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  • 1.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A further lesson from existing kidney markets2014Ingår i: American Journal of Bioethics, ISSN 1526-5161, E-ISSN 1536-0075, Vol. 14, nr 10, s. 27-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The target article challenges the increasingly popular portrayal of living kidney sale as potentially a mutually beneficial arrangement, capable not only of saving or improving the lives of patients in need of transplants but also of significantly benefiting poor vendors. Carefully reviewing the literature on harms to vendors in illegal kidney markets and in Iran’s legal market, Koplin (2014) argues that many of these harms would persist in the sort of legal regulated system that kidney sale advocates envision. This is an important argument. The kidney sales debate has been skewed in favor of permitting sales by a simplified view of the potential harms involved and excessive optimism about the capacity of regulation to prevent these harms (Malmqvist 2013). The article counterbalances these tendencies and thus considerably weakens the case for allowing sales. Nonetheless, some market proponents might remain unconvinced. I shall suggest that in addition to the lessons that Koplin draws from existing kidney markets, there is yet another one, which casts further doubt on the advisability of allowing kidney sales.

  • 2.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Analysing our qualms about "designing" future persons: Autonomy, freedom of choice, and interfering with nature2007Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 407-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Actually possible and conceivable future uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and germ-line genetic intervention in assisted reproduction seem to offer increasing possibilities of choosing the kind of persons that will be brought to existence. Many are troubled by the idea of these technologies being used for enhancement purposes. How can we make sense of this worry? Why are our thoughts about therapeutic genetic interventions and non-genetic enhancement (for instance education) not accompanied by the same intuitive uneasiness? I argue that the concepts of autonomy and freedom of choice, typically invoked to delimit the morally acceptable uses of reproductive technologies, cannot fully answer these questions. Instead, I suggest that an alternative answer might begin with reflections on the notion of interfering with nature. Drawing on Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology and Hans Jonas's moral philosophy, I outline an argument that attempts to capture what might be particularly troubling about the idea of "designing" future persons. At the core of the argument is the suggestion that enhancing selections and modifications on embryos might be bound up with an instrumentalising, non-responsive perspective on the future persons into which they are intended to grow. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  • 3.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    entre for Studies on Meaning,Ethics and Society, Université Paris Descartes, in Paris, France.
    Are bans on kidney sales unjustifiably paternalistic?2014Ingår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 110-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan Wertheimer call ‘group soft paternalism’. Group soft paternalistic policies restrict the freedom of autonomous individuals, not for their own good (hard paternalism), but as an unavoidable consequence of seeking to protect other, non-autonomous individuals from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen (soft paternalism). Group soft paternalism supports prohibiting kidney sales on three conditions: (1) that such sales are potentially harmful to vendors, (2) that many vendors would suffer impaired autonomy, and (3) that distinguishing between autonomous and non-autonomous vendors and interfering only with the latter is unfeasible. I provide reasons for thinking that these conditions will often hold.

  • 4.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    Arvsmassan som nationell egendom2006Ingår i: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, s. 41-42Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 5.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Back to the future: Habermas's "The Future of Human Nature"2007Ingår i: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 4-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Better to Exploit than to Neglect? International Clinical Research and the Non-Worseness Claim2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Philosophy, ISSN 0264-3758, E-ISSN 1468-5930, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 474-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical research is increasingly offshored to developing countries, a practice that has generated considerable controversy. It has recently been argued that the prevailing ethical norms governing such research are deeply puzzling. On the one hand, sponsors are not required to offshore trials, even when participants in developing countries would benefit considerably from these trials. On the other hand, if sponsors do offshore, they are required not to exploit participants, even when the latter would benefit from and consent to exploitation. How, it is asked, can it be worse to exploit the global poor than to neglect them when exploitation is voluntary and makes them better off? The present article seeks to respond to this challenge. I argue that mutually beneficial and voluntary exploitation can be worse than neglect when as is typically true of exploitative international research it takes advantage of unjust background conditions. This is because, in such cases, exploitation overlaps with another, less familiar wrong: complicity in injustice. Recognising complicity as a distinct wrong should make us judge exchanges arising from background injustice more harshly than we typically do, in research and elsewhere.

