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  • 1.
    Aquila, Andrew L.
    et al.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Salmassi, Fahrad
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range2004Inngår i: SPIE 5538, Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths / [ed] Regina Soufli, John F. Seely, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2004, s. 64-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandium containing multilayers have been produced with very high reflectivity in the soft x-ray spectrum.  Accurate optical constants are required in order to model the multilayer reflectivity.  Since there are relatively few measurements of the optical constants of Scandium in the soft x-ray region we have performed measurements over the energy range of 50-1,300 eV.  Thin films of Scandium were deposited by ion-assisted magnetron sputtering at Linkoping University and DC Magnetron sputtering at CXRO.  Transmission measurements were performed at the Advanced Light Source beamline 6.3.2.  The absorption coefficient was deduced from the measurements and the dispersive part of the index of refraction was obtained using the Kramers-Kronig relation.  The measured optical constants are used to model the near-normal incidence reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers near the Sc L2,3 edge.

  • 2.
    Beckers, Manfred
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lauridsen, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baehtz, C.
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Formation of basal plane fiber-textured Ti2AlN films on amorphous substrates2010Inngår i: PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1862-6254, Vol. 4, nr 05-Jun, s. 121-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of fiber-textured Ti2AlN(0001) films on SiO2 was characterized by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Ti2AlN was formed by solid-state reaction between sequentially deposited Ti and AlN layers. A deposition at 275 degrees C yields a Ti(0001) out-of-plane orientation which is maintained for the following AlN(0001)/Ti(0001) layers. Annealing to 600 degrees C yields AlN decomposition and diffusion of Al and N into Ti, with consecutive transformation into (TiAlN)-Al-3(111) and Ti2AlN(0001) plus AlN residuals. Despite preferred Ti2AlN(0001) out-of-plane orientation, the in-plane distribution is random, as expected from the self-organized pseudo-epitaxial growth.

  • 3.
    Birch, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Johansson, G.A.
    Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SCFAB, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hertz, H.M.
    Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SCFAB, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recent advances in ion-assisted growth of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors for the water window2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors intended for normal incidence reflection in the water window wavelength range, ?=[2.4-4.4nm], have been grown by ion-assisted sputter deposition and characterized using soft and hard X-ray reflectivity. By extracting low-energy ions, with energies, Eion, ranging from 9 to 113eV and with ion-to-metal flux ratios, F, between 0.76 and 23.1, from the sputtering plasma to the growing film, the nano-structure of the multilayer interfaces could be modified. A significantly increased soft X-ray reflectivity, using ?=3.374nm, for Cr/Sc multilayers with layer thicknesses in the range 0.4-2.8nm, was obtained when high ion-to-metal flux ratios, FCr=7.1 and FSc=23.1, and low energy ions, Eion=9eV, were used. An experimental reflectivity of 5.5% was obtained at 76° for a multilayer with 400 bi-layers. Simulations of the reflectivity data showed that the interface widths are <0.425nm. It could be concluded that roughness of low spatial frequency is reduced at lower ion energies than the high spatial frequency which was eliminated at the expense of intermixing at the interfaces at higher ion energies. The predicted performance of normal incidence multilayer mirrors grown at optimum conditions and designed for ?=3.374 and 3.115nm indicates possible reflectivities of 6.5% and 14%, respectively. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Birch, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joelsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft X-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure, and properties2006Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 514, nr 1-2, s. 10-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice films with modulation periods of 1.64 nm were grown on MgO(001) substrates. By utilizing a magnetically enhanced plasma in the vicinity of the substrate and a negative substrate bias, ion/metal nitride flux ratios of 45 and 144 were achieved during deposition of CrN and ScN, respectively. The effects of ion energies in the range [16–58 eV] and substrate temperatures in the range [535–853 °C] on the composition, interface width, crystal quality, and microstructure evolution were investigated using elastic recoil detection analysis, hard X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Minimal interface widths of 0.2 nm = 1/2 nitride unit cell were achieved at a growth temperature of 735 °C and ion energies of 24 and 28 eV for CrN and ScN, respectively. Under these conditions, also an optimum in the crystal quality was observed for near stoichiometric composition of CrN and ScN. TEM confirmed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship for the system with CrN(001)ScN(001)MgO(001) and CrN[100]ScN[100]MgO[100]. Also, the layers were coherently strained to each other with no misfit dislocations, threading dislocations, surface cusps, voids or gas bubbles present. Higher ion energies or lower deposition temperatures gave over-stoichiometric films with poor superlattice modulation while higher growth temperatures yielded a decreased crystal quality, due to loss of N. As-deposited superlattices with only 61 periods exhibited an absolute soft X-ray reflectance of 6.95% at an energy of 398.8 eV (Sc 2p-absorption edge) which is comparable to the performance of Cr/Sc. The compositional modulation and phase structure was stable during extended annealing at 850 °C, which is the highest thermal stability for an X-ray multilayer mirror. It is concluded that the ScN layers serve as effective diffusion barriers to hinder decomposition of the CrN layers and stabilize the pseudomorphic superlattice structure. Nanoindentation experiments showed that the hardness of the CrN/ScN superlattice films was 19 GPa.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Multilayer X-ray mirrors for water window wavelengths2001Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the design, growth and x-ray characterization of normal incidence multilayer x-ray mirrors. The mirrors are intended as condenser optics for soft x-ray microcsopy in the water window.

