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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Transition towards autonomy and psychological empowerment in self-management, among teenagers with type 1 diabetes2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to study the transition process from dependency towards anatomy and psychological empowerment among teenagers with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-two teenagers (18 female/14 male) aged 13-17 took part in conversational interviews. The interviews followed a semi-structured question guide. Data comprised 31 tape recorded interviews (one informant did not want to be tape recorded). The research design was based on a phenomenological and life world perspective including two different analysis methods.

    The transition towards autonomy among teenagers with type 1 diabetes was elucidated in a phenomenological approach (paper I). Through the teenagers’ narratives about their daily life experiences with type 1 diabetes there emerged the over-riding theme “Hovering between individual actions and support of others”. This theme illustrates the main problem related to diabetes management - duality in dependence and independence. The themes “growth through individual self-reliance” and “growth through confirmation of others” seem to facilitate the transition process from dependency towards autonomy. Experiences of the Empowerment Education Programme (EEP) were studied by a qualitative content analysis (paper II). From the teenagers’ descriptions the over-riding theme was formulated as “Sense of community”, and this covered the categories of social fellow feeling, collaborative learning, and community of interests. A synthesis of the findings illustrates that individual self-reliance, confirmation of others, and sense of community are closely related to individual inner resources, trust in others, and the feeling of belonging, which are all suggested as specific goals of empowerment and fulfilment of psychological empowerment. A model was created to explain the relation between psychological empowerment and growth through individual self-reliance, confirmation of others, and sense of community. Professional nursing care might start from the unique situation and context the individual experiences and exists in. Social meetings with like-minded youth were highly appreciated among the teenagers. The teenagers showed their willingness to transform themselves towards becoming more independent in self-management, and the teenage years may be the right period to empower and coach the teenagers towards autonomy and prepare them for adulthood living with type 1 diabetes.

    List of papers
    1. Teenagers with type 1 diabetes - a phenomenological study of the transition towards autonomy in self-management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teenagers with type 1 diabetes - a phenomenological study of the transition towards autonomy in self-management
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Becoming autonomous is an important aspect of teenagers’ psychosocial development, and this is especially true of teenagers with type 1 diabetes. Previous studies exploring the everyday problems of teenagers with diabetes have focused on adherence to self-care management, how self-determination affects metabolic control, and the perception of social support.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to elucidate lived experiences, focusing on the transition towards autonomy in diabetes self-management among teenagers with type 1 diabetes.

    Design and method: Data were collected using interviews, and a qualitative phenomenological approach was chosen for the analysis.

    Participants: Thirty-two teenagers (18 females and 14 males) were interviewed about their individual experiences of self-management of diabetes.

    Findings: The lived experiences of the transition towards autonomy in self-management were characterized by the over-riding theme “hovering between individual actions and support of others”. The findings indicate that individual self-reliance and confirmation of others are helpful in the transition process. Growth through individual self-reliance was viewed as a developmental process of making one's own decisions; psychological maturity enabled increased responsibility and freedom; motivation was related to wellbeing and how well the diabetes could be managed. The theme “confirmation of others” showed that parental encouragement increased the certainty of teenagers’ standpoints; peers’ acceptance of diabetes facilitated incorporation of daily self-management activities; support from the diabetes team strengthened teenagers’ self-esteem.

    Conclusion: In striving for autonomy, teenagers needed distance from others, but still to retain the support of others. A stable foundation for self-management includes having the knowledge required to practice diabetes management and handle different situations.

    Keywords
    Teenage diabetes, Adolescence, Self-management, Transition, Autonomy, Caring, Phenomenology
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12935 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.08.022 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-02-18 Created: 2008-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Teenagers' experiences of participation in an Empowerment Education Programme for people with type I diabetes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teenagers' experiences of participation in an Empowerment Education Programme for people with type I diabetes
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12936 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-02-18 Created: 2008-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 2.
    Karlsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arman, Maria
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Wikblad, Karin
    Linköping University, Deptartment of Welfare and Care (IVV). Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Teenagers with type 1 diabetes - a phenomenological study of the transition towards autonomy in self-management2008In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Becoming autonomous is an important aspect of teenagers’ psychosocial development, and this is especially true of teenagers with type 1 diabetes. Previous studies exploring the everyday problems of teenagers with diabetes have focused on adherence to self-care management, how self-determination affects metabolic control, and the perception of social support.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to elucidate lived experiences, focusing on the transition towards autonomy in diabetes self-management among teenagers with type 1 diabetes.

    Design and method: Data were collected using interviews, and a qualitative phenomenological approach was chosen for the analysis.

    Participants: Thirty-two teenagers (18 females and 14 males) were interviewed about their individual experiences of self-management of diabetes.

    Findings: The lived experiences of the transition towards autonomy in self-management were characterized by the over-riding theme “hovering between individual actions and support of others”. The findings indicate that individual self-reliance and confirmation of others are helpful in the transition process. Growth through individual self-reliance was viewed as a developmental process of making one's own decisions; psychological maturity enabled increased responsibility and freedom; motivation was related to wellbeing and how well the diabetes could be managed. The theme “confirmation of others” showed that parental encouragement increased the certainty of teenagers’ standpoints; peers’ acceptance of diabetes facilitated incorporation of daily self-management activities; support from the diabetes team strengthened teenagers’ self-esteem.

    Conclusion: In striving for autonomy, teenagers needed distance from others, but still to retain the support of others. A stable foundation for self-management includes having the knowledge required to practice diabetes management and handle different situations.

  • 3.
    Karlsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Viklund, Gunnel
    Department of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, and Karolinska Institute Department of Woman and Child Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arman, Maria
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Teenagers' experiences of participation in an Empowerment Education Programme for people with type I diabetes2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
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