  • 7.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cooper, M. and Waldby, C. Clinical Labour: Tissue Donors and Research Subjects in the Global Bioeconomy (Durham: Duke UP, 2014)2014Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 651-652Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Does the ethical appropriateness of paying donors depend on what body parts they donate?2016Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 463-473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of paying donors in order to make more human bodily material available for therapy, assisted reproduction, and biomedical research is notoriously controversial. However, while national and international donation policies largely oppose financial incentives they do not treat all parts of the body equally: incentives are allowed in connection to the provision of some parts but not others. Taking off from this observation, I discuss whether body parts differ as regards the ethical legitimacy of incentives and, if so, why. I distinguish two approaches to this issue. On a ”principled” approach, some but not all body  parts are inherently special in a way that proscribes payment. On a ”pragmatic” approach, the appropriateness of payment in relation to a specific part must be determined through an overall assessment of e.g. the implications of payment for the health and welfare of providers, recipients, and third parties, and the quality of providers’ consent. I argue that the first approach raises deep and potentially divisive questions about the good life, whereas the second approach invokes currently unsupported empirical assumptions and requires difficult  balancing between different values and the interests of different people. This does not mean that any attempt to distinguish between body parts in regard to the appropriateness of payment necessarily fails. However, I conclude, any plausible such attempt should either articulate and defend a specific view of the good life, or gather relevant empirical evidence and apply defensible principles for weighing goods and interests.

  • 9.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Enrolling the global poor in clinical research: What is the essential ethical concern?2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploitation, neglect, and international commercial surrogacy2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    Genetic intervention and the freedom of future persons2005Ingår i: Ethics and philosophy of emerging medical technologies,2005, 2005, s. 60-61Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Good Parents, Better Babies: An Argument about Reproductive Technologies, Enhancement and Ethics2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen är ett bidrag till den bioetiska debatten om olika reproduktionstekniker som antingen nyligen blivit tillgängliga eller som kan komma att utvecklas i framtiden. Utgångspunkten är en intuition som många verkar dela, nämligen att användningen av sådana tekniker i syfte att välja icke-sjukdomsegenskaper – som kön och känslomässig stabilitet – hos framtida barn, är mer moraliskt problematiskt än både att forma sådana egenskaper hos redan existerande barn genom exempelvis utbildning och att använda teknikerna för att undvika att barn föds med svåra sjukdomar. Studien är ett försök att genom filosofisk analys begripliggöra denna intuition och avgöra om den är berättigad.

    Olika sätt på vilka man i den bioetiska debatten ofta gestaltar de moraliska problem som reproduktionstekniker ger upphov till kritiseras som otillräckliga för denna uppgift. I synnerhet framhålls att intuitionen inte helt kan förstås som en oro över att de barn som sådana tekniker sätter till världen kan komma till skada.

    Med avsikt att utveckla ett alternativ till detta konsekvensorienterade synsätt söker sig författaren till Martin Heideggers teknikfilosofi, Hans Jonas etik och Aristoteles praktiska filosofi, som den tolkats och utvecklats i den hermeneutiska traditionen. Med hjälp av dessa teorier betonas hur reproduktiva val, till skillnad från beslut gällande redan existerande barn, kännetecknas av en slags ensidighet. Det framtida barnet framstår för föräldrarna som föremål för beslut som är odelat deras, snarare än som en konkret andre som de måste interagera med på ett lyhört, noga avpassat sätt. Detta är problematiskt eftersom det innebär att sådana val inte kan ledsagas av det slags partikulära moraliska förståelse som bara uppnås i möten mellan människor. I synnerhet innebär det att valen lätt formas av, och i sin tur riskerar att underblåsa, olika för föräldraskapet karaktäristiska tendenser som ständigt riskerar förmå föräldrar att förhålla sig till sina barn på ett instrumentaliserande sätt. Men detta betyder inte att alla användningar av reproduktionstekniker är lika problematiska. Val som syftar till att undvika svåra sjukdomar kan undgå de faror som ensidigheten öppnar för genom att åberopa en gemensam mänsklig sjukdomserfarenhet. Avhandlingens slutsats är att intuitionen som diskuteras är berättigad, med vissa reservationer, om den förstås på detta sätt.

