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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models2012In: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions2012In: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2012-85236 / [ed] ASME, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To support early model validation, this paper describes a method utilizing information obtained from the common practice component level validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Initiated in previous research, a generic output uncertainty description component, intended for power-port based simulation models of physical systems, has been implemented in Modelica. A set of model components has been extended with the generic output uncertainty description, and the concept of using component level output uncertainty to assess model top level uncertainty has been applied on a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system. The focus of this paper is on investigating the applicability of combining the output uncertainty method with probabilistic techniques, not only to provide upper and lower bounds on model uncertaintiesbut also to accompany the uncertainties with estimated probabilities.It is shown that the method may result in a significant improvement in the conditions for conducting an assessment of model uncertainties. The primary use of the method, in combination with either deterministic or probabilistic techniques, is in the early development phases when system level measurement data are scarce. The method may also be used to point out which model components contribute most to the uncertainty on model top level. Such information can be used to concentrate physical testing activities to areas where it is needed most. In this context, the method supports the concept of Virtual Testing.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation2012In: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] AIAA, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach enabling early model validation activities with a limited availability of system level measurement data. The method utilizes information obtained from the common practice of component validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Focusing on industrial applicability, the method makes use of information normally available to engineers developing simulation models of existing or not yet existing systems. This is in contrast to the traditional sensitivity analysis requiring the user to quantify component parameter uncertainties – a task which, according to the authors’ experience, may be far from intuitive. As the proposed method enables uncertainties to be defined for a component’s outputs (characteristics) rather than its inputs (parameters), it is hereby termed output uncertainty. The method is primarily intended for use in large-scale mathematical 1-D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE).It is shown that the method may result in a significant reduction in the number of uncertain parameters that require consideration in a simulation model. The uncertainty quantification of these parameters also becomes more intuitive. Since this implies a substantial improvement in the conditions of conducting sensitivity analysis or optimization on large-scale simulation models, the method facilitates early model validation. In contrast to sensitivity analysis with respect to a model’s original component parameters, which only covers one aspect of model uncertainty, the output uncertainty method enables assessment also of other kinds of uncertainties, such as uncertainties in underlying equations or uncertainties due to model simplifications. To increase the relevance of the method, a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system is used as an industrial application example.

  • 4.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models2015In: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 1550014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

  • 5.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fuel Transfer System in the Conceptual Design Phase2002In: SAE World Aviation congress and Display, Phoenix, USA paper 2002-01-2931, 2002, no 2002-01-2931Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the time between different development projects of new aircraft (a/c) extends, experienced personnel in the field of basic a/c system design are difficult to employ when being on the onset of a new design. Further on basic a/c system design is a field neglected in literature and in the educational system.

    A text is under development that summarizes the Saab experience of the complete fuel system design with respect to the fighter a/c Viggen and Gripen, the commuter a/c 340 and 2000, the trainer a/c SK60 and also the conceptual a/c B3LA.

    This paper is an extract of this text and describe early considerations that have to be made when designing a fuel transfer system. Emphasis is put on the top requirements on a/c level.

  • 6.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Aircraft Fuel System Conceptual Design - Conceptual Evaluation and System modeling2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THE LARGEST AND most important fluid system in an aircraft is the fuel system. Obviously, future aircraft projects involve the design of fuel system to some degree. In this project design methodologies for aircraft fuel systems are studied, with the aim to shortening the system development time.

    This is done by means of illustrative examples of how optimization and the use of matrix methods have been developed and implemented at Saab Aerospace in the conceptual design of ale fuel systems. The methods introduces automation early in the development process and increase understanding of how top requirements on the ale level impact low-level engineering parameters such as pipe diameter, pump size, etc.

