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  • 1.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Smärt- och yrkesmedicinskt centrum, Smärt- och rehabiliteringscentrum. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Smärt- och rehabiliteringscentrum. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sören, Birgitta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Smärt- och rehabiliteringscentrum. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Differences in sensory thresholds in the skin of women with fibromyalgia syndrome: A comparison between ketamine responders and ketamine non-responders2003Inngår i: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 3-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare detection and pain thresholds in the skin of female fibromyalgia patients who were either ketamine responders or ketamine nonresponders.

    Methods: Detection thresholds to innocuous warmth, of cold, heat or cold pain, and touch and dynamic touch sensation were determined in the skin. Pressure pain thresholds, local and widespread pain intensity, and pain duration were also registered.

    Results: Ketamine nonresponse was associated with more pronounced hypersensitivity for thermal pain [especially cold pain] than ketamine response.

    Conclusions: Blockade of N-metyl-D-aspartic acid receptors by ketamine and the recording of pain thresholds in the skin, especially for cold pain, might reveal different mechanisms of allodynia.

  • 2. Edvarsson, M
    et al.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Comparison of levels for immuniglobulin A, G, M and complement factors C3 and C4 in individuals 80 years and older, with current refrernce values2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Hagert, Britt
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Omvårdnad.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Wikblad, K
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Hälsorelaterad livskvalité hos personer opererade för snarkning1999Inngår i: Hälso- och sjukvårdsstämman,1999, Stockholm: Vårdförb. SHSTF , 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Hagert, Britt
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Omvårdnad.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Wikblad, K
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Patients' and cohabitants' reports on snoring and daytime sleepiness, 1-8 years after surgical treatment of snoring.1999Inngår i: Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0301-1569, E-ISSN 1423-0275, Vol. 61, s. 19-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Hagert, Britt
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Omvårdnad.
    Wikblad, K
    Ödqvist, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Side effects after surgical treatment of snoring2000Inngår i: Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0301-1569, E-ISSN 1423-0275, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 76-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a questionnaire study detailed side effects after snoring surgery were examined in 415 individuals 2-8 years after surgery. Three years later a new questionnaire was answered by those with side effects affecting taste, smell and voice (n = 74). At the first follow-up 255 had side effects of globus, regurgitation, taste, smell and voice. The globus was the most common (40%). In all spheres except the globus, a significant improvement was seen 3 years later. However, pharyngeal dryness and phlegm had a reported frequency of nearly 60%. No significant differences were seen between the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and laser uvulopalatoplasty methods. Taste disturbances might be due to surgical damage to the nerves or oral dryness. The olfactory impairment present in 7 patients still needs to be explained.

  • 6.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Aspegren-Kendall, Sally
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Quantitative sensory testing in fibromyalgia patients and in healthy subjects: identification of subgroups2001Inngår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 316-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine perception and pain thresholds in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and in healthy controls, and to investigate whether patients with fibromyalgia syndrome can be grouped with respect to thermal hyperalgesia and whether these subgroups differ from healthy controls and in clinical appearance. Design: The authors conducted a quasi-experimental clinical study. Subjects: Twenty-nine women patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and 21 healthy pain-free age-matched women participated in the study. Methods: Quantitative sensory testing using a Thermotest instrument was performed on the dorsum of the left hand. Sleep and pain intensity were rated using visual analog scales. Results: Cold and heat pain but not perception thresholds differed significantly between patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and healthy subjects. Based on thermal pain thresholds, two subgroups could be identified in fibromyalgia syndrome using cluster analysis. Conclusion: Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were subgrouped by quantitative sensory testing (i.e., thermal pain thresholds). Subgroups show clinical differences in pain intensities, number of tender points, and sleep quality. Cold pain threshold was especially linked to these clinical aspects.

