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  • 1.
    Kuiper, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Details on Packet Level Design for Two Delay-Tolerant Routing Protocols2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to provide the implementation details for work that has been published in a scholarly article and in which space limitation have not allowed the detailed descriptions. In this paper we describe, in detail, the implementation of Location Aware Routing for Opportunistic Delay-tolerant Networks (LAROD) and Spray and Wait as implemented in the ns-2 simulator. Spray and Wait was originally evaluated using a custom simulator where the MAC protocol provided services that were not modeled by packet exchanges.

  • 2.
    Kuiper, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geographic Routing in Intermittently-connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Algorithms and Performance Models2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is a key enabler for cooperation. Thus to support efficient communication humanity has continuously strived to improve the communication infrastructure. This infrastructure has evolved from heralds and ridden couriers to a digital telecommunication infrastructures based on electrical wires, optical fibers and radio links. While the telecommunication infrastructure efficiently transports information all over the world, there are situations when it is not available or operational. In many military operations, and disaster areas, one cannot rely on the telecommunication infrastructure to support communication since it is either broken, or does not exist. To provide communication capability in its absence, ad hoc networking technology can be used to provide a dynamic peer-based communication mechanism. In this thesis we study geographic routing in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (IC-MANETs).

    For routing in IC-MANETs we have developed a beacon-less delay-tolerant geographic routing protocol named LAROD (location aware routing for delay-tolerant networks) and the delay-tolerant location service LoDiS (location dissemination service). To be able to evaluate these protocols in a realistic environment we have used a military reconnaissance mission where unmanned aerial vehicles employ distributed coordination of their monitoring using pheromones. To be able to predict routing performance more efficiently than by the use of simulation, we have developed a mathematical framework that efficiently can predict the routing performance of LAROD-LoDiS. This framework, the forward-wait framework, provides a relationship between delivery probability, distance, and delivery time. Provided with scenario specific data the forward-wait framework can predict the expected scenario packet delivery ratio.

    LAROD-LoDiS has been evaluated in the network simulator ns-2 against Spray and Wait, a leading delay-tolerant routing protocol, and shown to have a competitive edge, both in terms of delivery ratio and overhead. Our evaluations also confirm that the routing performance is heavily influenced by the mobility pattern. This fact stresses the need for representative mobility models when routing protocols are evaluated.

  • 3.
    Kuiper, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobility and Routing in a Delay-tolerant Network of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology has reached a point where it has become feasible to develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), that is aircraft without a human pilot on board. Given that future UAVs can be autonomous and cheap, applications of swarming UAVs are possible. In this thesis we have studied a reconnaissance application using swarming UAVs and how these UAVs can communicate the reconnaissance data. To guide the UAVs in their reconnaissance mission we have proposed a pheromone based mobility model that in a distributed manner guides the UAVs to areas not recently visited. Each UAV has a local pheromone map that it updates based on its reconnaissance scans. The information in the local map is regularly shared with a UAV’s neighbors. Evaluations have shown that the pheromone logic is very good at guiding the UAVs in their cooperative reconnaissance mission in a distributed manner.

    Analyzing the connectivity of the UAVs we found that they were heavily partitioned which meant that contemporaneous communication paths generally were not possible to establish. This means that traditional mobile ad hoc network (MANET) routing protocols like AODV, DSR and GPSR will generally fail. By using node mobility and the store-carry-forward principle of delay-tolerant routing the transfer of messages between nodes is still possible. In this thesis we propose location aware routing for delay-tolerant networks (LAROD). LAROD is a beacon-less geographical routing protocol for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks. Using static destinations we have shown by a comparative study that LAROD has almost as good delivery rate as an epidemic routing scheme, but at a substantially lower overhead.

  • 4.
    Kuiper, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Node density, connectivity and the percolation threshold2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to document a background analysis that has been performed in order to set the parameters for simulation studies used by the author in scholarly published articles. The background information has not been in the published material due to space restrictions, but it may be of interest for a wider audience in the field.