    A droplet-target laser-plasma soft x-ray source has been developed to be used in a compact soft x-ray microscope. The microscope operates at the wavelength λ=3.37 4 nm, corresponding to the C VI emission line from a laser plasma x-ray source. Due to the isotropic nature of laser-produced plasma sources, large shaped, normal incidence condenser mirrors collecting x-rays over a large solid angle from the source, and focusing them onto the specimen, are required.

    Since ordinary refractive optics cannot be utilized in this wavelength range, so called multilayer interference structures, based on diffraction and reflection, have been developed.

    The multilayers were designed to have the maximal theoretical normal reflection of the first and second order of λ=3 .374 nm using the IMD computer software. The realization of the multilayers were accomplished using ion-assisted dual target DC magnetron sputtering. To characterize the multilayers and improve the deposition process hard x-ray reflectivity was used. Further, at-wavelength (λ=3 .37 4 nm) reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer based on the laser-plasma source. In addition, measurements have been performed using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing2008Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 063516-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the thermal stability in vacuum of Cr/Sc multilayer thin films used as reflective optical components in soft x-ray instrumentation has substantial dependence on incorporation of N. The thermal stability is increased by incorporating 34 at.% of N in Cr/Sc multilayers. A pure Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirror starts a continuous degradation already at ~100 °C with a complete destruction of the multilayer at 500 °C. The resulting structure is a mixture of Cr and Sc nanocrystallites. The degradation can be described by linear diffusion theory and is suggested to be due to the formation of uniformly distributed phase-separated nanocrystallites followed by an Ostwald ripening process with an apparent activation energy of 0.5 eV. At the multilayer-substrate interface, a 7 nm thin Sc-Si layer is formed which effectively hinders indiffusion of Si and outdiffusion of Cr and Sc. A nitrided multilayer, initially consisting of crystalline fcc CrNx and fcc ScNy layers (x and y<1), is observed to improve in structural quality up to ~250 °C where it is stable for more than 12 h. At ~330 °C, the multilayer separates into regions with two multilayer periods, differing by less than 0.04 nm, which are stable at 420 °C over an extended period of time >40 h. It is proposed that the separation into the different multilayer periods is a consequence of redistribution of N within the Cr layers. Sc is observed to be stabilized in the ScN layers, which, in turn, inhibit the formation of a Sc-Si barrier layer at the substrate leading to a strong exchange of Si and Cr across the film substrate. This leads to a Cr-Si/ScN layered structure close to the substrate and chromium silicide crystallites inside the substrate. Close to the top of the multilayer, a CrN/ScN multilayer appears to be retained.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schäfers, F.
    Gullikson, E. M.
    Aouadi, S.
    Rohde, S.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics2008Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 47, nr 23, s. 4196-4204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers, intended as normal incidence soft x-ray mirrors and Brewster angle polarizers, have been synthesized by employing a novel modulated low-energy and high-flux ion assistance as a means of engineering the interfaces between the subnanometer layers on an atomic scale during magnetron sputter deposition. To reduce both roughness and intermixing, the ion energy was modulated within each layer. The flat and abrupt interfaces yielded soft x-ray mirrors with near-normal incidence reflectances of R = 20.7% at the Sc 2p absorption edge and R = 2.7% at the V 2p absorption edge. Multilayers optimized for the Brewster angle showed a reflectance of R = 26.7% and an extinction ratio of Rs/Rp=5450 for Cr/Sc and R = 10% and Rs/Rp=4190 for Ni/V. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed an amorphous Cr/Sc structure with an accumulating high spatial frequency roughness. For Ni/V the initial growth mode is amorphous and then turns crystalline after ~1/3 of the total thickness, with an accumulating low spatial frequency roughness as a consequence. Elastic recoil detection analyses showed that N was the major impurity in both Cr/Sc and Ni/V with concentrations of 15 at. % and 9 at. %, respectively, but also O (3 at. % and 1.3 at. %) and C (0.5 at. % and 1.9 at. %) were present. Simulations of the possible normal incidence reflective properties in the soft x-ray range of 100-600 eV are given, predicting that reflectivities of more than 31% for Cr/Sc and 5.8% for Ni/V can be achieved if better control of the impurities and the deposition process is employed. The simulations also show that Cr/Sc is a good candidate for mirrors for the photon energies between the absorption edges of B (E = 188 eV) and Sc (E = 398.8 eV).

