
    Theander, Elke
    Lund University.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala University.
    Jonsson, Roland
    University of Bergen.
    Association between genetic variants in the tumour necrosis factor/lymphotoxin alpha/lymphotoxin beta locus and primary Sjogrens syndrome in Scandinavian samples2012Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, nr 6, s. 981-988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Lymphotoxin beta (LTB) has been found to be upregulated in salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS). An animal model of pSS also showed ablation of the lymphoid organisation and a marked improvement in salivary gland function on blocking the LTB receptor pathway. This study aimed to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA)/LTB/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene clusters are associated with pSS. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods 527 pSS patients and 532 controls participated in the study, all of Caucasian origin from Sweden and Norway. 14 SNP markers were genotyped and after quality control filtering, 12 SNP were analysed for their association with pSS using single marker and haplotype tests, and corrected by permutation testing. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults Nine markers showed significant association with pSS at the p=0.05 level. Markers rs1800629 and rs909253 showed the strongest genotype association (p=1.64E-11 and p=4.42E-08, respectively, after correcting for sex and country of origin). When the analysis was conditioned for the effect of rs1800629, only the association with rs909253 remained nominally significant (p=0.027). In haplotype analyses the strongest effect was observed for the haplotype rs909253G_rs1800629A (p=9.14E-17). The associations were mainly due to anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibody-positive pSS. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions A strong association was found between several SNP in the LTA/LTB/TNF alpha locus and pSS, some of which led to amino acid changes. These data suggest a role for this locus in the development of pSS. Further studies are needed to examine if the genetic effect described here is independent of the known genetic association between HLA and pSS.

  • 19.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Hjalte, Frida
    The Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Lund.
    Willim, Minna
    Lunds University, Lund .
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    The Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Lund.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, K, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Leonard, Dag
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Zickert, Agneta
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gustafsson, Johanna T
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Nived, Ola
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined cohorts.2016Ingår i: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 684-690Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to calculate total costs of illness and cost-driving disease features among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Sweden.

    METHODS: Five cohorts of well-defined SLE patients, located in different parts of the country were merged. Incident and prevalent cases from 2003 through 2010 were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria was used. From the local cohorts, data on demographics, disease activity (SLEDAI 2K), and organ damage (SDI) were collected. Costs for inpatient care, specialist outpatient care and drugs were retrieved from national registries at the National Board of Health and Welfare. Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    RESULTS: In total, 1029 SLE patients, 88% females, were included, and approximately 75% were below 65 years at the end of follow-up, and thus in working age. The mean number of annual specialist physician visits varied from six to seven; mean annual inpatient days were 3.1-3.6, and mean annual sick leave was 123-148 days, all per patient. The total annual cost was 208,555 SEK ($33,369 = 22,941€), of which direct cost was 63,672kr ($10,188 = 7004€) and the indirect cost was 144,883 SEK ($23,181 = 15,937€), all per patient. The costs for patients with short disease duration were higher. Higher disease activity as measured by a SLEDAI 2K score > 3 was associated with approximately 50% increase in both indirect and direct costs. Damage in the neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal domains were also linked to higher direct and indirect costs, while organ damage in the renal and ocular systems increased direct costs.

    CONCLUSION: Based on this study and an estimate of slightly more than 6000 SLE patients in Sweden, the total annual cost for SLE in the country is estimated at $188 million (=129.5 million €). Both direct (30%) and indirect costs (70%) are substantial. Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. The tax paid national systems for health care and social security in Sweden ensure equal access to health care, sick leave reimbursements, and disability pensions nationwide. Our extrapolated annual costs for SLE in Sweden are therefore the best supported estimations thus far, and they clearly underline the importance of improved management, especially to reduce the indirect costs.

  • 20.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Individual variations in treatment decisions by Swedish rheumatologists regarding biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 265-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, reports indicate surprisingly large regional variation in prescription of biological drugs, despite a growing number of clinical studies describing their beneficial effects and guidelines by professional organizations and agencies. Our objective was to ascertain whether there is also variation between individual rheumatologists in prescribing biologics to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate reasons for treatment choices.

    Methods: Ten hypothetical patient cases were constructed and presented to 26 rheumatologists in five regions in Sweden. The cases were based on actual cases and were thoroughly elaborated by a senior rheumatologist and pre-tested in a pilot study. The respondents were asked whether they would treat the patients with a biological agent (YES/NO) and to explain their decisions.

    Results: The response rate was 26/105; 25%. Treatment choices varied considerably between the rheumatologists, some prescribing biologics to 9/10 patients and others to 2/10. In five of the ten hypothetical cases, approximately half of the respondents would prescribe biologics. No regions with particularly high or low prescription were identified. Both the decision to prescribe biologics, as well as not to prescribe, were mainly motivated by medical reasons. Some rheumatologists also referred to lifestyle-related factors or social function of the patient.

    Conclusion: The choice of initiation of biologics varied substantially among rheumatologists presented with hypothetical patient cases, and there were also disparities between rheumatologists practising at the same clinic. Treatment choices were primarily motivated by medical reasons. This situation raises concerns about a lack of consensus in RA treatment strategies.