    When evaluating routing protocols and other protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) one factor influencing the result is the node density. To understand what a certain node density means in term of connectivity properties we have by simulation evaluated how well connected a system of randomly placed nodes are for different node densities and network sizes. We have compared these densities to the percolation threshold to understand how much we need to increase the density over the percolation threshold to, with high probability, have a fully connected system provided that the number of nodes are finite. The percolation threshold is the node density above which it is almost surely guaranteed that the largest connected component in an infinite system is of infinite size. Finally we provide a survey of node densities used in some recent MANET and DTN studies.

  • 5.
    Kuiper, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Geographical Routing in Intermittently Connected Ad Hoc Networks2008In: The First IEEE International Workshop on Opportunistic Networking WON-08,2008, IEEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In intermittently connected ad hoc networks standard routing protocols like AODV, DSR and GPSR fail since they generally cannot find a contemporaneous path from source to destination. In this paper we present LAROD, a geographical routing protocol for intermittently connected networks. Combining beacon less geographical routing with store-carry-forward LAROD greedily searches for the shortest way to the destination and when no progress is possible packets are temporarily stored until node mobility has created a new path. In the paper we have shown by a comparative study that LAROD has almost as good delivery rate as an epidemic routing scheme, but at a substantially lower overhead.

  • 6.
    Kuiper, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geographical Routing With Location Service in Intermittently Connected MANETs2011In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0018-9545, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 592-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining mobile platforms such as manned or unmanned vehicles and peer-assisted wireless communication is an enabler for a vast number of applications. A key enabler for the applications is the routing protocol that directs the packets in the network. Routing packets in fully connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has been studied to a great extent, but the assumption on full connectivity is generally not valid in a real system. This case means that a practical routing protocol must handle intermittent connectivity and the absence of end-to-end connections. In this paper, we propose a geographical routing algorithm called location-aware routing for delay-tolerant networks (LAROD), enhanced with a location service, location dissemination service (LoDiS), which together are shown to suit an intermittently connected MANET (IC-MANET). Because location dissemination takes time in IC-MANETs, LAROD is designed to route packets with only partial knowledge of geographic position. To achieve low overhead, LAROD uses a beaconless strategy combined with a position-based resolution of bids when forwarding packets. LoDiS maintains a local database of node locations, which is updated using broadcast gossip combined with routing overhearing. The algorithms are evaluated under a realistic application, i.e., unmanned aerial vehicles deployed in a reconnaissance scenario, using the low-level packet simulator ns-2. The novelty of this paper is the illustration of sound design choices in a realistic application, with holistic choices in routing, location management, and the mobility model. This holistic approach justifies that the choice of maintaining a local database of node locations is both essential and feasible. The LAROD-LoDiS scheme is compared with a leading delay-tolerant routing algorithm (spray and wait) and is shown to have a competitive edge, both in terms of delivery ratio and overhead. For spray and wait, this case involved a new packet-level implementation in ns-2 as opposed to the original connection-level custom simulator.

  • 7.
    Kuiper, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory.
    Mobility Models for Group Reconnaissance Applications2006In: International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications,2006, IEEE Computer Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kuiper, Erik
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Predicting the Performance of Geographic Delay-Tolerant Routing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing large scale physical experiments to evaluate the packet delivery ratio, latency, and resource utilization in mobile ad hoc networks is a costly and difficult exercise. A more cost-effective method of performing trade-off studies in connection with protocol evaluations is simulation. However, simulations are often time consuming and require a detailed description of a given scenario’s mobility and topology. A more general approach for scalability and performance studies is the use of abstract models of behavior in networks of mobile nodes. This paper illustrates the power of such a model by illustrating the prediction capability of the Forward-Wait framework with respect to the routing performance of geographic delay-tolerant routing. The Forward-Wait mathematical framework describes packet movements as a sequence of alternating forwarding and waiting phases. Key input parameters to the Forward-Wait framework are distributions describing the forwarding and waiting phases, and the source destination distance. The paper shows how these distributions can be derived and used to predict the routing performance in different scenarios and a variety of network sizes.

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