  • 7. Lundgren, A
    et al.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Effect of education on evidence-based care and handling of perpheral intravenous lines.1999Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 8, s. 577-585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd, Human biomedicin.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd, Human biomedicin.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd, Human biomedicin.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum, Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum.
    Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet i relation till psykologiska förklaringsvariabler2004Inngår i: Svenska Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,2004, 2004, s. 82-82Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Coping strategies and life satisfaction in subgrouped fibromyalgia patients2003Inngår i: Biological Research for Nursing, ISSN 1099-8004, E-ISSN 1552-4175, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 193-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes pain- and stress-coping strategies and life satisfaction in subgroups of fibromyalgia patients. Thirty-two females with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 21 healthy pain-free women were studied. Those with FMS were classified as thermal (both heat and cold) pain sensitive or slightly cold pain sensitive based on pain thresholds determined using a Thermotest device. Global stress-coping styles, life satisfaction, and specific pain-coping strategies were measured. Patients classified as thermal pain sensitive were affected by physical symptoms to a greater extent than were those classified as slightly cold pain sensitive. The thermal pain sensitive group used more diverting attention coping strategies than the slightly cold pain sensitive group did. Separating fibromyalgia patients into subgroups might increase the potential for improving nursing care of these patients. Through the use of effective coping strategies in dealing with stress and pain, life satisfaction may also be enhanced.

  • 10.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Background pain in fibromyalgia patients affecting clinical examination of the skin2002Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 58-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between on-going pain and acute thermal pain in patients suffering from chronic pain.

    •  This experimental study in cold and heat sensitivity was performed in order to test the following hypothesis: that fibromyalgia patients scoring high in current background pain tolerate less experimental thermal pain in the skin than patients with low scores.

    • Ethical aspects of the study are discussed.

    •  The level of tolerable experimental thermal stimuli was tested and compared between the `low-score' and the `high-score' patients.

    • Background pain seemed to affect the intensity of experimental cold pain.

    •  Clinical routine examinations and bodily care of the skin that might interfere with background pain in the fibromyalgia patients are discussed.

    • Clinical practice should be carefully planned in order to assist fibromyalgia patients in understanding and coping with thermal conditions that might influence background pain.

  • 11.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Headache and coping in a female working population2005Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 325-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tension-type headache is a common disorder amongst working people and, because of its very high prevalence, represents one of the most costly ailments in modern society. To study the frequency of tension-type headache in a working female population and to investigate how females who have experienced tension-type headache cope with pain compared with the way healthy pain-free subjects cope with stress. A total of 400 females working at a university hospital in Sweden were asked about their experience of headache in the previous 3 months. Instruments used were a specific Headache Questionnaire, the Jalowiec Stress-coping Questionnaire and Coping Strategy Questionnaire. Before the study, approval from the board of directors and the employees’ council was obtained. About 257 females (64.3%) answered the questionnaire and 78% of them (n = 199) reported that they had experienced headache in the previous 3 months. About 90% of the participants had never had an appointment with a doctor concerning headache and 57% reported a relationship between stress and headache. Regarding pain-coping strategy, increased pain behaviour was the most frequent strategy used. With regard to stress-coping style, a significant difference in the use of emotive style was found between females reporting headache and females not reporting headache. The results indicate that prevention programmes emphasizing stress management and coping may influence the experience of tension-type headache.

  • 12.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Health experiences and employment status in subjects with chronic back pain: a long-term perspective2006Inngår i: Pain Management Nursing, ISSN 1524-9042, E-ISSN 1532-8635, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 64-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe health experiences, focused on gender and return to work, in subjects with chronic low back pain in a long-term perspective. The convenient sample consisted of 12 subjects who had attended a pain rehabilitation program 6 years earlier. Typed interviews were transcribed, and a content analysis approach was used. Five categories were found: coping, root causes, control/influence, pain, and sleep. The interviews showed that the subjects expressed well-being, although pain had become part of their daily life. However, both gender and well-being group differences were identified. The women and the group with reduced well-being used the root causes category in a higher degree than the men and the well-being group did. The conclusion is that there are differences according to both gender and return to work within the subjects with chronic pain and that these differences are related to both root causes and coping pattern.