  • 13.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    International clinical research and the problem of benefiting from injustice2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    International clinical research and the problem of benefiting from injustice2016Ingår i: Bodily exchanges, bioethics and border crossing: perspectives on giving, selling and sharing bodies / [ed] Erik Malmqvist & Kristin Zeiler, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, s. 169-184Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical trials are increasingly “offshored” to developing countries. Many participants in these trials can plausibly be regarded as victims of deep structural injustices, e.g. severe avoidable poverty and lack of access to healthcare. This chapter discusses whether patients who benefit from drugs developed among the global poor have any special responsibility to remedy their unjust circumstances. More precisely, it examines whether such a responsibility can be grounded in the fact that these patients are beneficiaries of injustice. Finding no justification for singling out this group, the author ends by exploring the idea that the responsibility to remedy structural injustice is a more widely shared one. 

  • 15.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Is selling a kidney like selling one’s labour?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jordens fattiga som forskningsresurs2017Ingår i: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 16-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel diskuterar de etiska frågor som den ökande flytten av klinisk forskning till låg- och medelinkomstländer väcker. Debatten kring detta fenomen har fokuserat på problem kring risker, samtycke och exploatering. Jag argumenterar för att dessa problem inte är specifika för forskning i dessa länder utan snarare bör ses som generella forskningsetiska utmaningar. Jag försöker också visa att det finns ett annat problem som är specifikt för just denna forskning. Det är ofta fattigdom och otillräcklig tillgång till sjukvård som motiverar forskningspersoner i låg- och medelinkomstländer att delta. När forskare och läkemedelsbolag drar nytta av dessa moraliskt oacceptabla bakgrundsvillkor skapar de också incitament att bevara dem. Jag skisserar avslutningsvis några praktiska konsekvenser av detta resonemang.

  • 17.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kidney sales and the analogy with dangerous employment2015Ingår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 107-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear that kidney sales and dangerous jobs involve comparable risks on an appropriately broad comparison. Second, and more importantly, even if they do involve comparable risks it does not follow that kidney sales must be permitted because dangerous jobs are. The analogy assumes that kidney sales are banned for paternalistic reasons. But there may be other, non-paternalistic reasons for the ban. And paternalists, too, can consistently defend the ban even if kidney sales are no riskier than occupations that they find acceptable. Soft paternalists may want to protect would-be vendors from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen. Egalitarian hard paternalists may want to protect already badly off vendors from further worsening their situation. For neither species of paternalist is the size of the risk prevented decisive. I conclude that the analogy with dangerous jobs, while rhetorically powerful, pulls little real argumentative weight. Future debates on living kidney sales should therefore proceed without it.

  • 18.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Misunderstanding, continued2012Ingår i: IRB: Ethics and Human Research, ISSN 0193-7758, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 19-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    (Mis)Understanding Exploitation2011Ingår i: IRB: Ethics and Human Research, ISSN 0193-7758, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The term exploitation is notoriously hard to define. Yet it is frequently invoked to frame moral concerns about clinical research. Recently, a group of influential authors have proposed a so-called “non-exploitation framework” for the ethics of randomized controlled trials that appears to address these concerns. In this paper, I challenge one basic assumption of that framework: the idea that non-exploitation in research requires participants to be protected from excessive risks, understood as risks that are not outweighed by the benefits that the research is expected to lead to. Drawing on examples of exploitation in other contexts, I show that this idea has highly counterintuitive implications. I conclude that the non-exploitation framework obscures concerns about exploitation in biomedical research rather than clarifying them.   

