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  • 1.
    Adams, David A.
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, USA.
    Walck, Jeffery L.
    Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, USA.
    Howard, R. Stephen
    Department of Biology, Middle Tennessee State University, USA.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forest Composition and Structure onGlade-forming Limestones in Middle Tennessee2012In: Castanea, ISSN 0008-7475, Vol. 77, no 4, 335-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a successional context, the vegetation associated with the cedar gladeecosystem in middle Tennessee develops from bare limestone bedrock to subclimax redcedar,preclimax oak-hickory, and climax mixed hardwood forests. Studies on the composition andstructure of forests associated with cedar glade–forming limestones (Lebanon, Ridley) are rare.We sampled the canopy and understory of six forest stands in middle Tennessee on theselimestones. Observed number of canopy species was 14–24 across stands; estimated richnesswas greater by 1–3 species (bootstrap) or 3–6 species (first-order jackknife) than observedrichness. With the exception of Ailanthus altissima in one stand, all other canopy species werenative. Juniperus virginiana, Fraxinus americana, Carya ovata, and Quercus muehlenbergii wereprimary canopy components in 4 or 6 stands, and C. glabra, Q. shumardii, Ulmus alata, F.quadrangulata, Q. alba, and Q. velutina in 2–3 stands. When we included stands from apreviously published study (most on the non-glade Carters Limestone) with our data, aprincipal components analysis identified three groups with the axes approximating a moisturebedrockgradient and a time-successional gradient. An examination of regeneration in ourstands predicts that (1) mesophytes and/or fire-sensitive species (Acer saccharum, Fraxinus spp.,Celtis spp.) will increase and (2) xerophytes and/or fire-adapted species (Quercus spp., Caryaspp.) will decrease. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that the oak-hickory stage shown insuccessional outlines of vegetation development associated with the cedar glade ecosystem maynot occur in its current state in the future.

  • 2. Aguilar, V
    et al.
    Staver, C
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Weed vegetation response to chemical and manual selective ground cover management in a shaded coffee plantation2003In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 43, 68-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Letter regarding article by Kahn et al. "Predictive adaptive responses to maternal high-fat diet prevent endothelial dysfunction but not hypertension in adult rat offspring" (Adaption is not predictive)2005In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 111, 166-166 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Klas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Winde, Inis
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High-accuracy sampling of saproxylic diversity indicators at regionalscales with pheromones: The case of Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Elateridae)2014In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 171, 156-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rare beetle Elater ferrugineus was sampled at 47 sites in the county of Östergötland, Sweden by meansof pheromone-baited traps to assess its value as an indicator species for hollow oak stands rich in raresaproxylic beetle species. In addition, Osmoderma eremita was also sampled with pheromone baits. Thesedata were then compared against species survey data collected at the same sites by pitfall and windowtraps. Both species co-occur with many Red Listed saproxylic beetles, with E. ferrugineus being a somewhatbetter indicator for the rarest species. The conservation value of a site (measured as Red List pointsor number of Red Listed species) increased with the number of specimens of E. ferrugineus and O. eremitacaught. Accuracy of sampling by means of pheromone trapping turned out to be radically different for thetwo model species. E. ferrugineus traps put out during July obtained full accuracy after only 6 days,whereas O. eremita traps needed to be out from early July to mid-August in order to obtain full accuracywith one trap per site. By using E. ferrugineus, or preferably both species, as indicator species, accuracywould increase and costs decrease for saproxylic biodiversity sampling, monitoring and identificationof hotspots.