  • 13.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Health related quality of life in subgroups of WAD (Whiplash associated disorder) individuals with respect to cold hyperalgesia in quantitative sensory testing (QST)2006Inngår i: EFIC Pain in Europe V,2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Background and aims The term Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) includes a wide range of complaints, with neck pain as predominating symptom. Living with long term pain influences quality of life. In previous studies of other chronic pain patients, subgrouping has been made according to cold pain thresholds measured in QST. The aims of the present study are threefold, (1) to evaluate thermal pain thresholds and health related quality of life in WAD patients compared to healthy pain-free individuals, (2) to explore whether subgrouping of the WAD patients was possible according to cold pain thresholds (CPT), and (3) to explore differences between the subgroups. Methods: Thermal pain thresholds were measured using QST. The SF-36 was used to assess health related quality of life. Results: WAD patients showed significantly decreased CPT (p=0.007) and lower scores on the SF-36 in all scales when compared with healthy pain-free individuals. After analyzing clusters (K-means algorithm) two subgroups of WAD emerged, slightly cold pain sensitive and highly pain sensitive. The slightly pain sensitive group differed significantly from the highly sensitive group on in the Role Emotional scale of SF-36 (p=0.025). Conclusions: Cold pain hyperalgesia seems to be a determinant for subgrouping of WAD patients, with respect to health related quality of life, and might be the result of central sensitization or peripheral mechanisms or as a result of personal characteristics. These group differences might be of importance when guiding patients to treatment interventions as well as when exposing subjects to cold in the clinical situation.    

  • 14.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Reply to Dellinger2002Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 698-698s. 698-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    No abtract available.

  • 15.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Stress coping strategies in thermal pain sensitive and insensitive healthy subjects2001Inngår i: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 162-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate stress coping strategies used in relation to heat and cold pain thresholds in healthy subjects. After using the Jalowiec Coping Scale, cold and heat pain thresholds were examined using the Quantitative Somatosensory Test in 47 healthy subjects. The participants were separated into thermal pain sensitive and insensitive groups, based on thermal pain perception. The results showed that subjects sensitive to thermal pain tended to adopt an emotive stress coping style significantly more commonly than the insensitive subjects. Furthermore, women displayed a marked preference for this style compared to men. The conclusion is that emotional stress coping did play a role in the perception of thermal pain in this group of healthy subjects and that clinical nursing interventions need to focus on the relationship between emotion and coping.

  • 16.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wikblad, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Raak, Anders
    Health Department at SAAB Aerospace in Linköping.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Health Department at SAAB Aerospace in Linköping.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Catastrophizing and health related quality of life: A 6-year follow-up of patients with chronic low back pain2002Inngår i: Rehabilitation Nursing, ISSN 0278-4807, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 110-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A pain rehabilitation model that focused on emotions was implemented to influence catastrophizing by, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) for, persons with chronic low back pain. Twelve individuals, 7 men and 5 women (aged 33 to 57 years), all with long-term pain despite treatment, were included in the study and a single case research experimental design (SCRED) was used to follow the patterns of coping with pain for 6 years. The HRQL was measured before and 6 years after the intervention. Coping strategies and HRQL were evaluated with the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ) and the SF-36, respectively. The evaluation of pain coping strategies after 3 years found decreased catastrophizing, a decrease that had continued 3 years later. HRQL showed significantly improved mental health and impaired physical capacity at the 6-year follow-up. Changes in catastrophizing or in HRQL did not appear to influence self-scored bodily pain. Altered catastrophizing appeared to be a long-term process. This research indicates the need for rehabilitation programs to assess and evaluate patients' pain and their need for improved quality of life, rather than focusing only on the elimination of pain.