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Schäfers, Franz
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer X-ray mirrors2006Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 500, nr 1-2, s. 84-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-energy ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition has been used for the synthesis of highly reflective Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirrors. A low ion energy and a high ion-to-metal flux ratio were employed in order to stimulate the adatom mobility while minimizing ion-induced intermixing at the interfaces. An analytic model, based on the binary collision approximation, was used in order to gain insight into low-energy ion-surface interactions as a function of ion energy and ion-to-metal flux ratio. The model predicted a favorable region in the ion energy-flux parameter space where only surface atomic displacements are stimulated during growth of Ni and V for multilayers. For a series of Ni/V multilayer mirrors with multilayer periods about Λ = 1.2 nm, grown with a continuous ion assistance using energies in the range 7-36 eV and with ion-to-metal flux ratios ΦNi = 4.7 and ΦV=20.9, specular and diffuse X-ray scattering analyses revealed that ion energies of ∼27-31 eV produced the best trade-off between reduced interfacial roughness and intermixing. However, it was also concluded that an interface mixing of about ± 1 atomic distance is unavoidable when a continuous flux of assisting ions is used. To overcome this limitation, a sophisticated interface engineering technique was employed, where the first 0.3 nm of each layer was grown with a high-flux low-energy ion assistance and the remaining part was grown with a slightly higher ion energy. This method was demonstrated to largely eliminate the intermixing while maintaining the smoothening effect of ion assistance. Two Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirror structures, one with 500 periods designed for near-normal incidence and one 150 periods reflecting polarizer at the Brewster angle, were grown utilizing the interface engineering concept. Both the near-normal incidence reflectivity as well as polarizability were improved by a factor of 2 as compared to previously reported data for an X-ray energy of E = 511 eV. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Johansson, G.A.
    Hertz, H.M.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion assisted sputter deposition2001Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 4506, s. 84-92Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second order with multilayer periods of 1.692 nm and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0.471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9-113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the ad-atom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr=0.76, Sc=2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required. Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr=7.1, Sc=23.1) of low energy (9 eV) Ar ions founded the most favourable growth condition in order to limit the intermixing with a subsistent surface flatness.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Johansson, G.A.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hertz, H.M.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition2002Inngår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 41, nr 11, s. 2903-2909Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second orders, with multilayer periods of 1.692 and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0.471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft-x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft-x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9 to 113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the adatom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr=0.76, Sc=2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required. Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the required ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr=7.1, Sc=23.1) of low-energy (9 eV) Ar ions yielded the most favorable growth condition, limiting the intermixing with a subsistent good surface flatness. © 2002 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Johansson, GA
    Hertz, HM
    Gullikson, EM
    Kreissig, U
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window2003Inngår i: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 28, nr 24, s. 2494-2496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors, synthesized by ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition, are proved to have a high near-normal reflectivity of R = 14.5% at a grazing angle of 87.5degrees measured at the wavelength A = 3.11 nm, which is an improvement of more than 31% compared with previously published results. Elastic recoil detection analyses show that the mirrors contained as much as 15 at. % of N and traces of C and O. Soft x-ray reflectivity simulations reveal interface widths of sigma = 0.34 nm and an exceptionally small layer thickness drift of similar to1.6 X 10(-5) nm/multilayer period throughout the stack. Simulations show that a reflectivity of R = 25.6% is attainable if impurities and layer thickness drift can be eliminated. The abrupt interfaces are achieved with ion assistance with a low ion energy of 24 eV and high ion-to-metal flux ratios of 7.1 and 23.1 during Cr and Se sputter deposition, respectively. In addition, a near-normal incidence reflectivity of 5.5% for the C VI emission line (lambda = 3.374 nm) from a laser plasma source was verified. (C) 2003 Optical Society of America.