  • 5. Andersson, L
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Schütz, W
    Steinsmetz, O
    Germination characteristics and emergence time of annual Bromus species of differing weediness in Sweden2002In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 42, 135-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low pre-death growth rates of oak (Quercus robur L.)-Is oak death a long-term process induced by dry years?2011In: ANNALS OF FOREST SCIENCE, ISSN 1286-4560, Vol. 68, no 1, 159-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose A complex interplay between biotic and abiotic factors is believed to be responsible for several oak declines in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). This study aims to clarify the temporal process of oak declines, as well as identifying individual tree and environmental variables that affects growth rate and that may increase the risk of mortality. The study was performed in southern Sweden at three sites. Findings Cross-dating revealed that most trees had died during the last decade and that the growth rates of the dead oaks were affected long before death. Averaged growth chronologies of dead and control trees reaching 150 years back in time illustrated an excellent match up until around 1992, when a severe drought occurred after which the dead trees started to express reduced growth. Precipitation the previous year during August-September and during March-June this current year was of significant importance for oak growth. Site-specific results that showed that dead trees: included fewer small-sized trees, grew on non-clay soils, were more likely to have shelf fungus and cavities and were exposed to less sunshine. Conclusion The results support the theories that oak mortality is a long process that may be induced decades before the actual death.

  • 7. Baskin, CC
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Andersson, L
    Baskin, JM
    Deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Anthriscus sylvestris (Apiaceae)2000In: Flora: Morphologie, Geobotanik, Oekophysiologie, ISSN 0367-2530, E-ISSN 1618-0585, Vol. 195, 245-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Baskin, CC
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Andersson, L
    Baskin, JM
    Germination ecology of seeds of the annual weeds Capsella bursa-pastoris and Descurainia sophia originating from high northern latitudes2004In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 44, 60-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Baskin, CC
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Andersson, L
    Baskin, JM
    Germination studies of three dwarf shrubs (Vaccinium, Ericaceae) of Northern Hemisphere coniferous forests2000In: Canadian Journal of Botany, ISSN 0008-4026, E-ISSN 1480-3305, Vol. 78, 1552-1560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Baskin, CC
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Andersson, L
    Baskin, JM
    Non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the weedy facultative winter annual Papaver rhoeas2002In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 42, 194-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Baskin, CC
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Andersson, L
    Baskin, JM
    Seed dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of Drosera anglica, an insectivorous species of the Northern Hemisphere2001In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seeds of Drosera anglica collected in Sweden were dormant at maturity in late summer, and dormancy break occurred during cold stratification. Stratified seeds required light for germination, but light had to be given after temperatures were high enough to be favorable for germination. Seeds stratified in darkness at 5/1 ░C and incubated in light at 12/12 h daily temperature regimes of 15/6, 20/10 and 25/15 ░C germinated slower and to a significantly lower percentage at each temperature regime than those stratified in light and incubated in light. Length of the stratification period required before seeds would germinate to high percentages depended on (1) whether seeds were in light or in darkness during stratification and during the subsequent incubation period, and (2) the temperature regime during incubation. Seeds collected in 1999 germinated to 4, 24 and 92 % in light at 15/6, 20/10 and 25/15 ░C, respectively, after 2 weeks of stratification in light. Seeds stratified in light for 18 weeks and incubated in light at 15/6, 20/10 and 25/15 ░C germinated to 87, 95 and 100 %, respectively, while those stratified in darkness for 18 weeks and incubated in light germinated to 6, 82 and 91 %, respectively. Seeds collected from the same site in 1998 and 1999, stratified in light at 5/1 ░C and incubated in light at 15/6 ░C germinated to 22 and 87 %, respectively, indicating year-to-year variation in degree of dormancy. As dormancy break occurred, the minimum temperature for germination decreased. Thus, seed dormancy is broken in nature by cold stratification during winter, and by spring, seeds are capable of germinating at low habitat temperatures, if they are exposed to light. ⌐ 2001 ╔ditions scientifiques et mΘdicales Elsevier SAS.