  • 17.
    Stening, Kent
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Pain sensations to the cold pressor test in normally menstruating women: Comparison with men and relation to menstrual phase and serum sex steroid levels2007Inngår i: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, E-ISSN 1522-1490, Vol. 293, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of gonadal hormones on pain sensations was investigated in normally menstruating women (n = 16) using the cold pressor test. Tolerance time, pain threshold, and pain intensity were examined once a week during a 4-wk period, and serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were determined at each test session, which were classified into the early follicular phase, late follicular phase, early luteal phase, and late luteal phase, as determined by the first day of menses and the actual hormone levels recorded. A group of men (n = 10) of the same age interval was examined for comparison. The data show that pain threshold was reduced during the late luteal phase compared with the late follicular phase, and hormone analyses showed significant positive correlation between the progesterone concentration and lowered pain threshold and increasing pain intensity. Hormone analysis also showed an interaction between S-estradiol and S-progesterone on pain intensity, demonstrating that the increased perceived pain intensity that was associated with high progesterone concentrations was significantly reduced with increasing levels of estradiol. While no statistically significant sex differences in pain measurements were found, women displayed much more pronounced, and statistically significant, session-to-session effects than men, with increased pain threshold and decreased pain intensity with each test session. Hence, these data suggest that the changes in the serum concentration of gonadal hormones that occur during the menstrual cycle influence pain sensations elicited by noxious tonic cold stimulation and show that adaptation to the cold pressor test may be sex dependent. © 2007 the American Physiological Society.

  • 18.
    Sund Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Assessment and prevention of shivering in patients with severe cerebral injury. A pilot study.2000Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 9, s. 55-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsberg, C
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Normal kroppstemperatur relaterat till ålder och kön: En systematisk litteraturgenomgång2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Forsberg, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Kirurgi.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd, Sjuksköterskeprogrammet.
    Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: A systematic literature review2002Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 122-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate normal body temperature in adult men and women. A systematic review of data was performed. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and manually from identified articles reference lists. Studies from 1935 to 1999 were included. Articles were classified as (1) strong, (2) fairly strong and (3) weak evidence. When summarizing studies with strong or fairly strong evidence the range for oral temperature was 33.2-38.2░C, rectal: 34.4-37.8░C, tympanic: 35.4-37.8░C and axillary: 35.5-37.0░C. The range in oral temperature for men and women, respectively, was 35.7-37.7 and 33.2-38.1░C, in rectal 36.7-37.5 and 36.8-37.1░C, and in tympanic 35.5-37.5 and 35.7-37.5░C. The ranges of normal body temperature need to be adjusted, especially for the lower values. When assessing body temperature it is important to take place of measurement and gender into consideration. Studies with random samples are needed to confirm the range of normal body temperature with respect to gender and age.

  • 21.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Loyd, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Errors in body temperature assessment related to individual variation, measuring technique and equipment2005Inngår i: International journal of nursing practice, ISSN 1322-7114, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 216-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Errors in body temperature measurement might seriously influence the evaluation of an individual's health condition. We studied individual variation, measurement technique and the equipment used when assessing body temperature. In the first part of the study, three volunteers performed repeated measurements for five mornings. In the second part, the morning rectal, oral, ear and axillary temperatures were measured once in 84 men and women (19–59 years). The repeated measurements showed a daily temperature difference of 0.1–0.4°C in rectal and oral temperatures, 0.2°C−1.7°C in the ear and 0.1–0.9°C in the axillary temperatures. In the sample of 84 subjects, men and postmenopausal women had a lower mean body temperature compared to premenopausal women. The mean deviation between rectal temperature, and oral, ear and axillary temperatures, respectively, was > 0.5°C, with a large individual variation. In conclusion, in order to improve the evaluation of body temperature, the assessment should be based on the individual variation, the same site of measurement and no adjustment of oral, ear or axillary temperatures to the rectal site.