  • 12.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reactive DC magnetron sputtering of amorphous (Ti0.25B0.75)1−xSixNy thin films from TiB2 and Si targets2014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti0.25B0.75)1−xSixNy, 0≤x≤0.89, 0.9≤y≤1.25, thin films were reactively grown on Si(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from compound TiB2 and elemental Si targets. The films can be grown in a fully electron-diffraction amorphous state with x>0.46, as evidenced by XRD and HR-TEM investigations. With x=0, BN form onion-like sheets surrounding TiNnanograins. Substrate temperatures, Ts=100-600 ◦C, has a minor effect of the film structure and properties, due to limited surface diffusion.

    Ion-assisted growth with substrate bias voltages, Vb, between -50 V and -200 V, favors densification of amorphous structures over nanocrystalline formation, and improves mechanical properties. A maximum hardness value of 26.8±0.7 GPa is found for an amorphous (Ti0.25B0.75)0.39Si0.61N1.15 film grown with substrate temperature Ts=400 °C and substrate bias voltage Vb=-100 V.

  • 13.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andrew, Aquila
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California, USA.
    Gullikson, Eric
    Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California, USA.
    Franz, Schäfers
    Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Impact of B4C co-sputtering on structure and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors2017Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, nr 15, s. 18274-18287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of B4C incorporation during magnetron sputter deposition of Cr/Sc multilayers intended for soft X-ray reflective optics is investigated. Chemical analysis suggests formation of metal: boride and carbide bonds which stabilize an amorphous layer structure, resulting in smoother interfaces and an increased reflectivity. A near-normal incidence reflectivity of 11.7%, corresponding to a 67% increase, is achieved at λ = 3.11 nm upon adding 23 at.% (B + C). The advantage is significant for the multilayer periods larger than 1.8 nm, where amorphization results in smaller interface widths, for example, giving 36% reflectance and 99.89% degree of polarization near Brewster angle for a multilayer polarizer. The modulated ion-energy-assistance during the growth is considered vital to avoid intermixing during the interface formation even when B + C are added.

  • 14.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gullikson, Eric M
    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reectivity2008Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, nr 9, s. 091913-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft x-ray reflectivity (SXR) of Cr/Sc multilayer with bilayer thickness of =1.56  nm was increased by 100% by an intentional introduction of nitrogen during magnetron sputtering. Multilayers deposited at background pressures of 2×10−6 Torr exhibited amorphous layers with flat interfaces. At 2×10−5 Torr, understoichiometric CrNx/ScNy multilayer with a nitrogen content of ~34  at.  % was formed. CrNx/ScNy multilayer comprising of only 100 periods exhibited a SXR of 11.5%. X-ray and electron microscopy analyses showed that the improvement in performance is a result of reduced interfacial diffusion yielding interface widths of 0.29  nm. The CrNx/ScNy multilayer exhibited thermal stability up to >380  °C.