    The thesis also discusses a systematic approach when building a large simulation model of a fluid system where the objective is to minirnize the development time by applying a strategy that enables parallel development and collaborative engineering, and also by building the mode! to the correct level of detail. By correct level of detail is meant the level that yields a simulation outcome that meets the stakeholders' expectations. The experienced gained at Saab in building a simulation model, mainly from the Gripen fuel system, but also the accumulated experience from other system models, is condensed and fitted into an overall process.

    List of papers
    1. Fuel Transfer System in the Conceptual Design Phase
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuel Transfer System in the Conceptual Design Phase
    2002 (English)In: SAE World Aviation congress and Display, Phoenix, USA paper 2002-01-2931, 2002, no 2002-01-2931Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the time between different development projects of new aircraft (a/c) extends, experienced personnel in the field of basic a/c system design are difficult to employ when being on the onset of a new design. Further on basic a/c system design is a field neglected in literature and in the educational system.

    A text is under development that summarizes the Saab experience of the complete fuel system design with respect to the fighter a/c Viggen and Gripen, the commuter a/c 340 and 2000, the trainer a/c SK60 and also the conceptual a/c B3LA.

    This paper is an extract of this text and describe early considerations that have to be made when designing a fuel transfer system. Emphasis is put on the top requirements on a/c level.

    Series
    SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12987 (URN)10.4271/2002-01-2931 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE World Aviation congress and Display, November 5-7, Phoenix, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Using Optimization as a Tool in Fuel System Conceptual Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Optimization as a Tool in Fuel System Conceptual Design
    2003 (English)In: SAE World Aviation Congress and Display, Montreal, Canada, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3054, 2003, no 2003-01-3052Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing between concepts is often the most critical part of the design process. Different concepts have different advantages and disadvantages. The concept that is the best choice is most often dependent on the top level requirements. Sometimes there may also be a trade off between concept choice and the top requirements. In aircraft (a/c) fuel system design it has often proved difficult to find the switching point where the superior concept is changed. This sometimes makes the designer conservative and leads to the selection of a concept with too high a penalty. There is also a risk for the opposite and perhaps worse scenario: That the designer strives to reduce weight and cost and therefore, accidentally, chooses an under achieving concept and thus induces large downstream cost if late redesign or retro modifications are necessary.

    This paper shows how optimization has been successfully used at Saab Aerospace as a tool that supports concept selection. The example shown is the choice of fuel transfer method for a ventral drop tank. The example also illustrates the impact of top-level requirements on low-level practicalities such as fuel system design.

    Series
    SAE Technical Paper
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12988 (URN)10.4271/2003-01-3054 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC 03, September 8-12, Montreal, Canada
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Quantification of the Elements in the Relationship matrix: A conceptual study of Aircraft Fuel System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of the Elements in the Relationship matrix: A conceptual study of Aircraft Fuel System
    2004 (English)In: 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA, paper AIAA-2004-0538, 2004, no AIAA-2004-0538, p. 5244-5252Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the framework of thc house of quality and design structure matrices are used to visualizee dependencies between top level requirements and engineering design properties. It is also discussed how quantification of the matrix elements may increase the understanding of how the top-level requirements impacts the low-level design parameters. lndeed, history has shown that overlooking combinatory effects between subsystems and night conditions may become expensive. Not only in terms of not goning getting the sizing right but more so if an entirely wrong concept is chosen.

    This paper shows a matrix technique that has successfully been used at Saab and how this technique may facilitate the cconcept evaluation process of early fuel system design.

    The matrix method aids the designer to take alk the relevant aspects into account when evaluating a design. Use of the method will also increase the understanding of what top-level requirement or combination thereof, which drives the choice of one particular concept rather than the other. The understanding of how the top-level requiremEnts impacts low level design parameters such as pump size or pipe diameter will also increse.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12984 (URN)10.2514/6.2004-538 (DOI)
    Conference
    42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 5-8 Januari, Reno, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Strategy for Modeling of large A/C fluid systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategy for Modeling of large A/C fluid systems
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC-04, SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3093, 2004, p. 1495-1506Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing trend in the European Military a/c industry towards cooperation between nations when purchasing and between manufacturers when developing and producing a/c. Different manufacturers at different locations develop different parts or sub-systems. When using this approach a vital part of a fast and precise system evaluation is the use of simulation models. In order to stay competitive it is not only sufficient to be able to build large simulation models but also to do it fast.