  • 22.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gender differences in predictors for survival in elderly nursing-home residents: A 3-year follow-up2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 18-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focus on predicting factors of survival possible to modify by nursing care, and the incidence and mortality rate of nursing-home-acquired pneumonia, allocated to 1, 2 and 3 years of follow ups. The residents consisted of 156 women and 78 men living in special housing for the elderly. Data on chronic disease and medication were obtained at baseline, and activities of daily living (ADL) status, nutritional status and body temperature were assessed. The incidence of pneumonia was noted prospectively for 1 year and retrospectively for the following 2 years. Predictive factors for survival were explored by Cox hazard regression analysis. The results showed that age, functional and cognitive impairment were predictors of mortality irrespective of gender, while poor nutritional status in women and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease and medication with sedatives in men were gender-specific predictors. ADL correlated positively with dementia and negatively with S-albumin irrespective of gender, while malnutrition correlated positively with ADL in women and positively with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men. To promote the quality of daily living in elderly individuals, it is of importance to improve the capabilities in daily functions and nutritional status, especially in women with functional impairment, and to prevent anxiety particularly in men. The findings also clarify that pneumonia is as common as cerebral vascular insult and heart failure as cause of death in this population.

  • 23.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Normal tympanic and rectal body tempterature in elderly men and women2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Prevention of shivering in patients with severe cerebral injury1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    The impact of ADL-status, dementia and body mass index on normal body temperature in elderly nursing home residents2002Inngår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, ISSN 0167-4943, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 161-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A subset of seniors might demonstrate a lower body temperature compared with younger subjects. However, data on normal body temperature in seniors are sparse. The aim of the study was to study normal body temperature with a view of predicting factors of low body temperature in non-febrile seniors. Elderly women (n=159) and 78 men, aged ≥65 years, living in community resident homes were included in the study. Data on chronic diseases and medication were collected from medical records. Tympanic and rectal temperature was measured twice daily; once at 7–9 AM and then at 6–8 PM. In addition, body mass index (BMI), activities of daily living (ADL) status, as well as details regarding dementia and malnutrition were recorded. The variation in tympanic and rectal temperatures ranged from 33.8 to 38.4 °C and 35.6 to 38.0 °C, respectively. ADL status, dementia and BMI were significantly related to lower and analgesic to higher tympanic temperature. Dementia was significantly related to lower rectal temperature. Therefore, dementia, BMI, ADL status and analgesic shall not be overlooked when assessing temperature in seniors. More research is needed to further clarify the influence of these predictive factors, as well as the impact of BMI and malnutrition.

  • 26.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis-Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Prevention och kontroll av frossa hos patienter med svår skallskada1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis-Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nursing care in fever: Assessment and implementation1998Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Nursing Research & Clinical Studies /Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 27-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Örtqvist, Åke
    Stockholm County, Norrbacka, Sweden.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Klefsgård, Örjan
    Högland Hospital, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Morbiditet, mortalitet och klinisk presentation av pneumoni bland äldre i särskilt boende2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Sund-Levander, Märtha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Klinisk fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Örtqvist, Åke
    Department of Communicable Diseases and Prevention, Stockholm County, Stockholm.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Klefsgård, Örjan
    Department of Radiology, Högland Hospital, Eksjö.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Morbidity, mortality and clinical presentation of nursing homeacquired pneumonia in a Swedish population2003Inngår i: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 306-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pneumonia has been estimated to be the second most common infection in nursing-home residents. However, to the authors' knowledge, no such Swedish data are available. Therefore, this study investigated the incidence, risk factors, and 30 d case-fatality rate and clinical presentation of nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) in 234 nursing-home residents aged 66-99 y. Activities of daily living (ADL status), malnutrition and body mass index were measured at baseline. The residents were then followed prospectively during 1 y for symptoms and signs of pneumonia. Pneumonia was verified clinically and/or radiologically in 32 residents, corresponding to a yearly incidence of 13.7%. The 30 d case-fatality rate was 28%. Cough and sputum production were the most specific, and fever ≥38.0°C rectally and cognitive decline were the most common non-specific presenting symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ADL status >5 and male gender were risk factors for acquiring pneumonia. In conclusion, NHAP is associated with high morbidity and mortality in Sweden. In order not to delay treatment, it is necessary to be aware that specific symptoms of pneumonia may be lacking in the clinical presentation in the nursing-home setting.