  • 12. Bergfur, J
    et al.
    Carlsson, ALM
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Phenological changes within a growth season in two semi-natural pastures in southern Sweden2004In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 41, no 1, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenological changes within a growth season were investigated in two grazed, semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden. On four occasions during the growth season, two independent observers recorded plant frequency and percentage cover. The vegetation data sets were analysed with ordination methods. The temporal changes were highly significant, but accounted for only a small part of the total variation in the data. Most species had early maxima, regarding both cover and frequency. There were differences in temporal pattern between the two grasslands. In a xeric area, the vegetation underwent a major change sometime in August, between survey-visit three and four. In a mesic area, the vegetation changed throughout the study period but least so during August. Therefore, phenological changes can be manifested in different ways, even within the same geographic region. Species-wise ordination scores highlighted those species whose records might be most affected by phenological patterns, information which is valuable when evaluating data collected in Scandinavian grasslands.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Ask, Lena
    Askling, John
    Ignell, Håkan
    Wahlman, Henrik
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Importance of boreal grasslands in Sweden for butterfly diversity and effects of local and landscape habitat factors2008In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 17, 139-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Askling, J
    Ignell, H
    Ekberg, O
    Wahlman, H
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landscape effects on butterfly assemblages in an agricultural regio2004In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 27, 619-628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Claesson, Kenneth
    County Administration Board of Östergötland, 581 86 Linköping, Sweden.
    Palmer, Michael W.
    Botany Department, Oklahoma State University, 104 LSE Stillwater OK 74078, USA.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Importance of scale and density of hollow oaks for saproxylic oak beetlesManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key aspects in conservation management and in understanding species distributions is how they respond to habitat factors at different scales. Old-growth deciduous forests is severely fragmented in Europe and the most important substrates for saproxylic beetles in this habitat is hollow veteran trees. In this study, we used an extensive field survey data, mapping all large and/or hollow oaks (ca 33,000) in an area of 10,000 km² in south-eastern Sweden. With beetle occurrence data from 38 sites we did a multi-scale analysis of how different beetle species responded to oak density. A total of 16 species responded significant to substrate density from 52 m to 5200 m showing that conclusions made from data measured on a single scale may lead to wrong conclusions. We hypothesized that larger species should respond to larger scales and that both local and landscape scales should be important for several species. We found no evidence for that larger species responded to substrate density at larger scales. However, several species as e.g. Tenebrio opacus, responded to oak density at both small a scale (92 m) and a large scale (859 m). The reason for the importance of two scales is probably that several processes are acting on different time scales and therefore over different spatial scales. Individual oaks may act as static patches in the short term and the small-scale response may reflect the scale of metapopulation dynamics. However, as changes in the densities of old oaks over larger landscapes over several centuries occurs, long-term substrate dynamics are expected to act over larger areas, reflecting the larger scale. The variation in species response to substrate density at different scales means that habitat loss and fragmentation will have different effects upon different species.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Claesson, Kenneth
    County Administration Board of Östergötland, Linköping.
    Palmer, Michael W.
    Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, USA.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How much and at what scale? Multiscale analyses as decision support for conservation of saproxylic oak beetles2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 265, 133-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key aspect for understanding species distributions is how they respond to habitat factors at different spatial scales. In this study we used a dataset mapping 33,000 large/hollow oaks, habitat for a guild of saproxylic beetles specialised on oaks at an extent of 10,000 km2. A total of 16 oak-dependent saproxylic species, out of 35, showed a clear relationship with substrate density at scales ranging from 52 m to ⩾5200 m. The characteristic scale of response for species richness of oak specialist species was 2284 m. At this scale, there was a tendency for richness to plateau at about 0.15 oaks ha−1, in which case about 250 hollow or large (circumference 310 cm) oaks would be needed in an area of 1600 ha to ensure a rich saproxylic oak fauna.

    The main general conclusions were: (i) a multi-scale approach is especially valuable to identify the characteristic scale of response; and that assuming a joint, single scale for all species may result in very poor decision support. (ii) The variation in species’ responses to substrate density at different scales means that habitat loss and fragmentation as well as management and restoration may have very different effects upon different species. (iii) Some species respond both to local and landscape scales, indicating that species occurrences in fragmented oak landscapes are affected both by short-term dynamics of the beetles and long term dynamics of the oak substrate. (iv) Maps, useful as decision support, can be constructed based on resource availability (in our case oak density) and characteristic scales.