    This paper describes the conclusions regarding a modelling strategy of large fluid systems drawn from the building of a simulation model of the JAS 39 Gripen fuel system. An overall process is suggested into which the activities of building a model are fitted. This is however not the main objective; it is more important to identify the different issues and activities at the engineering level. If these are properly dealt with, the model development time will be reduced, if not, the wrong model may be designed. "Wrong" here means a model that does not do the job, or solves a problem other than the one intended by the stakeholder.

    Series
    SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191 ; 3093
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12981 (URN)10.4271/2004-01-3093 (DOI)
    Conference
    World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC-04, Reno, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On aircraft fuel system design: concept evaluation and system modeling2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THE LARGEST AND most important fluid system in an aircraft is the fuel system. Obviously, future aircraft projects involve the design of fuel system to some degree. In this project design methodologies for aircraft fuel systems are studied, with the aim to shortening the system development time.

    This is done by means of illustrative examples of how optimization and the use of matrix methods have been developed and implemented at Saab Aerospace in the conceptual design of ale fuel systems. The methods introduces automation early in the development process and increase understanding of how top requirements on the ale level impact low-level engineering parameters such as pipe diameter, pump size, etc.

    The thesis also discusses a systematic approach when building a large simulation model of a fluid system where the objective is to minimize the development time by applying a strategy that enables parallel development and collaborative engineering, and also by building the model to the correct level of detail. By correct level of detail is meant the level that yields a simulation outcome that meets the stakeholders' expectations. The experienced gained at Saab in building a simulation model, mainly from the Gripen fuel system, but also the accumulated experience from other system models, is condensed and fitted into an overall process.

  • 8.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On aircraft fuel systems: conceptual design and modeling2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The largest and most important fluid system in an aircraft is the fuel system. Obviously, future aircraft projects involve the design of fuel system to some degree. In this project design methodologies for aircraft fuel systems are studied, with the aim to shortening the system development time.

    This is done by means of illustrative examples of how optimization and the use of matrix methods, such as the morphological matrix, house of quality and the design structure matrix, have been developed and implemented at Saab Aerospace in the conceptual design of aircraft fuel systems. The methods introduce automation early in the development process and increase understanding of how top requirements regarding the aircraft level impact low-level engineering parameters such as pipe diameter, pump size, etc. The morphological matrix and the house of quality matrix are quantified, which opens up for use of design optimization and probabilistic design.

    The thesis also discusses a systematic approach when building a large simulation model of a fluid system where the objective is to minimize the development time by applying a strategy that enables parallel development and collaborative engineering, and also by building the model to the correct level of detail. By correct level of detail is meant the level that yields a simulation outcome that meets the stakeholders’ expectations. The experienced gained at Saab in building a simulation model, mainly from the Gripen fuel system, but also the accumulated experience from other system models, is condensed and fitted into an overall process.

    List of papers
    1. Conceptual Design of a New Generation JAS 39 Gripen Aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual Design of a New Generation JAS 39 Gripen Aircraft
    2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the conceptual phase of a modification proposal for Saab Gripen, which aims to create the best possible basis for future aircraft development. One of the main tasks in this respect is to investigate different means to extend range. This paper describes the technical outcome from the concept generation, concept selection, and concept refinement at system and airframe level. The chosen concept involves relocation and redesign of the main landing gear. The original main landing gear bay is converted into fuel tanks. The relocation of the main gear enables a new ventral twin store carriage with supersonic jettison capability to be introduced. The concept proposal yields the following improvements:

    · Increased range due to increased fuel capability

    · Increased maximum allowed takeoff weight due to beefe d-up main gear

    · Increased weapon flexibility and capability due to introduction of two new ventral store

    · Introducing supersonic jettison capability

    The paper also includes a description of how the work is related to the overall design process in general and the conceptual phase in particular, as described in design methodology literature.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12980 (URN)10.2514/6.2006-31 (DOI)
    Conference
    44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2013-11-07
    2. Strategy for Modeling of large A/C fluid systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategy for Modeling of large A/C fluid systems
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC-04, SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3093, 2004, p. 1495-1506Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing trend in the European Military a/c industry towards cooperation between nations when purchasing and between manufacturers when developing and producing a/c. Different manufacturers at different locations develop different parts or sub-systems. When using this approach a vital part of a fast and precise system evaluation is the use of simulation models. In order to stay competitive it is not only sufficient to be able to build large simulation models but also to do it fast.

    This paper describes the conclusions regarding a modelling strategy of large fluid systems drawn from the building of a simulation model of the JAS 39 Gripen fuel system. An overall process is suggested into which the activities of building a model are fitted. This is however not the main objective; it is more important to identify the different issues and activities at the engineering level. If these are properly dealt with, the model development time will be reduced, if not, the wrong model may be designed. "Wrong" here means a model that does not do the job, or solves a problem other than the one intended by the stakeholder.

    Series
    SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191 ; 3093
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12981 (URN)10.4271/2004-01-3093 (DOI)
    Conference
    World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC-04, Reno, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. An Algorithmic Morphology Matrix for Aircraft Fuel System Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Algorithmic Morphology Matrix for Aircraft Fuel System Design
    2006 (English)In: 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Hamburg, Germany, 2006, no ICAS-2006-9.2.2Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12982 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2009-03-02
    4. Aircraft fuel system synthesis aided by interactive morphology and optimization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aircraft fuel system synthesis aided by interactive morphology and optimization
    2007 (English)In: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA, Reno,USA: AIAA , 2007, no AIAA-2007-0653Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Reno,USA: AIAA, 2007
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12983 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2009-04-28
    5. Quantification of the Elements in the Relationship matrix: A conceptual study of Aircraft Fuel System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of the Elements in the Relationship matrix: A conceptual study of Aircraft Fuel System
    2004 (English)In: 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA, paper AIAA-2004-0538, 2004, no AIAA-2004-0538, p. 5244-5252Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the framework of thc house of quality and design structure matrices are used to visualizee dependencies between top level requirements and engineering design properties. It is also discussed how quantification of the matrix elements may increase the understanding of how the top-level requirements impacts the low-level design parameters. lndeed, history has shown that overlooking combinatory effects between subsystems and night conditions may become expensive. Not only in terms of not goning getting the sizing right but more so if an entirely wrong concept is chosen.

    This paper shows a matrix technique that has successfully been used at Saab and how this technique may facilitate the cconcept evaluation process of early fuel system design.

    The matrix method aids the designer to take alk the relevant aspects into account when evaluating a design. Use of the method will also increase the understanding of what top-level requirement or combination thereof, which drives the choice of one particular concept rather than the other. The understanding of how the top-level requiremEnts impacts low level design parameters such as pump size or pipe diameter will also increse.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12984 (URN)10.2514/6.2004-538 (DOI)
    Conference
    42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 5-8 Januari, Reno, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    6. Probabilistic design in the conceptual phase of an aircraft fuel system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic design in the conceptual phase of an aircraft fuel system
    2005 (English)In: 7th AIAA Non-Deterministic Design Forum, Austin, USA, 2005, no AIAA-2005-2219Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12985 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2009-03-02
    7. Optimal Conceptual Design of Aircraft Fuel Transfer Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Conceptual Design of Aircraft Fuel Transfer Systems
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1334-1340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

     

    This paper describes early considerations that have to be made when designing an aircraft fuel system. Emphasis is placed on illustrating the impact of top-level aircraft requirements on low-level practicalities such as fuel system design. Choosing between concepts is one of the most critical parts of any design process. Different concepts have different advantages, and the concept that is the best choice is often dependent on the top-level requirements. This paper shows how optimization has been used successfully at Saab Aerospace as a tool that supports concept selection. The example studied is the design of a fuel transfer system for a ventral drop tank and the optimization results in different conceptual designs depending on the top-level requirements.