  • 30.
    Törnvall, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wilhelmsson, Susan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Advancing nursing documentation an intervention study using[X]patients with leg ulcer as an example2009Inngår i: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 78, nr 9, s. 605-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to implement and evaluate a standardised nursing record, using patients with leg ulcer as an example, regarding the content of the nursing record and district nurses experiences of documentation. Method: This was a prospective, stratified and randomised intervention study, with one intervention group and one control group. A standardised nursing wound care record was designed and implemented in the electronic patient record in the intervention group for a period of 3 months. Pre- and post-intervention audits of nursing records [n = 102 and n = 92, respectively] were carried out and 126 district nurses answered questionnaires pre-intervention and 83 post-intervention. Result: The standardised nursing wound care record led to more informative, comprehensive and knowledge-intensive documentation according to the audit and district nurses opinions. Furthermore, the district nurses self-reported knowledge of nursing documentation increased in the intervention group. When the standardised nursing wound care record was not used, the documentation was mostly incomplete with a lack of nursing relevance. There were no differences in the district nurses experiences of documentation in general between the two groups. Conclusion: Using the standardised nursing wound care record improved nursing documentation meeting legal demands, which should increase the safety of patient. There was however a discrepancy between the nurses stated knowledge and how they carried out the documentation. Regular in-service training together with use of evidence based standardised nursing records, as a link to clinical reasoning about nursing care, could be ways effecting change.

  • 31.
    Törnvall, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wilhelmsson, Susan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Impact of primary care management on nursing documentation2007Inngår i: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 634-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate whether perceptions of electronic nursing documentation and its performance differed because of primary health care management.

    Background: Success in leading people depends on the manager's personality, the context and the people who are led. Close proximity to clinical work, with manager and personnel sharing the same profession, promotes the authority to carry out changes.

    Methods: This study comprised a postal questionnaire to district nurses and an audit of nursing records from two primary health care organizations, one with a uniprofessional (nursing) organization, and one with multidisciplinary health care centres with general practitioners and/or another profession as managers.

    Results: Uniprofessional nurse management increased district nurses' positive perceptions of nursing documentation but did not affect documentation performance, which was inadequate regardless of management type.

    Conclusions: Positive perceptions of nursing documentation are bases for further development to a nursing documentation including a holistic view of the patient.

  • 32.
    Törnvall, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wilhelmsson, Susan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för vård och välfärd. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Electronic nursing documentation in primary health care2004Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 310-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse nursing documentation based on an electronic patient record (EPR) system in primary health care (PHC) with emphasis on the nurses' opinions and what, according to the nursing process and the use of the keywords, the nurses documented. The study was performed in one county council in the south of Sweden and included 42 Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC). It consisted of a survey, an audit of nursing records with the Cat-ch-Ing instrument and calculation of frequencies of keywords used during a 1-year period. For the survey, district nurses received a postal questionnaire. The results from the survey indicated an overall positive tendency concerning the district nurses' opinions on documentation. Lack of in-service training in nursing documentation was noted and requested from the district nurses. All three parts of the study showed that the keywords nursing interventions and status were frequently used while nursing diagnosis and goal were infrequent. From the audit, it was noted that medical status and interventions appeared more often than nursing status. The study demonstrated limitations in the nursing documentation that inhibited the possibility of using it to evaluate the care given. In order to develop the nursing documentation, there is a need for support and education to strengthen the district nurses' professional identity. Involvement from the heads of the PHCC and the manufactures of the EPR system is necessary, in cooperation with the district nurses, to render the nursing documentation suitable for future use in the evaluation and development of care.

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