  • 20.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Paternalism in its worst form? On the justification for banning kidney sales2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Phenomenology, cosmetic surgery, and complicity2014Ingår i: Feminist phenomenology and medicine / [ed] Kristin Zeiler & Lisa Folkmarson Käll, Albany: State University of New York, 2014, s. 81-99Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Replik till Marcus Agnafors: "En rimlig samvetsklausul"2017Ingår i: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, nr 2, s. 33-38Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reproductive choice, enhancement, and the moral continuum argument2014Ingår i: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, ISSN 0360-5310, E-ISSN 1744-5019, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often argued that it does not matter morally whether biomedical interventions treat or prevent diseases or enhance nondisease traits; what matters is whether and how much they promote well-being. Therapy and enhancement both promote well-being, the argument goes, so they are not morally distinct but instead continuous. I provide three reasons why this argument should be rejected when it is applied to choices concerning the genetic makeup of future people. First, it rests on too simple a conception of the badness of disease. Second, it wrongly assumes that disease avoidance and enhancement can proceed with similar accuracy. Third, it overlooks that disease avoidance tends to be more urgent than enhancement from the point of view of distributive justice. Although none of these reasons establishes a firm therapy-enhancement distinction, they show that a continuum model is not an attractive alternative.

  • 24.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reproductive technologies and the question of the child's future freedom2009Ingår i: Ethics, law and society, vol. 4 / [ed] Holm, S.J., Gunning, J. & Kenway, I., Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009, s. 279-288Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second volume in a series exploring key issues in ethics, law and society, published in association with the Cardiff Centre for Ethics, Law and Society. This volume presents a selection of papers and commentaries on topics in bioethics, ethics and society, and business and professional ethics. Multidisciplinary in approach, the work will be a valuable resource for all those concerned with contemporary ethical issues.

  • 25.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reprogenetics and the ‘Parents Have Always Done It’ Argument2011Ingår i: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 43-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In debates about the ethics of so-called reprogenetic technologies one often comes across the following line of reasoning. Parents have always shaped their children’s characteristics through rearing and education; such shaping is morally acceptable or even required; choosing children’s characteristics by means of reprogenetic technologies is just like shaping these characteristics through rearing and education; hence reprogenetic child shaping should also be considered morally acceptable or required. This argument suffers from several weaknesses. Above all, it rests on a mistaken analogy. Reprogenetic child shaping is in fact not at all like rearing and education. The difference between the two practices, and the moral salience of that difference, can be brought out with the help of two related approaches insufficiently explored in contemporary bioethics: hermeneutics and Aristotelian practical philosophy.

  • 26.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Taking advantage of injustice2013Ingår i: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 557-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What, if anything, is wrong with taking advantage of people’s unjust circumstances when they both benefit from and consent to the exchange? The answer, some believe, is that such exchanges are wrongfully exploitative. I argue that this answer is incomplete at best, and I elaborate a different one: to take advantage of injustice is to become complicit in its reproduction. I also argue that the case for third-party interference with mutually beneficial and consensual exchanges, while normally considered weak, is strengthened once these exchanges are understood as implicated in broader unjust structures.

  • 27.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    The notion of health and the morality of genetic intervention2006Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 181-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper it is argued that genetic interventions on human embryos are in principle permissible if they promote the health of the persons that these embryos will one day become and impermissible if they compromise their health. This so called health-intervention principle is reached by, inter alia, rejecting alternative approaches to the problem of the permissibility of genetic intervention. The health-intervention principle can be interpreted in different ways depending on how the notion of health is understood. The central part of the paper is an attempt to find a concept of health which is such that it makes the health-intervention principle normatively plausible. For this purpose I examine two influential competing theories of health: Cristopher Boorse's biostatistical theory of health and Lennart Nordenfelt's welfare theory of health. I argue that the health-intervention principle is more plausible if health is understood in the latter sense, although it is not ruled out that the principle may be given an even more plausible explication in terms of some other notion of health. © Springer 2006.