  • 21.
    Kienhöfer, D
    et al.
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Hahn, J
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Schubert, I
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Reinwald, C
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Ipseiz, N
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lang, S C
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Borràs, È Bosch
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Amann, K
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Barron, A E
    Stanford University, Stanford, USA .
    Hueber, A J
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Agerberth, B
    Karolinska University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schett, G
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Hoffmann, M H
    Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    No evidence of pathogenic involvement of cathelicidins in patient cohorts and mouse models of lupus and arthritis2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from their role in the immune defence against pathogens evidence of a role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in autoimmune diseases has accumulated in the past years. The aim of this project was to examine the functional impact of the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the mouse cathelicidin-related AMP (CRAMP) on the pathogenesis of lupus and arthritis. Serum LL-37 and anti-LL-37 levels were measured by ELISA in healthy donors and patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pristane-induced lupus was induced in female wild type (WT) and cathelicidin-deficient (CRAMP-/-) mice. Serum levels of anti-Sm/RNP, anti-dsDNA, and anti-histone were determined via ELISA, cytokines in sera and peritoneal lavages were measured via Multiplex. Expression of Interferon I stimulated genes (ISG) was determined by real-time PCR. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in male WT and CRAMP-/- mice and arthritis severity was visually scored and analysed histomorphometrically by OsteoMeasure software. Serum levels of anti-LL-37 were higher in SLE-patients compared to healthy donors or patients with RA. However, no correlation to markers of disease activity or organ involvement was observed. No significant differences of autoantibody or cytokine/chemokine levels, or of expression of ISGs were observed between WT and CRAMP-/- mice after pristane-injection. Furthermore, lung and kidney pathology did not differ in the absence of CRAMP. Incidence and severity of CIA and histological parameters (inflammation, cartilage degradation, and bone erosion) were not different in WT and CRAMP-/- mice. Although cathelicidins are upregulated in mouse models of lupus and arthritis, cathelicidin-deficiency did not persistently affect the diseases. Also in patients with SLE, autoantibodies against cathelicidins did not correlate with disease manifestation. Reactivity against cathelicidins in lupus and arthritis could thus be an epiphenomenon caused by extensive overexpression in blood and affected tissues. In addition, other cationic AMPs could functionally compensate for the deficiency of cathelicidins.

  • 22.
    Mathsson, L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Åhlin, E.
    Uppsala University.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Rönnelid, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Cytokine induction by circulating immune complexes and signs of in-vivo complement activation in systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with the occurrence of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibodies2007Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 147, nr 3, s. 513-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Circulating immune complexes (IC) and levels of IC-induced cytokines have been correlated with complement activation and autoantibody profiles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE sera were analysed concerning levels of immune complexes (IC), classical complement function and different antinuclear and anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) autoantibodies. Blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were stimulated with isolated IC and production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and IL-12p40 was measured. Functional experiments revealed that increased levels of IC-induced cytokines were associated with both increased classical complement activation and the occurrence of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA) and anti-SSB but not other autoantibodies. Biochemical measurement of circulating IC showed that the degree of complement activation and the occurrence of anti-SSA were synergistically associated with levels of circulating IC in SLE sera, as complement activation was a prerequisite for the enhancing effect of anti-SSA. Anti-CRP was associated with complement activation, but not with other autoantibodies. Our results indicate that anti-SSA and possibly anti-SSB antibodies influence IC formation and subsequent IC-induced cytokine induction, and that they thereby participate in the inflammatory process in active SLE.

  • 23.
    Mohammad, Aladdin J
    et al.
    Lunds University, Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge UK.
    Weiner, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Johansson, Martin E
    Lund University, Malmö .
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Lund University, Lund .
    Ståhl-Hallengren, Christina
    Helsingborg Hospital .
    Nived, Ola
    Lund University.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Lund University.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Incidence and disease severity of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated nephritis are higher than in lupus nephritis in Sweden.2015Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 30, s. i23-i30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives :The objectives of this study were to compare incidence rates, renal and patient survival between lupus nephritis (LN) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated nephritis (AAN) during a 12-year period in two geographically defined populations in Sweden.

    METHODS: In the health care districts surrounding the Skåne University Hospital in Lund [mean population ≥18 years (1997-2008), 188 400] and the University Hospital in Linköping [mean population ≥18 years (1997-2008), 328 900] all patients with biopsy-proven LN and AAN during the period 1997-2008 were included in the study if they (i) were residing within the study areas at the time of onset of nephritis, (ii) had a clinical diagnosis of either SLE or ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and (iii) experienced a first flare of biopsy-proven nephritis during the study period.

    RESULTS: Eighty-two patients (Lund 44 + Linköping 38) with biopsy-proven AAN were identified and 27 patients with LN (Lund 13 + Linköping 14). The annual incidence rate per million inhabitants aged ≥18 years in both study areas was estimated to be 13.2 (95% CI 10.4-16.1) for AAN and 4.3 (95% CI 2.7-6.0) for LN, P < 0.001. The patients were followed until January 2013. During the follow-up time 38 patients died (AAN 36, LN 2; P = 0.001), and 20 patients went into end-stage renal disease (AAN 19 and LN 1), P = 0.020.

    CONCLUSIONS: In Sweden, AAN was three times more common than LN, and the outcome was considerably worse. SLE is often diagnosed before the onset of nephritis leading to earlier treatment, while AAN is still often diagnosed at a later stage.

  • 24.
    Nikiphorou, Elena
    et al.
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Hannonen, Pekka
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Rannio, Tuomas
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Sokka, Tuulikki
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Long-term outcomes of destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis - description of four clinical cases2016Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, artikel-id 246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a milder course of progression compared to seropositive disease. However, long-term follow-up data of the clinical course of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis are sparse. Here we describe four cases with a rare disease entity of aggressive destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis with 20-35 years of follow-up. Case presentation: The four cases are women with an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in 1980-1996 and have received disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs since the diagnosis. In all cases, the condition has been refractory to treatments and evolved into a severe disease with destructions of the wrists, sub-talar and ankle joints, as well as large joints but not small joints of fingers and toes. All cases are negative with regard to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and antibodies against carbamylated proteins. Conclusions: This report adds to the existing literature, making the reader aware of this sub-type of inflammatory arthritis which despite being seronegative, can have devastating disease consequences. The report highlights the need for further research into this field in order to better understand this disease sub-type, the pathogenesis, disease course and outcomes.