     

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12986 (URN)10.2514/1.19548 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2009-03-02
    8. Fuel Transfer System in the Conceptual Design Phase
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuel Transfer System in the Conceptual Design Phase
    2002 (English)In: SAE World Aviation congress and Display, Phoenix, USA paper 2002-01-2931, 2002, no 2002-01-2931Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the time between different development projects of new aircraft (a/c) extends, experienced personnel in the field of basic a/c system design are difficult to employ when being on the onset of a new design. Further on basic a/c system design is a field neglected in literature and in the educational system.

    A text is under development that summarizes the Saab experience of the complete fuel system design with respect to the fighter a/c Viggen and Gripen, the commuter a/c 340 and 2000, the trainer a/c SK60 and also the conceptual a/c B3LA.

    This paper is an extract of this text and describe early considerations that have to be made when designing a fuel transfer system. Emphasis is put on the top requirements on a/c level.

    Series
    SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12987 (URN)10.4271/2002-01-2931 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE World Aviation congress and Display, November 5-7, Phoenix, USA
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    9. Using Optimization as a Tool in Fuel System Conceptual Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Optimization as a Tool in Fuel System Conceptual Design
    2003 (English)In: SAE World Aviation Congress and Display, Montreal, Canada, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3054, 2003, no 2003-01-3052Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing between concepts is often the most critical part of the design process. Different concepts have different advantages and disadvantages. The concept that is the best choice is most often dependent on the top level requirements. Sometimes there may also be a trade off between concept choice and the top requirements. In aircraft (a/c) fuel system design it has often proved difficult to find the switching point where the superior concept is changed. This sometimes makes the designer conservative and leads to the selection of a concept with too high a penalty. There is also a risk for the opposite and perhaps worse scenario: That the designer strives to reduce weight and cost and therefore, accidentally, chooses an under achieving concept and thus induces large downstream cost if late redesign or retro modifications are necessary.

    This paper shows how optimization has been successfully used at Saab Aerospace as a tool that supports concept selection. The example shown is the choice of fuel transfer method for a ventral drop tank. The example also illustrates the impact of top-level requirements on low-level practicalities such as fuel system design.

    Series
    SAE Technical Paper
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12988 (URN)10.4271/2003-01-3054 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC 03, September 8-12, Montreal, Canada
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01 Last updated: 2014-01-21Bibliographically approved
    10. Modeling and Simulation of Gripen’s Fluid Power Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Simulation of Gripen’s Fluid Power Systems
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Recent advances in aerospace actuation systems and components, Toulouse, France, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12989 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-04-01 Created: 2008-04-01
  • 9.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using Optimization as a Tool in Fuel System Conceptual Design2003In: SAE World Aviation Congress and Display, Montreal, Canada, SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3054, 2003, no 2003-01-3052Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing between concepts is often the most critical part of the design process. Different concepts have different advantages and disadvantages. The concept that is the best choice is most often dependent on the top level requirements. Sometimes there may also be a trade off between concept choice and the top requirements. In aircraft (a/c) fuel system design it has often proved difficult to find the switching point where the superior concept is changed. This sometimes makes the designer conservative and leads to the selection of a concept with too high a penalty. There is also a risk for the opposite and perhaps worse scenario: That the designer strives to reduce weight and cost and therefore, accidentally, chooses an under achieving concept and thus induces large downstream cost if late redesign or retro modifications are necessary.