  • 17.
    Bergner, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avci, Mustafa
    Faculty of Forestry, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.
    Eryigit, Hasan
    Isparta Province Forest District Directorate, Isparta, Turkey.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influences of forest type and habitat structure on bird assemblagesof oak (Quercus spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) stands in southwesternTurkey2015In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 336, 137-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediterranean basin exhibits a multitude of forest habitats affected by former and current exploitation and management. Recent afforestation programs have resulted in an increase in the proportion of coniferous trees, while oak stands, formerly utilized for coppicing and grazing, are abandoned or converted into coniferous plantations. The loss of oak stands might negatively affect birds dependent upon broadleaved forests. Studies confirming or rejecting that statement are scarce, particularly in the eastern part of the region. Using a study area in southwestern Turkey we applied a guild-based approach to investigate how pine and oak stands across a chronosequence differ in their capacity to support forest bird assemblages. Variables describing the vegetation were sampled to characterize the stands and relate bird assemblages to stand structure. Bird abundance and species richness was positively associated with age for both stand types. Richness and diversity was highest in oak stands, while there were no differences in bird abundance between the two forest types. Pine stands supported a different bird species composition compared to oak stands of the same age. Stand age and structure, rather than forest type, held the highest explanatory powers for bird assembly structure. Primary cavity-nesters and ground-nesters were more abundant in oak stands, possibly reflecting differences in stand structure and resource distribution. To support these birds with suitable habitats, oaks stands need conservation. Management practices in pine stands should strive for increasing the amount of old trees and retain vegetation in the understory to benefit breeding birds.

  • 18.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Axelsson, Anna-Lena
    SLU Umeå.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Lönander, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Törnqvist, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förändringar i Eklandskapet 1927 till 2013: i den första riksskogstaxeringens fotspår2017In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 111, no 6, 331-343 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transects covering 90 km inan area south of Linköping in the province of Östergötland, SE Sweden, were relocated and reinventoried in 2013 using the same methodology as in the first national forest inventory of 1927. Data for land-use, forest type and species-specific tree sizes were obtained and compared with values from 1927. The results show that arable fields and pastures have decreased, while forests and areas covered by roads etc. have increased considerably. Picea abies has increased more than Pinus sylvestris. The reasons for the changes are discussed.

  • 19.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hagner, M.
    Milberg, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Composition of vegetation after a modified harvesting and propagation method compared with conventional clear-cutting, scarification and planting: evaluation 14 years after logging2008In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, Vol. 11, no 2, 159-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: How does the vegetation of boreal forests respond to harvesting and scarification?

    Location: 650 m a.s.l., central Sweden (61°38' N).

    Methods: The response of boreal forest vegetation to cutting and scarification was studied in a field trial, which consisted of three treatments plus conventional harvesting as a control in a complete block design with four replicates. The cutting was done 14 years prior to vegetation inventory and scarification and planting were conducted the first or second years after cutting.

    Results: The species most abundant at higher cutting intensities were crustose lichens, Cladonia spp., Cladina arbuscula, Polytrichum spp. and pioneer mosses, the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, and the tree Betula pubescens, A few species had substantially lower abundance in treatments with higher cutting intensity, notably Hylocomium splendens and Vaccinium myrtillus. Scarification had a strong effect that was different from the one created by cutting. In scarification treatments, Polytrichum spp. were the only species with high abundance; most species had low abundance, i.e. Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pleurozium schreberi, Carex globularis, Empetrum nigrum, Cladina arbuscula, Sphagnum spp.

    Conclusions: Our results elaborate on the details of the well-known effect of cutting on ground-layer flora, and also give support for the profound and long-lasting effect that soil scarification has on forest vegetation.