  • 25.
    Nordmark, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Kristjansdottir, G
    Uppsala University.
    Theander, E
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Appel, S
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Vasaitis, L
    Uppsala University.
    Kvarnström, M
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Delaleu, N
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Lundmark, P
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lundmark, A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Brun, J G
    Haukeland Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Jonsson, M V
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Harboe, E
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway.
    Gøransson, L G
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway.
    Johnsen, S J
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eloranta, M-L
    Uppsala University.
    Alm, G
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Baecklund, E
    Uppsala University.
    Wahren-Herlenius, M
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Omdal, R
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway.
    Rönnblom, L
    Uppsala University.
    Jonsson, R
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Syvänen, A-C
    Uppsala University.
    Association of EBF1, FAM167A(C8orf13)-BLK andTNFSF4 gene variants with primary Sjo¨gren’s syndrome2011Ingår i: Genes and Immunity, ISSN 1466-4879, E-ISSN 1476-5470, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 100-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a candidate gene association study in 540 patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) from Sweden (n=344) and Norway (n=196) and 532 controls (n=319 Swedish, n=213 Norwegian). A total of 1139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 84 genes were analyzed. In the meta-analysis of the Swedish and Norwegian cohorts, we found high signals for association between primary SS and SNPs in three gene loci, not previously associated with primary SS. These are the early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) gene, P=9.9 × 10(-5), OR 1.68, the family with sequence similarity 167 member A-B-lymphoid tyrosine kinase (FAM167A-BLK) locus, P=4.7 × 10(-4), OR 1.37 and the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF4=Ox40L) gene, P=7.4 × 10(-4), OR 1.34. We also confirmed the association between primary SS and the IRF5/TNPO3 locus and the STAT4 gene. We found no association between the SNPs in these five genes and the presence of anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies. EBF1, BLK and TNFSF4 are all involved in B-cell differentiation and activation, and we conclude that polymorphisms in several susceptibility genes in the immune system contribute to the pathogenesis of primary SS

  • 26.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Wang, Chuan
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Vasaitis, Lilian
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Theander, Elke
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Kvarnström, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Jazebi, Helmi
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Reksten, Tove Ragna
    University of Bergen, Norway .
    Brun, Johan G.
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Jonsson, Malin V.
    University of Bergen, Norway .
    Johnsen, Svein J.
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway .
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Omdal, Roald
    Stavanger University Hospital, Norway .
    Jonsson, Roland
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Bowman, Simon
    University Hospital Birmingham, UK.
    Ng, Wan-Fai
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Association of Genes in the NF-κB Pathway with Antibody-Positive Primary Sjögren's Syndrome2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 447-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary Sjogrens syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltrates in the lachrymal and salivary glands and autoantibodies against the SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens. Experimental studies have shown an activation of NF-B in primary SS. NF-B activation results in inflammation and autoimmunity and is regulated by inhibitory and activating proteins. Genetic studies have shown an association between multiple autoimmune diseases and TNFAIP3 (A20) and TNIP1 (ABIN1), both repressors of NF-B and of IKBKE (IKK epsilon), which is an NF-B activator. The aim of this study was to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IKBKE, NFKB1, TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 genes for association with primary SS. A total of 12 SNPs were genotyped in 1105 patients from Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway, n=684) and the UK (n=421) and 4460 controls (Scandinavia, n=1662, UK, n=2798). When patients were stratified for the presence of anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB antibodies (n=868), case-control meta-analysis found an association between antibody-positive primary SS and two SNPs in TNIP1 (P=3.4x10(-5), OR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.16-1.52 for rs3792783 and P=1.3x10(-3), OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.08-1.36 for rs7708392). A TNIP1 risk haplotype was associated with antibody-positive primary SS (P=5.7x10(-3), OR=1.47, 95%CI: 1.12-1.92). There were no significant associations with IKBKE, NFKB1 or TNFAIP3 in the meta-analysis of the Scandinavian and UK cohorts. We conclude that polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with antibody-positive primary SS.

  • 27.
    Parodis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gomez, Alvaro
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zickert, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smoking reduces the efficacy of belimumab in mucocutaneous lupus.2018Ingår i: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, ISSN 1471-2598, E-ISSN 1744-7682, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 911-920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Recently, we demonstrated a negative impact of smoking on belimumab efficacy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we particularly investigated clinical effects of belimumab and a potential impact of smoking in mucocutaneous and articular SLE.

    METHODS: We surveyed 62 SLE patients treated between 2011 and 2017. Evaluation included the mucocutaneous descriptors of SLEDAI-2K (rash, alopecia, mucosal ulcers; mcSLEDAI-2K), CLASI, the arthritis SLEDAI-2K descriptor (arSLEDAI-2K) and the 28-joint count.

    RESULTS: mcSLEDAI-2K and CLASI activity decreased from baseline to month 6 and 12 (P<0.001 for all). No worsening in CLASI damage was observed. Current or previous smokers displayed a higher probability of unchanged/worsened mcSLEDAI-2K compared to never smokers (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 1.5-27.4; P=0.012), also after adjustment for antimalarial agents. arSLEDAI-2K scores had decreased at month 6 (P<0.001) and 12 (P<0.001). Likewise, tender and swollen 28-joint counts had improved at month 6 (P=0.010 and P<0.001, respectively) and 12 (P=0.001 for both). We observed no impact of smoking on belimumab efficacy in articular SLE.

    CONCLUSION: We observed a negative impact of smoking on the efficacy of belimumab in mucocutaneous SLE. In contrast, no impact of smoking on belimumab efficacy was seen in patients with articular manifestations.

  • 28.
    Simard, Julia F
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stanford School of Medicine, CA, USA.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Systemic Lupus Prevalence in Sweden in 2010: What do national registers say?2014Ingår i: Arthritis care & research, ISSN 2151-4658, Vol. 66, nr 11, s. 1710-1717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Worldwide prevalence estimates of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) range from 3-207 per 100,000 depending on region and population, SLE definition, case sources and other methodological considerations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SLE in Sweden on January 1, 2010 using population-based registers.

    Methods: Linking multiple national registers we identified all possible inpatient and outpatient visits with SLE-specific discharge diagnoses and relevant prescription dispensations among living individuals registered in Sweden on January 1, 2010. SLE was defined from a lenient classification (requiring only a single visit) to stricter definitions, which required multiple visits with a history of relevant specialist care and a dispensation for common SLE medications. Prevalence was calculated overall, and by sex, age (0-14, 15-49, 50+yrs, as well as in 5-year age groups), and county of residence.