  • 28.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The right to participate in high-risk research2014Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 384, nr 9938, s. 128-128Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Towards a phenomenology of complicity with dubious social norms: The case of cosmetic surgery2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trading hair, trading cadaver tissue: On the ethics of commodifying bodily sacrifices and gifts2012Ingår i: The body as gift, resource, and commodity: exchanging organs, tissues, and cells in the 21st century / [ed] Martin Gunnarson & Fredrik Svenaeus, Huddinge: Södertörn Högskola , 2012, s. 296-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from three metaphors—the body as gift, resource, and commodity—the book explores the contemporary exchange of organs, tissues, and cells. Although the gift is the sanctioned metaphor for donating parts of the body, the underlying perspective from the side of states, authorities, and the medical establishment often seems to be that the body shall be understood as a resource. But medicine, as some of the contributors to this book show, is not sealed off from the market economy. Increasingly, therefore, body parts become commodities on legal as well as illegal markets. The chapters of the book are arranged in a way that presents, one after the other, the three metaphors of the body, starting with the body as gift, proceeding by way of the body as resource, and ending in the body as commodity. Although all three metaphors as ways of conceptualizing and making use of the human body can be found throughout human history, the present drive of commercialization will increasingly force us to identify and scrutinize the way these metaphors are used. Not only in addressing the fascinating question of what kind of an object (subject) the human body is, but also in trying to decipher what interests lurk behind the use of the metaphors in question when claiming that human bodies, organs, tissues, and cells are gifts, resources or commodities. The ambition of this volume is to address and remedy the need of a hermeneutics not only of depth, but also of suspicion, in the case of organ transplantation and other medical technologies involving the transfer of human tissues and cells.

  • 31.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transnational commercial surrogacy, exploitation and the non-worseness claim2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Franssen, Trijsje
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Heracles or Icarus: Mythological References in the Human Enhancement Debate2017Ingår i: Future-human.life / [ed] Vincent Menuz, Johann Roduit, Daniel Roiz, Alexandre Erler, Natalia Stepanova, Geneva: neohumanitas.org , 2017, s. 52-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Furberg, Elisabeth
    Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Boras, Sweden.
    Ethical aspects of medical age assessment in the asylum process: a Swedish perspective.2018Ingår i: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 132, nr 3, s. 815-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. A number of ethical challenges related to conflicting goals, equality and fairness, autonomy and informed consent, privacy and integrity, and professional values and roles are identified and analysed. It is concluded that most of these challenges can be met, but that this requires a system where the assessment is sufficiently accurate and where adequate safeguards are in place. Two important ethical questions are found to warrant further analysis. The first is whether asylum seekers' consent to the procedure can be considered genuinely voluntary. The second is whether and how medical age assessments could affect negative public attitudes towards asylum seekers or discriminatory societal views more generally.

  • 34.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes, France.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Natunen, Kari
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Lehtinen, Johannes
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Lehtinen, Matti
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The ethics of implementing human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries2011Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 19-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It devotes particular attention to the major arguments for and against one strategy: voluntary, publicly funded vaccination for all adolescent boys and girls. This approach seems attractive because it would protect more people against cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers than less inclusive alternatives, without the sacrifice of autonomy that a comparably broad compulsory programme would require. Also, the herd immunity that it would likely generate would protect those who remain unvaccinated, a major advantage from a justice perspective. However, there is a possibility that a HPV vaccination programme targeting all adolescents of both sexes is not considered sufficiently cost-effective. Also, it might pose more difficulties for achieving informed consent than comparable vaccination programmes against other diseases. Ultimately, society’s choice of HPV vaccination strategy requires careful consideration not only of the values at stake but also of available and emerging scientific evidence.