  • 15.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mikhaylushkin, Arkady
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kressing, U.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers2009Inngår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 79-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal multilayers are prime candidates for high reflectivity soft x-ray multilayer mirrors. In particular, Cr/Sc multilayers in the amorphous state have proven to give the highest reflectivity in the water window. We have investigated the influence of impurities N and O as residual gas elements on the growth, structure, and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayers deposited in high vacuum conditions by a dual cathode direct current magnetron sputter deposition. Multilayer structures with the modulation periods in the range of 0.9–4.5 nm and Cr layer to bilayer thickness ratios in the range of 0.17–0.83 were deposited with an intentionally raised base pressure (pB), ranging from 2 × 10-7 to 2 × 10-5 Torr. Compositional depth profiles were obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, while the structural investigations of the multilayers were carried out using hard x-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy. By investigating stacked multilayers, i.e., several multilayers with different designs of the modulation periods, stacked on top of each other in the samples, we have been able to conclude that both N and O are incorporated preferentially in the interior of the Sc layers. At pB = 2 × 10-6 Torr, typically <3 at.% of N and <1.5 at.% of O was found, which did not influence the amorphous nanostructure of the layers. Multilayers deposited with a high pB ~2 × 10-5 Torr, a N content as high as ~37 at.% was measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. These multilayers mainly consist of understoichiometric face-centered cubic CrN x /ScN y nanocrystalline layers, which could be grown as thin at 0.3 nm and is explained by a stabilizing effect on the ScN y layers during growth. It is also shown that by adding a background pressure of as little as 5 × 10-6 Torr of pure N2 the soft x-ray reflectivity (? = 3.11 nm) can be enhanced by more than 100% by N incorporation into the multilayer structures, whereas pure O2 at the same background pressure had no effect.

  • 16.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O.Å
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers2008Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, nr 6, s. 982-990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-structural evolution of layer morphology and interfacial roughness in Cr/Sc metal multilayers grown with ion assistance during magnetron sputter deposition has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and hard X-ray reflectivity. Calculations based on a binary collision model predict an ion-assisted growth window for optimized Cr/Sc multilayer interface sharpness, within the ion energy range of 21 eV to 37 eV and an ion flux of 10 ions per deposited atom. Multilayers with nominal modulation periods in the range of 1.6 nm to 10.2 nm, grown with these conditions, exhibit a well-defined layer structure with an improved flattening and abruptness of the interfaces. It is shown that multilayers with a modulation period smaller than 3.4 nm have clear benefit from the reduced intermixing obtained by utilizing a two-stage ion energy modulation for each individual layer. The amorphization of Sc and Cr layers, below certain thicknesses, is found to be independent of the low energy ion-assistance. It is also shown that the Cr/Sc multilayers, containing periods less than 2 nm are ‘self healing’ i.e. they re-gain abrupt interfaces and flat layers after morphological disturbances during ion assisted growth. In comparison, multilayers grown without ion-assistance exhibited severe roughness and layer distortions.