    Result: Overall prevalence ranged from 46 per 100,000 for the strictest definition to 85 per 100,000 for the least strict definition. As expected, SLE was more common among females (ranged from 79 to 144/100,000) than males (12-25/100,000) and varied by age. The up to four-fold variation by county was unexpected. Prevalence generally increased with age (2, 52, and 95 per 100,000 by increasing age group, 0-14/15-49/50+, using a moderately strict definition) and also varied by county.

    Conclusion: Variations of prevalence by age and sex were consistent with previous studies and overall ranged from 46 to 85 per 100,000. We observed a surprising geographical variation in the prevalence of SLE in Sweden on January 1, 2010 according to multiple definitions.

  • 29.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    C-reaktivt protein - mer än bara en inflammationsmarkör.2004Ingår i: Smittnytt : information från smittskyddet och mikrobiologen, nr 37, s. 15-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 30.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Nivåer av autoantikroppar mot CRP samvarierar med sjukdomsaktiviteten vid SLE2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, nr 21-22, s. 1705-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein are correlated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus2004Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. R:87-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed to investigate the relation between IgG autoantibodies against human C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) and disease activity measures in serial serum samples from 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), of whom four had active kidney involvement during the study period. The presence of anti-CRP was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th centile of 100 healthy blood donor sera. Specificity of the anti-CRP antibody binding was evaluated by preincubating patient sera with either native or monomeric CRP. Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), serum levels of CRP, anti-DNA antibodies, complement components and blood cell counts. Of 50 serum samples, 20 (40%) contained antibodies reactive with monomeric CRP, and 7 of 10 patients were positive on at least one occasion during the study. All patients with active lupus nephritis were positive for anti-CRP at flare. Frequent correlations between anti-CRP levels and disease activity measures were observed in anti-CRP-positive individuals. Accumulated anti-CRP data from all patients were positively correlated with SLEDAI scores and anti-DNA antibody levels, whereas significant inverse relationships were noted for complement factors C1q, C3 and C4, and for lymphocyte counts. This study confirms the high prevalence of anti-CRP autoantibodies in SLE and that the antibody levels are correlated with clinical and laboratory disease activity measures. This indicates that anti-CRP antibodies might have biological functions of pathogenetic interest in SLE. Further prospective clinical studies and experimental studies on effects mediated by anti-CRP antibodies are warranted.

  • 32.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Lund .
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Lund .
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Letter: Anti-CRP autoantibody levels correlate with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus2005Ingår i: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 65-66Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 33.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    CRP and anti-CRP autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.2005Ingår i: Current rheumatology reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, Vol. 1, s. 81-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Cardell, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Bokarewa, Maria I
    University of Gothenburg.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Lindvall, Liselott
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    High prevalence of autoantibodies to C-reactive protein in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: association with liver fibrosis and portal inflammation2012Ingår i: Human Immunology, ISSN 0198-8859, E-ISSN 1879-1166, Vol. 73, nr 4, s. 382-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) has been reported in association with autoimmunity and histopathology in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resistin could play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis, although results on HCV infection are ambiguous. Here we retrospectively analyzed anti-CRP and resistin levels in the sera of 38 untreated and well-characterized HCV patients at the time of their first liver biopsy. HCV activity and general health were assessed by a physician at least yearly until follow-up ended. Anti-CRP and resistin were also measured in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Anti-CRP antibodies were registered in all HCV patients, whereas only a few AIH (11%) and NAFLD (12%) sera were positive. Anti-CRP levels were related to histopathological severity and were highest in patients with cirrhosis at baseline. Resistin levels were similar in HCV, AIH, and NAFLD patients, but high levels of resistin were associated with early mortality in HCV patients. Neither anti-CRP nor resistin predicted a response to interferon-based therapy or cirrhosis development or was associated with liver-related mortality. We conclude that anti-CRP antibodies are frequently observed in chronic HCV infection and could be a useful marker of advanced fibrosis and portal inflammation.

  • 35.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Reduced anti-TNFα autoantibody levels coincide with flare in systemic lupus erythematosus2004Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 315-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deviating cytokine patterns, as a consequence of aberrant immunoregulation, is implicated to be of aetiopathogenetic importance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To evaluate the possibility of anti-cytokine autoantibody-mediated cytokine regulation/dysregulation, IgG class autoantibodies against cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα and TGFβ1) were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serial serum samples from clinically well-characterized SLE patients and in normal human sera (NHS). Anti-TNFα autoantibody levels were lower in patients with active disease compared to inactive disease (P<0.001) as well as to NHS (P<0.001). The anti-TNFα antibody levels correlated inversely to the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (r2=0.07, P<0.01), whereas anti-TGFβ antibodies were raised in SLE and correlated positively to levels of complement factor C1q (r2=0.08, P<0.005). Generally raised anti-cytokine antibody levels and correlations to disease activity measures were found in one individual. Inverse correlations were found comparing SLEDAI scores and autoantibodies to TNFα (r2=0.92) and IL-6 (r2=0.86) and positive correlations were found between levels of anti-TNFα and C1q (r2=0.86) and C3 (r2=0.90). We show, for the first time, a coincidence between reduced anti-TNFα autoantibody levels and disease exacerbation in SLE, which is of interest regarding aetiopathogenesis and disease control.