  • 35.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Meaning, Ethics and Society, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Juth, Niklas
    Centre for Healthcare Ethics , Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Lynöe, Niels
    Centre for Healthcare Ethics , Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Early stopping of clinical trials: Charting the ethical terrain2011Ingår i: Kennedy Institute of Ethics journal (Print), ISSN 1054-6863, E-ISSN 1086-3249, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 57-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decision to terminate a clinical trial earlier than planned isoften described as ethically problematic, but it is rarely systematically analyzedas an ethical issue in its own right. This paper provides an overview of the mainethical considerations at stake in such decisions and of the main tensions betweenthese considerations. Arguments about informed consent and the impact of earlystopping on research and society are explored. We devote particular attentionto a familiar conflict that arises with special urgency when early data suggestthat the experimental treatment is superior. Should the trial be stopped so thatparticipants in the control group will not be allocated a seemingly inferior treatment,or should it continue in pursuit of evidence conclusive enough to improvethe care of future patients? We scrutinize three ways to address this problem.Rather than dissolving the tension, they represent different trade-offs betweenthe respective welfare interests of subjects and future patients.

  • 36.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes, France .
    Natunen, Kari
    University of Tampere, Finland .
    Lehtinen, Matti
    University of Tampere, Finland .
    Helgesson, Gert
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Just implementation of human papillomavirus vaccination2012Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 247-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are now implementing human papillomavirus vaccination. There is disagreement about who should receive the vaccine. Some propose vaccinating both boys and girls in order to achieve the largest possible public health impact. Others regard this approach as too costly and claim that only girls should be vaccinated. We question the assumption that decisions about human papillomavirus vaccination policy should rely solely on estimates of overall benefits and costs. There are important social justice aspects that also need to be considered. Policy makers should consider how to best protect individuals who will remain unvaccinated through no fault of their own. This is especially important if these individuals are already disadvantaged in other ways and if vaccinating other people increases their risk of infection.

  • 37.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Tema hälsa och samhälle.
    Peetz Nielsen, Per
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Skara.
    Transeminariet 2004: Begreppet hälsa2004Ingår i: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 10, s. 25-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, KristinLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical therapy, research and technology enable us to make our bodies, or parts of them, available to others in an increasing number of ways. This is the case in organ, tissue, egg and sperm donation as well as in surrogate motherhood and clinical research. Bringing together leading scholars working on the ethical, social and cultural aspects of such bodily exchanges, this cutting-edge book develops new ways of understanding them.

    Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing both probes the established giving and selling frameworks for conceptualising bodily exchanges in medicine, and seeks to develop and examine another, less familiar framework: that of sharing. A framework of sharing can capture practices that involve giving up and giving away part of one’s body, such as organ and tissue donation, and practices that do not, such as surrogacy and research participation. Sharing also recognizes the multiple relationalities that these exchanges can involve and invites inquiry into the context in which they occur. In addition, the book explores the multiple forms of border crossing that bodily exchanges in medicine involve, from the physical boundaries of the body to relational borders – as can happen in surrogacy – to national borders and the range of ethical issues that these various border-crossings can give rise to. 

    Engaging with anthropology, sociology, philosophy, and feminist and postcolonical perspectives, this is an original and timely contribution to contemporary bioethics in a time of increasing globalization. It will be of use to students and researchers from a range of humanities and social science backgrounds as well as medical and other healthcare professionals with an interest in bioethics.

  • 39.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Concluding reflections: Bodily exchanges as sharing2016Ingår i: Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies / [ed] Erik Malmqvist, Kristin Zeiler, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 197-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle.
    Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.2010Ingår i: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 133-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Introduction2016Ingår i: Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing: Perspectives on Giving, Selling and Sharing Bodies / [ed] Erik Malmqvist, Kristin Zeiler, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, s. 1-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Munthe, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Broström, Linus
    Lunds universitet.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå och Göteborgs universitet.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Helgeson, Gert
    Karolinska institutet.
    Juth, Niklas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Göteborg och Borås.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Zeiler, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Efter skandalen: ”Gråzoner sätt att blanda bort korten”2016Ingår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter skandalen kring kirurgen på Karolinska Institutet som gjorde experimentella operationer, talas det om gråzoner i lagen. Men detta stämmer inte, utan är ett sätt att blanda bort korten, skriver en rad professorer från sex olika universitet gemensamt.

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