  • 20.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The impact of logging intensity on field-layer vegetation in Swedish boreal forests2001In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 154, no 1-2, 105-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between logging intensity and changes in ground cover vegetation was studied in 16 species and groups of species recorded at 10- or 11-year intervals in mature conifer-dominated forests. The 789 plots located in northern and central Sweden had been surveyed by the National Forest Inventory and the National Survey of Forest Soil and Vegetation. Thirty-seven percent of the plots had been subjected to a thinning or clear-cutting between the inventories. A principal components analysis showed that, of the variables considered, logging intensity had the highest explanatory power regarding change in ground cover vegetation between the inventories (the other variables were sum of temperatures, age of stand, timber volume, percentage Pinus sylvestris and site productivity). A multivariate direct gradient analysis technique (Redundancy analysis) showed that the logging intensity significantly affected the change in cover. This analysis also ranked the species in their responsiveness to logging. Epilobium angustifolium, narrow-leaved grasses and broad-leaved grasses, increased most with logging intensity. The response was not linear and only detectable at high logging intensities (>80%). In contrast, Vaccinium myrtillus seemed to decrease linearly with increased logging intensity. There was several years time-lag in the response to logging of E. angustifolium, V. myrtillus and narrow-leaved grasses. Several species and groups of species seemed unaffected by the logging. In sample plots unaffected by logging the cover of most species decreased.

  • 21.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    The impact of logging on species richness and turnover of field layer species in Swedish boreal forests2008In: Open environmental & biological monitoring journal, ISSN 1875-0400, Vol. 1, 48-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     On two occasions, with a 10- or 11-year interval, species occurring in 650 plots (100 m2) in boreal production forests in Sweden were recorded within a monitoring program. During this interval, many of the plots had been subjected to varying degrees of timber extraction. The presence of 49 vascular plant species or species groups was recorded and we evaluated how species number varied over time. There was an overall increase in species number, probably partly reflecting changing attitudes and strategies for fieldwork. Logging had a modest, but significant positive effect on the change in species number per plot. When analysing individual species, three of 18 showed a differential response along the logging gradient: Linnea borealis was more likely to appear at low logging intensities while the opposite pattern was present in Epilobium angustifolium and Calluna vulgaris. A species turnover index was calculated per plot and used as the dependent variable in a multiple regression with six independent variables. Three of these contributed significantly to the model: turnover increased (i) with decreasing amounts of Pinus sylvestris in the tree canopy; (ii) with increasing site productivity; and (iii) with increasing logging intensity. Hence, greatest changes over time occurred in stands lacking P. sylvestris (consequently dominated by Picea abies) that occurred on fertile soil, and was amplified by logging.

  • 22.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In the eye of the beholder: bias and stochastic variation in cover estimates2009In: PLANT ECOLOGY, ISSN 1385-0237, Vol. 204, no 2, 271-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cover estimates by eye is a prevailing method to assess abundance. We examined cover estimates with regard to bias and random variation. Ten observers working with a national forest vegetation survey estimated sixteen 100 m(2)-plots, placed in two different vegetation types. These had similar species composition but were clearly distinguishable in the field. In species-wise analyses, observer bias varied greatly, with Dicranum spp., Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus having the largest bias. Experience had a surprisingly small impact on variation. Power analysis revealed only small differences between observers in the ability to distinguish the two vegetation types, and little value in averaging the assessments from two, three or four observers. Cover estimates did better than presence/absence data in separating the two vegetation types and multivariate analyses were more powerful than univariate ones.

  • 23.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 24.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Jesper
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Englund, Jan-Eric
    Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diluting the evidence? How residence time analyses can influence your resultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic tracer studies are frequently used to estimate wetland residence time distributions (RTDs) and ultimately pollutant removal. However, there is no consensus on how to analyse these data. We set out to (i) review the different methods used and (ii) use simulations to explore how the data analysis method influences the quantification of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal. The results showed that the method influences the water dispersion (N) most strongly and the removal least strongly. The influence increased with decreasing effective volume ratio (e) and N, indicating a greater effect of the method in wetlands with low effective volume and high dispersion. The method of moments with RTD truncation at 3 times the theoretical residence time (tn) and tracer background concentration  produced the most dissimilar parameters. The most similar parameters values were those for gamma modelling and the method of moments with RTD truncation at tracer background concentration. For correct removal estimates, e was more important than N. However, the results from the literature review and simulations indicated that previously published articles may contain overestimated e and underestimated N values as a result of frequent RTD truncations at 3tn when using the method of moments. As a result, the removal rates may also be overestimated by as much as 14% compared to other truncation methods or modelling. Thus, it is recommended that wetland hydraulic tracer studies should use the same method, specifically, RTD truncation. We conclude that the choice of tracer data analysis method can greatly influence the quantifications of wetland hydraulics and removal rate.