  • 36.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Letter: Clinically suspected recurrence of gastric carcinoid proved to be hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome with pulmonary involvement2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 337-339Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 37.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Almroth, Gunnel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Beware of Antibodies to Dietary Proteins in "Antigen-specific" Immunoassays! Falsely Positive Anticytokine Antibody Tests Due to Reactivity with Bovine Serum Albumin in Rheumatoid Arthritis (The Swedish TIRA Project)2011Ingår i: JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, ISSN 0315-162X, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 215-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate (1) to what extent sera from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) contain antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA); and (2) if anti-BSA antibodies interfere with results of enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) containing BSA. Methods. The ELISA used was a previously developed in-house assay of autoantibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Anti-TNF and anti-BSA antibodies were analyzed by ELISA in 189 patients with early RA and 186 healthy blood donors. TNF preparations containing either BSA or human serum albumin (HSA) as carrier proteins were used as antigens in the anti-TNF assay. The presence and levels of antibodies were analyzed in relation to disease course and to the presence/absence of rheumatoid factor (RF). Results. In patients with RA, anti-TNF/BSA levels strongly correlated with anti-BSA levels (r = 0.81, p andlt; 0.001), whereas anti-TNF/HSA did not (r = -0.09). Neither the presence nor the levels of anti-BSA in RA patients were associated with disease progression, and antibody levels were not significantly altered compared to controls (p = 0.11). IgG reactivity with TNF/HSA was neglible. In paired sera, preincubation with BSA abolished the anti-TNF/BSA reactivity. There were no indications of RF interference with anti-BSA or anti-TNF reactivity. Conclusion. Antibodies to BSA are common in patients with RA as well as in healthy individuals. Their presence does not seem to be associated with RA disease activity or disease course, but may severely interfere with ELISA containing BSA. The use of BSA as a "blocking agent" or carrier protein in immunoassays should therefore be avoided.

  • 38.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Olin, Anders I.
    Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Mörgelin, Matthias
    Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nived, Ola
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin G and complement co-localize in renal immune deposits of proliferative lupus nephritis2013Ingår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 205-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pattern recognition molecules C-reactive protein (CRP) and C1q are of big interest in relation to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating autoantibodies against CRP and C1q are frequently found in SLE patients with active disease, particularly in lupus nephritis (LN), and rising levels reportedly relate to disease activity and outcome. If CRP-, or dsDNA- and/or C1q-containing immune complexes (ICs) are pathogenic in LN, glomerular IgG-deposits would be expected to co-localize with these antigens. In search for proof of this concept, renal biospsies from patients with active LN (n=5) were examined with high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy. Renal biopsies from patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, pauci-immune nephritis and renal cancer served as controls. IgG antibodies against CRP, C1q and nucleosomes were analyzed in pre–post flare sera. We could demonstrate that CRP, C1q, C3c and dsDNA were co-localized with IgG in electron dense deposits in the glomerular basement membrane/subendothelial space in all of the 5 LN patients. Deposits of IgG, CRP, complement and dsDNA were 10-fold higher in LN compared to controls. All SLE patients had circulating anti-nucleosome antibodies; 4/5 had serum antibodies against CRP, dsDNA, and C1q at biopsy/flare. Despite a limited number of cases, the results support the notion of a pathogenic role not only for anti-dsDNA antibodies, but also for anti-CRP and anti-C1q in LN. The glomerular ICs may have been generated by deposition of circulating ICs or by in situ IC formation.

  • 39.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi.
    Pathogenic implications for autoantibodies against C-reactive protein and other acute phase proteins2007Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 378, nr 1-2, s. 13-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic rheumatic disease characterized clinically by multiorgan involvement and serologically by the occurrence of antinuclear antibodies. SLE patients may present with multiple autoantibodies to cytoplasmic and cell surface antigens as well as to circulating plasma proteins. Another feature of SLE is that serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) often remain low despite high disease activity and despite high levels of other acute phase proteins and interleukin-6, i.e. the main CRP inducing cytokine. Apart from its important role as a laboratory marker of inflammation, CRP attracts increasing interest due to its many intriguing biological functions, one of which is a role as an opsonin contributing to the elimination of apoptotic cell debris, e.g. nucleosomes, thereby preventing immunization against autoantigens. Recently, autoantibodies against CRP and other acute phase proteins have been reported in certain rheumatic conditions, including SLE. Although the presence of anti-CRP autoantibodies does not explain the failed CRP response in SLE, antibodies directed against acute phase proteins have several implications of pathogenetic interest. This paper thus highlights the biological and clinical aspects of native and monomeric CRP and anti-CRP, as well as autoantibodies against mannose-binding lectin, serum amyloid A and serum amyloid P component. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Askendal, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction2007Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, nr 1, s. 251-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fcγ receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP–C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups.

  • 41.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-CRP autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a study on the occurrence and clinical implications of anti-CRP antibodies and CRP-mediated complement activation2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by production of a wide range of autoantibodies, multiple organ involvement and by local formation or tissue deposition of immune complexes (ICs) in the inflamed organs. In contrast to most systemic inflammatory conditions, and despite raised levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, SLE flares are rarely reflected by elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), an important acute-phase reactant in man with homologs in vertebrates and several invertebrates. As a part of the innate immune system, CRP binds certain molecules exposed on the surface of dying cells/apoptotic bodies and on the surface of pathogens and mediates their elimination by uptake in the reticuloendothelial system. CRP also interacts with IgG-containing immune complexes, binds Fc receptors and activates the complement system via C1q.

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate the complement activation properties of CRP; to elucidate if anti-CRP antibodies occur in SLE and, if so, whether anti-CRP antibody levels correlate with disease activity in SLE; to test the hypothesis that autoantibodies to pro-inflammatory cytokines prevent rise of CRP; and to survey if autoantibodies to certain nuclear antigens or to CRP correlate with cytokine-inducing properties of ICs from SLE sera.

    We have demonstrated that CRP bound to phosphorylcholine is a powerful activator of the classical complement pathway already in the CRP concentration range 4 to 10 mg/L, but with a marked inhibition at CRP levels above 150 mg/L. Autoantibodies to the monomeric form of CRP were found in approximately 40 percent of SLE patients and in a few sera from patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, but not in rheumatoid arthritis or in inflammatory bowel disease. The anti-CRP antibody levels showed significant correlations to several laboratory and clinical measurements, and anti-CRP positivity was associated with renal involvement in SLE. Native CRP levels were not correlated with anti-CRP or anti-cytokine antibody levels. Hence, the presence of antibodies to monomeric CRP or to CRP-inducing cytokines is an unlikely explanation to the relative failure of CRP response in patients with active lupus. However, antibodies to TNFα were found in subnormal levels at disease flares, whereas antibodies to TGFβ were found in supranormal levels as compared to healthy subjects. In contrast to antibodies against CRP and DNA, anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies may regulate the inflammatory process in SLE by enhancing IC formation and subsequent production of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12p40. Hypothetically, anti-CRP autoantibodies may be of pathogenic importance, for instance by binding to monomeric CRP on cell and tissue surfaces and thereby increasing the risk of extrahepatic deposition of apoptotic material and in situ formation of ICs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction
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    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, nr 1, s. 251-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fcγ receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP–C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups.