  • 17.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Department of Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York.
    Schäfers, Franz
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Interface engineered ultra-short period Cr/Ti multilayers as high reflectance mirrors and polarizers for soft X-rays of lambda=2.74 nm wavelength2006Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 137-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr-Ti multilayers with ultrashort periods of 1.39-2.04 nm have been grown for the first time as highly reflective, soft-x-ray multilayer, near-normal incidence mirrors for transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation x-ray sources based on the Ti-2p absorption edge at E = 452eV (lambda = 2.74 nm). Hard, as well as soft, x-ay reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanostructure of the mirrors. To achieve minimal accumulated roughness, improved interface flatness, and to avoid intermixing at the interfaces, each individual layer was engineered by use of a two-stage ion assistance process during magnetron sputter deposition: The first 0.3 nm of each Ti and Cr layer was grown without ion assistance, and the remaining 0.39-0.72 nm of the layers were grown with high ion-neutral flux ratios Phi˙(PhiTi = 3.3, PhiCr = 2.2) and a low energy Eion (ETi = 23.7 and ECr = 21.2), ion assistance. A maximum soft-x-ray reflectivity of R = 2.1% at near-normal incidence (~78.8°) was achieved for a multilayer mirror containing 100 bilayers with a modulation period of 1.379 nm and a layer thickness ratio of Gamma = 0.5. For a polarizing multilayer mirror with 150 bilayers designed for operation at the Brewster angle, 45°, an extinction ratio, Rs/Rp, of 266 was achieved with an absolute reflectivity of R = 4.3%.

  • 18.
    Hertz, H M
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Johansson, G A
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Stollberg, H
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    de Groot, J
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Hemberg, O
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Holmberg, A
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Rehbein, S
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Jansson, P
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Table-top X-ray microscopy: Sources, optics and applications2003Inngår i: Journal de Physique IV: Colloque, ISSN 1155-4339, E-ISSN 1764-7177, Vol. 104, s. 115-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed the first operative compact sub-visible-resolution x-ray microscope for the water-window region (lambda = 2.3 - 4.4 nm). The microscope is based on a 100 Hz liquid-jet-target laser-plasma x-ray source, normal-incidence multilayer condenser optics, diffractive zone plate optics and CCD detection. In the present article we emphasize the systems aspects and summarize the recent progress on the components, all aiming at the reduction of the exposure time of a few seconds, i.e., similar to bending-magnet based microscopes. This primarily includes improved laser-plasma source, improved condenser optics using Cr/Sc multilayers, and improved image handling capability using wavelet algorithms. Such compact short-exposure time microscopes would significantly increase the applicability of the technology.

  • 19.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reactive sputtering of delta-ZrH2 thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering2014Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 041510-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H-2 plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of similar to 0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase delta-ZrH2 (CaF2 type structure) at H content greater thansimilar to 55 at.% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5-7 GPa for the delta-ZrH2 films that is slightly harder than the similar to 5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12-0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4-0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure delta-ZrH2 films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of similar to 100-120 mu Omega cm for the delta-ZrH2 films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70-80 mu Omega cm.

  • 20.
    Johansson, G.A.
    et al.
    Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, M.
    Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hertz, H.M.
    Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Compact soft x-ray reflectometer based on a line-emitting laser-plasma source2001Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 72, nr 1 I, s. 58-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a compact soft x-ray reflectometer for in-house characterization of water-window multilayer optics. The instrument is based on a line-emitting, liquid-jet, laser-plasma source in combination with angular scanning of the studied multilayer optics. With a proper choice of target liquid and thin-film filters, one or a few lines of well-defined wavelength dominate the spectrum and multilayer periods are measured with an accuracy of 0.003 nm using a multi-line calibration procedure. Absolute reflectivity may also be estimated with the instrument. The typical measurement time is currently 10 min. Although the principles of the reflectometer may be used in the entire soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet range, the current instrument is primarily directed towards normal-incidence multilayer optics for water-window x-ray microscopy, and is thus demonstrated on W/B4C multilayers for this wavelength range. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 21.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sun, Bo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore.
    Kan Koh, Yee
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, Singapore.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Dept. of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Denmark.
    Balke, Benjamin
    Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Cr1-xScxN Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, nr 21, artikkel-id 215103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the trends in mixing thermodynamics of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions in the cubic B1 structure and their electronic density of state by first-principle calculations, and thin-film synthesis of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. Films with the composition Cr0.92Sc0.08N exhibit a thermoelectric power factor of about 8x10-4 Wm-1K-2at 770 K, similar to CrN. The results show that the disordered Cr1-xScxN solid solutions is thermodynamically stable in B1 solid solutions at T = 800°C rather than in the B1- L11 ordered solid solutions stable at 0 K. The calculated electronic density of state (DOS) indicates a positive bowing parameter for the electronic band gap of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions. The calculated DOS suggest possible improvement of power factor due to Sc 3d orbital delocalization on Cr 3d orbital gives decreasing electrical resistivity with retained Seebeck coefficient in Cr-rich regime, consistent with the experimentally observed high power factor for the solid solution.