    This paper shows how optimization has been successfully used at Saab Aerospace as a tool that supports concept selection. The example shown is the choice of fuel transfer method for a ventral drop tank. The example also illustrates the impact of top-level requirements on low-level practicalities such as fuel system design.

  • 10.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson (Lundén), Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Algorithmic Morphology Matrix for Aircraft Fuel System Design2006In: 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Hamburg, Germany, 2006, no ICAS-2006-9.2.2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berry, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axelsson, Arne
    Saab Aerostructures, Linköping, Sweden.
    Conceptual Design of a New Generation JAS 39 Gripen Aircraft2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the conceptual phase of a modification proposal for Saab Gripen, which aims to create the best possible basis for future aircraft development. One of the main tasks in this respect is to investigate different means to extend range. This paper describes the technical outcome from the concept generation, concept selection, and concept refinement at system and airframe level. The chosen concept involves relocation and redesign of the main landing gear. The original main landing gear bay is converted into fuel tanks. The relocation of the main gear enables a new ventral twin store carriage with supersonic jettison capability to be introduced. The concept proposal yields the following improvements:

    · Increased range due to increased fuel capability

    · Increased maximum allowed takeoff weight due to beefe d-up main gear

    · Increased weapon flexibility and capability due to introduction of two new ventral store

    · Introducing supersonic jettison capability

    The paper also includes a description of how the work is related to the overall design process in general and the conceptual phase in particular, as described in design methodology literature.

  • 12.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantification of the Elements in the Relationship matrix: A conceptual study of Aircraft Fuel System2004In: 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA, paper AIAA-2004-0538, 2004, no AIAA-2004-0538, p. 5244-5252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the framework of thc house of quality and design structure matrices are used to visualizee dependencies between top level requirements and engineering design properties. It is also discussed how quantification of the matrix elements may increase the understanding of how the top-level requirements impacts the low-level design parameters. lndeed, history has shown that overlooking combinatory effects between subsystems and night conditions may become expensive. Not only in terms of not goning getting the sizing right but more so if an entirely wrong concept is chosen.

    This paper shows a matrix technique that has successfully been used at Saab and how this technique may facilitate the cconcept evaluation process of early fuel system design.

    The matrix method aids the designer to take alk the relevant aspects into account when evaluating a design. Use of the method will also increase the understanding of what top-level requirement or combination thereof, which drives the choice of one particular concept rather than the other. The understanding of how the top-level requiremEnts impacts low level design parameters such as pump size or pipe diameter will also increse.

  • 13.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson (Lundén), Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Probabilistic design in the conceptual phase of an aircraft fuel system2005In: 7th AIAA Non-Deterministic Design Forum, Austin, USA, 2005, no AIAA-2005-2219Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saab Aerospace, Sweden.
    Lantto, Birgitta
    Saab Aerospace, Sweden.
    Ellström, Hans
    Saab Aerospace, Sweden.
    Jareland, Martin
    Saab Aerospace, Sweden.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategy for Modeling of large A/C fluid systems2004In: World Aviation Congress and Display, WAC-04, SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-3093, 2004, p. 1495-1506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing trend in the European Military a/c industry towards cooperation between nations when purchasing and between manufacturers when developing and producing a/c. Different manufacturers at different locations develop different parts or sub-systems. When using this approach a vital part of a fast and precise system evaluation is the use of simulation models. In order to stay competitive it is not only sufficient to be able to build large simulation models but also to do it fast.

    This paper describes the conclusions regarding a modelling strategy of large fluid systems drawn from the building of a simulation model of the JAS 39 Gripen fuel system. An overall process is suggested into which the activities of building a model are fitted. This is however not the main objective; it is more important to identify the different issues and activities at the engineering level. If these are properly dealt with, the model development time will be reduced, if not, the wrong model may be designed. "Wrong" here means a model that does not do the job, or solves a problem other than the one intended by the stakeholder.