    Nyckelord
    C-reactive protein, C1q, Complement, Inflammation, Opsonization, Pentraxins, Systemic lupus erythematosus
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13891 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.013 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-07-10 Skapad: 2006-07-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Autoantibodies to C-reactive protein is a common finding in SLE, but not in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Autoantibodies to C-reactive protein is a common finding in SLE, but not in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 155-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of antibodies to human C-reactive protein (CRP) was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 56 patient sera known to contain antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and in 16 sera from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), 15 rheumatoid arthritis, 31 Crohn's disease, and 37 ulcerative colitis. Eighty-seven per cent of the patients with anti-dsDNA antibodies had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the remaining had autoimmune hepatitis. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th percentile of 100 healthy blood donors. Twenty of 56 anti-dsDNA sera (36%) and two of 16 SS sera (13%) had antibodies reactive with human CRP, whereas all other samples were negative. Thirteen of 27 SLE patients (48%) were positive on at least one occasion. The sera containing anti-CRP antibodies only reacted with surface-bound antigen, but not with native CRP in solution. In conclusion, we found that autoantibodies to CRP are common in sera from patients with anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not likely that this explains the relative failure of CRP response in patients with active SLE. However, it cannot be excluded that anti-CRP autoantibodies have other biological potentials of pathophysiological interest in SLE, for instance by binding to CRP deposited on cell and tissue surfaces.

    Nyckelord
    Autoantibodies, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13892 (URN)10.1006/jaut.2002.0608 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-07-10 Skapad: 2006-07-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein are correlated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein are correlated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. R:87-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed to investigate the relation between IgG autoantibodies against human C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) and disease activity measures in serial serum samples from 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), of whom four had active kidney involvement during the study period. The presence of anti-CRP was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th centile of 100 healthy blood donor sera. Specificity of the anti-CRP antibody binding was evaluated by preincubating patient sera with either native or monomeric CRP. Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), serum levels of CRP, anti-DNA antibodies, complement components and blood cell counts. Of 50 serum samples, 20 (40%) contained antibodies reactive with monomeric CRP, and 7 of 10 patients were positive on at least one occasion during the study. All patients with active lupus nephritis were positive for anti-CRP at flare. Frequent correlations between anti-CRP levels and disease activity measures were observed in anti-CRP-positive individuals. Accumulated anti-CRP data from all patients were positively correlated with SLEDAI scores and anti-DNA antibody levels, whereas significant inverse relationships were noted for complement factors C1q, C3 and C4, and for lymphocyte counts. This study confirms the high prevalence of anti-CRP autoantibodies in SLE and that the antibody levels are correlated with clinical and laboratory disease activity measures. This indicates that anti-CRP antibodies might have biological functions of pathogenetic interest in SLE. Further prospective clinical studies and experimental studies on effects mediated by anti-CRP antibodies are warranted.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BioMed Central, 2004
    Nyckelord
    autoantibodies, C-reactive protein, disease activity, SLEDAI, systemic lupus erythematosus
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13893 (URN)10.1186/ar1032 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-07-10 Skapad: 2006-07-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Reduced anti-TNFα autoantibody levels coincide with flare in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reduced anti-TNFα autoantibody levels coincide with flare in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Visa övriga...
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 315-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Deviating cytokine patterns, as a consequence of aberrant immunoregulation, is implicated to be of aetiopathogenetic importance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To evaluate the possibility of anti-cytokine autoantibody-mediated cytokine regulation/dysregulation, IgG class autoantibodies against cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα and TGFβ1) were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serial serum samples from clinically well-characterized SLE patients and in normal human sera (NHS). Anti-TNFα autoantibody levels were lower in patients with active disease compared to inactive disease (P<0.001) as well as to NHS (P<0.001). The anti-TNFα antibody levels correlated inversely to the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (r2=0.07, P<0.01), whereas anti-TGFβ antibodies were raised in SLE and correlated positively to levels of complement factor C1q (r2=0.08, P<0.005). Generally raised anti-cytokine antibody levels and correlations to disease activity measures were found in one individual. Inverse correlations were found comparing SLEDAI scores and autoantibodies to TNFα (r2=0.92) and IL-6 (r2=0.86) and positive correlations were found between levels of anti-TNFα and C1q (r2=0.86) and C3 (r2=0.90). We show, for the first time, a coincidence between reduced anti-TNFα autoantibody levels and disease exacerbation in SLE, which is of interest regarding aetiopathogenesis and disease control.