  • 22.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bonding Structures of ZrHx Thin Films by X-ray Spectroscopy2017Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, s. 25750-25758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The variation in local atomic structure and chemical bonding of ZrHx (x=0.15, 0.30, 1.16) magnetron sputtered thin films are investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies. A chemical shift of the Zr K-edge towards higher energy with increasing hydrogen content is observed due to charge-transfer and an ionic or polar covalent bonding component between the Zr 4d and the H 1s states with increasing valency for Zr. We find an increase in the Zr-Zr bond distance with increasing hydrogen content from 3.160 Å in the hexagonal closest-packed metal (a-phase) to 3.395 Å in the understoichiometric d-ZrHx film (CaF2-type structure) with x=1.16 that largely resembles that of bulk d-ZrH2. For yet lower hydrogen contents, the structures are mixed a- and d-phases, while sufficient hydrogen loading (x>1) yields a pure δ-phase that is understoichiometric, but thermodynamically stable. The change in the hydrogen content and strain is discussed in relation to the corresponding change of bond lengths, hybridizations, and trends in electrical resistivity.

  • 23.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electronic Structure of ß-Ta Films from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and First-principles Calculations2019Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 470, s. 607-612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of ß-Ta synthesized as a thin 001-oriented film (space group P 21m) is investigated by 4f core level and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to α-Ta bulk. For the b-phase, the 4f7/2 peak is located at 21.91 eV and with the 4f5/2 at 23.81 eV which is 0.16 eV higher compared to the corresponding 4f peaks of the a-Ta reference. We suggest that this chemical shift originates from higher resistivity and tensile strain in the ß-Ta film. Furthermore, the 5d-5s states at the bottom of the valence band are shifted by 0.75 eV towards higher binding energy in ß-Ta compared to α-Ta. This is a consequence of the lower number of nearest neighbors with four in ß-Ta compared to eight in the α-Ta phase. The difference in the electronic structures, spectral line shapes of the valence band and the energy positions of the Ta 4f, 5p core-levels of b-Ta versus a-Ta are discussed in relation to calculated states of ß-Ta and α-Ta. In particular, the lower number of states at the Fermi level of ß-Ta (0.557 states/eV/atom) versus α-Ta (1.032 states/eV/atom) that according to Mott’s law should decrease the conductivity in metals and affect the stability by charge redistribution in the valence band. This is experimentally supported from resistivity measurements of the film yielding a value of ~170 µW cm in comparison to α-Ta bulk with a reported value of ~13.1 µW cm.

  • 24.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere2019Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, artikkel-id 137384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    W-B-C films were deposited on Si(100) substrates held at elevated temperature by reactive sputtering from a W target in Kr/trimethylboron (TMB) plasmas. Quantitative analysis by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the films are W-rich between ~ 73 and ~ 93 at.% W. The highest metal content is detected in the film deposited with 1 sccm TMB. The C and B concentrations increase with increasing TMB flow to a maximum of ~18 and ~7 at.%, respectively, while the O content remains nearly constant at 2-3 at.%. Chemical bonding structure analysis performed after samples sputter-cleaning reveals C-W and B-W bonding and no detectable W-O bonds. During film growth with 5 sccm TMB and 500 o C or with 10 sccm TMB and 300-600 o C thin film X-ray diffraction shows the formation of cubic 100-oriented WC1-x with a possible solid solution of B. Lower flows and lower growth temperatures favor growth of W and W2C, respectively. Depositions at 700 and 800 o C result in the formation of WSi2 due to a reaction with the substrate. At 900 o C, XPS analysis shows ~96 at.% Si in the film due to Si interdiffusion. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal a fine-grained microstructure for the deposited WC1-x films. Nanoindentation gives hardness values in the range from ~23 to ~31 GPa and reduced elastic moduli between ~220 and 280 GPa in the films deposited at temperatures lower than 600 o C. At higher growth temperatures the hardness decreases by a factor of 3 to 4 following the formation of WSi2 at 700-800 o C and Si-rich surface at 900 o C.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-06-22 08:00
  • 25.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2019Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, nr 2, artikkel-id 021506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films2016Inngår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 232-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered thin films of Al/Cu/Fe have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and annealed into the quasicrystalline or approximant phases, for Al2O3 or Si substrates, respectively. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties; hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, have been measured using a triboindenter and analytical methods. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, <0.1 MPa/m½, was however inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. The friction coefficients were measured in a range of 0.10-0.14 for the quasicrystalline and approximant thin films.