  • 15.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander Andersson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson Lundén, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aircraft fuel system synthesis aided by interactive morphology and optimization2007In: 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, USA, Reno,USA: AIAA , 2007, no AIAA-2007-0653Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander (Andersson), Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimal Conceptual Design of Aircraft Fuel Transfer Systems2006In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1334-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This paper describes early considerations that have to be made when designing an aircraft fuel system. Emphasis is placed on illustrating the impact of top-level aircraft requirements on low-level practicalities such as fuel system design. Choosing between concepts is one of the most critical parts of any design process. Different concepts have different advantages, and the concept that is the best choice is often dependent on the top-level requirements. This paper shows how optimization has been used successfully at Saab Aerospace as a tool that supports concept selection. The example studied is the design of a fuel transfer system for a ventral drop tank and the optimization results in different conceptual designs depending on the top-level requirements.

     

  • 17.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A quantified and interactive relationship matrix applied to aircraft fuel system conceptual design2010In: International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), ISSN 1973-7459, E-ISSN 1973-7440, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the House of Quality matrix has been quantified for use in conceptual design. The House of Quality matrix is used for visualizing the relationships between subsystem design parameters and top-level requirements. The idea is then to insert quantified values of the subsystems’ characteristics as coupling elements, thus visualizing both the requirements-subsystems relationship and system performance. Here, a spreadsheet program (MS Excel) with a built-in modeling/solver tool has been used to model the subsystems. This makes the matrix interactive, thus facilitating trade studies between requirements and system design. By adding probabilistic analysis it is possible to explore the entire range of system behavior early on, rather than just focusing on one or more worst case scenarios as has previously often been the case, and thus promoting the selection of more optimal solutions. The quantitative approach also opens up for mathematically formal optimization which has been exploited by deriving Pareto fronts for visualization of conflicting objectives, one such objective being. The design application used as illustrative example is conceptual design of an aircraft fuel system.

  • 18.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    A quantified relationship matrix aided by optimization and probabilistic design2008In: 26th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences,2008, Anchorage: ICAS , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Lantto, B.
    et al.
    Ellström, H.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jarelande, M.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järlestål, A.
    Landberg, M.
    Modeling and Simulation of Gripen’s Fluid Power Systems2004In: Recent advances in aerospace actuation systems and components, Toulouse, France, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling and simulation of Saab Gripen’s vehicle systems2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the modeling and simulation work for the military aircraft JAS 39 Gripen´s vehicle systems. The vehicle systems comprise fuel, ECS, hydraulic, and auxiliary power systems and also landing gear. Vehicle systems have several modeling  challenges such as both compressible air and less compressible fluids that give stiff differential equations, gforce effects, nonlinear cavitation and saturation. It is also a complex system of integrated systems that requires models with integrated system software. Dynamic models based on physical differential equations have generally been used. The physical systems were previously modeled in Easy5 and the software in MATRIXx. Changes in tools where the physical systems are modeled in Dymola and the control algorithms are modeled in Simulink have opened up for new possibilities for more advanced and more complete system simulations. Simulations have been performed during the whole development cycle of the aircraft from concept evaluation to qualification tests. The paper gives some examples from the simulations where system performance and the internal states of the system are calculated.

  • 21.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling and Simulation of Saab Gripens Vehicle Systems, Challenges in Processes and Data Uncertainties2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In aircraft development, it is crucial to understand and evaluate behaviour, performance, safety and other aspects of subsystems before and after they are physically available for testing. Simulation models are used to gain knowledge in order to make decisions at all development stages.

    This paper describes the development of Saab Gripen´s vehicle systems and some methods and challenges related to uncertainties in test and model data. The ability to handle uncertain information and lack of information is the key to success in early design. The vehicle systems comprise fuel, environment control system (ECS), hydraulic, auxiliary power, escape, electrical power and landing gear system.

1 - 21 of 21
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