    Nyckelord
    Anti-cytokine antibodies, Disease activity, Immunoregulation, Systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI, Tumour necrosis factor α
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13894 (URN)10.1016/j.jaut.2004.02.003 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-07-10 Skapad: 2006-07-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-08-31
    5. Cytokine induction by circulating immune complexes and signs of in-vivo complement activation in systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with the occurrence of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibodies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cytokine induction by circulating immune complexes and signs of in-vivo complement activation in systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with the occurrence of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibodies
    Visa övriga...
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 147, nr 3, s. 513-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Circulating immune complexes (IC) and levels of IC-induced cytokines have been correlated with complement activation and autoantibody profiles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE sera were analysed concerning levels of immune complexes (IC), classical complement function and different antinuclear and anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) autoantibodies. Blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were stimulated with isolated IC and production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and IL-12p40 was measured. Functional experiments revealed that increased levels of IC-induced cytokines were associated with both increased classical complement activation and the occurrence of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA) and anti-SSB but not other autoantibodies. Biochemical measurement of circulating IC showed that the degree of complement activation and the occurrence of anti-SSA were synergistically associated with levels of circulating IC in SLE sera, as complement activation was a prerequisite for the enhancing effect of anti-SSA. Anti-CRP was associated with complement activation, but not with other autoantibodies. Our results indicate that anti-SSA and possibly anti-SSB antibodies influence IC formation and subsequent IC-induced cytokine induction, and that they thereby participate in the inflammatory process in active SLE.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2007
    Nyckelord
    complement, cytokines, immune complex, systemic lupus erythematosus
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13895 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03313.x (DOI)000243928900016 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-07-10 Skapad: 2006-07-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 42.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Cöster, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Belimumab may not prevent lupus nephritis in serologically active patientswith ongoing non-renal disease activity2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 428-430Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Almer, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Autoantibodies to C-reactive protein is a common finding in SLE, but not in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease2002Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 155-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of antibodies to human C-reactive protein (CRP) was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 56 patient sera known to contain antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and in 16 sera from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), 15 rheumatoid arthritis, 31 Crohn's disease, and 37 ulcerative colitis. Eighty-seven per cent of the patients with anti-dsDNA antibodies had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the remaining had autoimmune hepatitis. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th percentile of 100 healthy blood donors. Twenty of 56 anti-dsDNA sera (36%) and two of 16 SS sera (13%) had antibodies reactive with human CRP, whereas all other samples were negative. Thirteen of 27 SLE patients (48%) were positive on at least one occasion. The sera containing anti-CRP antibodies only reacted with surface-bound antigen, but not with native CRP in solution. In conclusion, we found that autoantibodies to CRP are common in sera from patients with anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not likely that this explains the relative failure of CRP response in patients with active SLE. However, it cannot be excluded that anti-CRP autoantibodies have other biological potentials of pathophysiological interest in SLE, for instance by binding to CRP deposited on cell and tissue surfaces.

  • 44.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Cardell, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are associated with severity of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease2015Ingår i: Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 165, nr 6, s. 658-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of individuals with severe liver fibrosis among patients with chronic liver disease is of major importance when evaluating prognosis, potential risk for complications, and when deciding treatment strategies. Although percutaneous liver biopsy is still considered a "gold standard" for staging of liver fibrosis, attempts to find reliable noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis are frequent. Inflammation is essential for the progression of fibrosis. The urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor have been associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in mice. High serum concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are suggested to be involved in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer metastasis. Here, we evaluated serum suPAR as a noninvasive test to detect liver fibrosis in 82 well-characterized patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and in 38 untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at the time of their first liver biopsy. suPAR levels were increased in chronic liver disease compared with blood donors (P < 0.001). Patients with HCV had higher suPAR concentrations than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.002). suPAR levels were associated with the severity of fibrosis, particularly in NAFLD, but did not correlate with inflammation. Regarding the performance in predicting severity of fibrosis, suPAR was essentially as good as other commonly used noninvasive fibrosis scoring systems. The results in HCV confirm previous observations. However, this is the first study to investigate suPAR as a biomarker in NAFLD, and the results indicate that suPAR may constitute a severity marker related to fibrosis and prognosis rather than reflecting inflammation.

  • 45.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Sturm, Martin
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Abnormal Antinuclear Antibody Titers Are Less Common Than Generally Assumed in Established Cases of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2008Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 35, s. 1994-2000Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests in established cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (F-ANA) and enzyme-immunoassays detecting antinucleosomal antibodies (ANSA-EIA). METHODS: Sera from 50 patients with SLE and 65 patients with RA were analyzed regarding abnormal concentrations of F-ANA (serum dilution >/= 1:200 = 95th percentile among 300 healthy blood donors). The sera were also analyzed with 2 commercial ANSA-EIA kits. RESULTS: An abnormal F-ANA titer occurred in 76% of the SLE sera compared to 23% in RA, and was not related to present use of antirheumatic drugs. At dilution 1:50, 84% of the SLE sera were F-ANA-positive compared to 20% of healthy women. Forty percent and 56%, respectively, of the SLE sera tested positive in the 2 ANSA-EIA kits. By the most sensitive assay, 96% of the ANSA-positive SLE sera produced a homogenous (chromosomal) F-ANA staining pattern compared to 18% of the ANSA-negative SLE sera. Ten of the 15 F-ANA-positive RA sera (63%) generated homogenous F-ANA staining and 13 (20%) tested positive in the most sensitive ANSA-EIA, but with no correlation to the F-ANA staining pattern. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of F-ANA at an abnormal titer was surprisingly low (76%) in established cases of SLE. ANSA occurred in 56% of the SLE sera, but also in a fair number (20%) of RA sera. Practically all ANSA-positive SLE sera were identified by chromosomal F-ANA staining. We conclude that the antigen-specific antinucleosomal EIA does not have high enough diagnostic specificity to justify use of this analysis for routine diagnostic purposes.  

  • 46.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Zapf, J
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    von Löhneysen, S
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Magorivska, I
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany; Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.
    Biermann, M
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Janko, C
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany; University Hospital Erlangen, Germany.
    Winkler, S
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Bilyy, R
    Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.
    Schett, G
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Herrmann, M
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Muñoz, L E
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany.
    Altered glycosylation of complexed native IgG molecules is associated with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus2015Ingår i: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 569-581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the redundancy of the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, glycans result in potential ligands for a plethora of lectin receptors found in immune effector cells. Here we analysed the exposure of glycans containing fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-type core by complexed native IgG in longitudinal serum samples of well-characterized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Consecutive serum samples of a cohort of 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus during periods of increased disease activity and remission were analysed. All patients fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Sera of 15 sex- and age-matched normal healthy blood donors served as controls. The levels and type of glycosylation of complexed random IgG was measured with lectin enzyme-immunosorbent assays. After specifically gathering IgG complexes from sera, biotinylated lectins Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin were employed to detect IgG-associated fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core, respectively. In sandwich-ELISAs, IgG-associated IgM, IgA, C1q, C3c and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected as candidates for IgG immune complex constituents. We studied associations of the glycan of complexed IgG and disease activity according to the physician's global assessment of disease activity and the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 documented at the moment of blood taking. Our results showed significantly higher levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin binding sites exposed on IgG complexes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than on those of normal healthy blood donors. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlated with higher exposure of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactive fucosyl residues by immobilized IgG complexes. Top levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactivity were found in samples taken during the highest activity of systemic lupus erythematosus. Our results show that native circulating IgG complexes from active systemic lupus erythematosus patients expose fucosyl residues and their glycan core is accessible to soluble lectins. Two putative mechanisms may contribute to the increased exposure of these glycans: (1) the canonical N-glycosylation site of the IgG-CH2 domain; (2) an IgG binding non-IgG molecule, like complement or C-reactive protein. In both cases the complexed IgG may be alternatively targeted to lectin receptors of effector cells, e.g. dendritic cells.