  • 27.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin filmsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al-Cu-Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on samples up to 710 °C. It is found that when using Si as substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 °C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the α-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 °C over the quasicrystalline ψ-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films2012Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on the samples up to 710 degrees C. It is found that when using Si as a substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 degrees C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the alpha-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 degrees C over the quasicrystalline psi-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure and Composition of Approximant Thin Films Formed by Substrate DiffusionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevented the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si corresponding well to the expected value of the approximant. The amount of Si in the films is found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was continuously decreasing as Si substituted for Al.

  • 30.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure and Composition of Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films Formed by Si Substrate Diffusion2014Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, nr 1, s. 105-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic a-approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevents the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si, which corresponds to the expected value of the a-approximant. The amount of Si in the films was found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the α-approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was found to  continuously decrease as Al became substituted with Si. The film is observed to be polycrystalline with individual grains being strained in varying magnitude, and with no preferential orientation relationship to the substrate or each other.

  • 31.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ion-assisted Growth of Quasicrystalline Cu-Al-Sc Directly from the Vapor Phase2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion assisted depositions have been used to grow the Al38Cu46Sc16 quasicrystalline phase directly from the vapor phase in thin film form. Diffraction experiments reveal that amorphous films are formed at room temperature. The quasicrystalline phase formed at a substrate temperature of 340 °C with an improved quality at higher temperatures up to 460 °C. The quasicrystal film quality is improved by increasing the ion flux during ion-assisted growth with ion energies of 26.7 eV. Increasing the ion energy further was however found to cause resputtering and defects in the film. Electron microscopy reveals a polycrystalline microstructure with crystal grains in the shape of thin needles.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase Evolution of Multilayered Al/Cu/Co Thin Films into Decagonal Al-Cu-Co and Al-Cu-Co-Si Quasicrystalline Phases2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Co thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates and the phase evolution has been investigated. The decagonal d-Al-Cu-Co and d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phases were found to form at 500 °C, and at 600 °C these were the only phases. At increasing temperatures, the quasicrystals grew larger in size, up to 500 nm, although always smaller for the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si, and obtained a texturing with the 10-fold periodic axis aligned with the substrate normal. The d-Al-Cu-Co phase persisted to more than 850 °C, with a complete texturing, while the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phase was replaced by other crystalline phases at 800 °C.

  • 33.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target2016Inngår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 111, s. 166-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) exhibits high hardness and high melting point, which is beneficial for applications in for e.g. metal cutting. However, there is limited data on the mechanical properties of ZrB2 films and no data on epitaxial films. In this study, ZrB2(0001) thin films, with thicknesses up to 1.2 μm, have been deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the films grow epitaxially with two domain types exhibiting different in-plane epitaxial relationships to the substrate. The out-of-plane epitaxial relationship was determined to ZrB2(0001)|Al2O3(0001) and the in-plane relationships of the two domains to ZrB2[100]‖Al2O3[100] and ZrB2[110]‖Al2O3[100]. Mechanical properties of the films, evaluated by nanoindentation, showed that all films exhibit hardness values above 45 GPa, a reduced Young's modulus in the range 350–400 GPa, and a high elastic recovery of 70% at an applied load of 9000 μN.

1 - 33 of 33
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