  • 47.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Zickert, Agneta
    Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, IC - I-centrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Serum levels of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein correlate with renal disease activity and response to therapy in lupus nephritis2009Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. R188-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) seldom reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have previously shown that autoantibodies against neo-epitopes of CRP often occur in SLE, but that this does not explain the modest CRP response seen in flares. However, we have repeatedly found that anti-CRP levels parallel lupus disease activity, with highest levels in patients with renal involvement; thus, we aimed to study anti-CRP in a material of well-characterized lupus nephritis patients.

    Methods

    Thirty-eight patients with lupus nephritis were included. Treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was started after baseline kidney biopsy. A second biopsy was taken after ≥ 6 months. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, complement, anti-dsDNA, anti-CRP and urinalysis were done on both occasions. Biopsies were evaluated regarding World Health Organisation (WHO) class and indices of activity and chronicity. Renal disease activity was estimated using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index.

    Results

    At baseline, 34/38 patients had renal BILAG-A; 4/38 had BILAG-B. Baseline biopsies showed WHO class III (n = 8), IV (n = 19), III to IV/V (n = 3) or V (n = 8) nephritis. Seventeen out of 38 patients were anti-CRP-positive at baseline, and six at follow-up. Overall, anti-CRP levels had dropped at follow-up (P < 0.0001) and anti-CRP levels correlated with renal BILAG (r = 0.29, P = 0.012). A positive anti-CRP test at baseline was superior to anti-dsDNA and C1q in predicting poor response to therapy as judged by renal BILAG. Baseline anti-CRP levels correlated with renal biopsy activity (r = 0.33, P = 0.045), but not with chronicity index. Anti-CRP levels were positively correlated with anti-dsDNA (fluorescence-enhanced immunoassay: r = 0.63, P = 0.0003; Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence microscopy test: r = 0.44, P < 0.0001), and inversely with C3 (r = 0.35, P = 0.007) and C4 (r = 0.29, P = 0.02), but not with C1q (r = 0.14, P = 0.24). No associations with urinary components, creatinine, cystatin C or the glomerular filtration rate were found.

    Conclusions

    In the present study, we demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between anti-CRP levels and histopathological activity in lupus nephritis, whereas a baseline positive anti-CRP test predicted poor response to therapy. Our data also confirm previous findings of associations between anti-CRP and disease activity. This indicates that anti-CRP could be helpful to assess disease activity and response to therapy in SLE nephritis, and highlights the hypothesis of a pathogenetic role for anti-CRP antibodies in lupus nephritis.

  • 48.
    Skogh, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Lund University Hospital.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Sturm, Martin
    Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Limitations of Antinuclear Antibody Tests (HEp-2) Are Overcome with the Autoimmune Target Test (IT-1) in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Reply2009Ingår i: British Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0263-7103, E-ISSN 1460-2172, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 1834-1835Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 49.
    Skogh, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    The B cells are back!2005Ingår i: Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, ISSN 1740-6765, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 351-357Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New interest has emerged regarding the central roles of B cells in physiological immunoregulation and immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a condition traditionally viewed as T-cell mediated. Thus, B cells, autoantibodies, immune complexes, complement and their cellular receptors are experiencing renewed interest concerning their roles in the initiation and propagation of arthritis. The discovery of citrullinated proteins as targets of autoimmune response in RA has implications regarding aetiopathogenesis, prediction of future disease, diagnosis of recent onset and established arthritis and prediction of disease course and disease outcome. Antibody-based therapies against cytokines, cytokine receptors and B cells contribute to the important advances in antirheumatic therapy. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    C-reactive protein inhibit complement-mediated platelet activation suggesting a protective role in atherogenesis2006Ingår i: Atherosclerosis Supplements, ISSN 1567-5688, E-ISSN 1878-5050, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 284-284Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

      Objective: C-reactive protein (CRP) represents a powerful predictor of coro- nary artery disease. However, its physiological role is not fully understood. The binding of CRP to its ligand phosphorylcholine (PC) activates the com- plement system via the classical pathway, although limited to the initial stages, i.e. no membrane attack complex is formed. The aim of this study was to chaxacterize CRP-induced complement activation on PC-coated surfaces, and to investigate the regulatory effects of PC-bound crp on complement induced platelet activation.

    Methods: PC conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen on silica particles. Ellipsometry and polyclonal anti- bodies were used to quantify deposition of serum proteins, complement factors and CRP on the surfaces. Washed platelets as well as serum were prepared according to standard protocols. CRP concentrations were measured with a high sensitivity assay. Lumi-aggregometry was used to evaluate the effects of PC-coated particles and CRP on complement-induced platelet aggregation and secretion.

    Results: Serum (5%) induced platelet aggregation and secretion through complement-dependent mechanisms. PC-coated particles antagonized the complement-mediated platelet activation but only if CRP was present. Inter- estingly, we found that a minor elevation of CRR below 5 rag/1 was sufficient to inhibit platelet activation.

    Conclusions: We suggest that CRP bound to PC-expressing ligands, e.g. bacteria or modified low-density lipoproteins in an atherosclerotic lesion, modulate complement activation and thereby prevent a harmful platelet activation.

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