  • 25.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Englund, Jan-Eric
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of residence time analyses on estimates of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 501, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic tracer studies are frequently used to estimate wetland residence time distributions (RTDs) and ultimately pollutant removal. However, there is no consensus on how to analyse these data. We set out to (i) review the different methods used and (ii) use simulations to explore how the data analysis method influences the quantification of wetland hydraulics and pollutant removal. The results showed that the method influences the water dispersion (N) most strongly and the removal least strongly. The influence increased with decreasing effective volume ratio (e) and N, indicating a greater effect of the method in wetlands with low effective volume and high dispersion. The method of moments with RTD truncation at 3 times the theoretical residence time (t(n)) and tracer background concentration produced the most dissimilar parameters. The most similar parameters values were those for gamma modelling and the method of moments with RTD truncation at tracer background concentration. For correct removal estimates, e was more important than N. However, the results from the literature review and simulations indicated that previously published articles may contain overestimated e and underestimated N values as a result of frequent RTD truncations at 3t(n), when using the method of moments. As a result, the removal rates may also be overestimated by as much as 14% compared to other truncation methods or modelling. Thus, it is recommended that wetland hydraulic tracer studies should use the same method, specifically, RTD truncation. We conclude that the choice of tracer data analysis method can greatly influence the quantifications of wetland hydraulics and removal rate.

  • 26. Boström, U
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Fogelfors, H
    Yield loss in spring-sown cereals related to the weed flora in the spring2003In: Weed science, ISSN 0043-1745, E-ISSN 1550-2759, Vol. 51, no 3, 418-424 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield loss was related to weed species composition and density in permanent plots, recorded several weeks after sowing of spring cereals in southern Sweden. A range of agronomic situations was included by experimentally varying fertilizer application and sowing density in 33 field trials in different locations during 3 yr. Direct gradient analysis, using yield loss as the sole predictor, arranged weed community composition in the spring along a gradient of small to large yield losses. Yield loss could be explained, to some extent, by the species composition in the spring. Species associated with situations with large losses were hempnettle and wild radish, whereas several benign species were identified based on their association with lack of yield loss. The results suggest that possible predictive tools using spring species composition would be improved if they also considered soil type and seed rate. Some agronomically important weed species were not identified as associated with yield loss when assessed in terms of their abundance in the spring, which may limit the possibilities of basing management decisions on weed plant density in the spring.

  • 27. Carlsson, A.L.M.
    et al.
    Bergfur, J.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Comparison of data from two vegetation monitoring methods in semi-natural grasslands2005In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, no 100, 235-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, 393-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

  • 29. Einarsson, A
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Species richness and distribution in relation to light in wooded meadows and pastures in southern Sweden1999In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 36, 99-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Ekstam, B
    et al.
    Johannesson, R
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    The effect of light and number of diurnal temperature fluctuations on germination of Phragmites australis1999In: Seed Science Research, ISSN 0960-2585, E-ISSN 1475-2735, Vol. 9, 165-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Espeby, Lin Å.
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjödal, Sara
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Variation in Elymus repens susceptibility to glyphosate2014In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 64, no 3, 211-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous increase in glyphosate use in Sweden has caused concern about resistance development, not least inconnection with the possible introduction of crops resistant to glyphosate. In Sweden, the main weed targetedby glyphosate is Elymus repens (L.) Gould. We sampled 69 clones of E. repens to assess the magnitude andgeographical distribution of variation in susceptibility to glyphosate. Clones originated from four habitat types:intensively and extensively used arable lands, field vicinities and other habitats, including natural vegetation.Susceptibility varied greatly among clones with GR50 (50% of untreated growth reduction) spanning over atleast one order of magnitude, 17–278 active ingredient ha−1 in a pot experiment setting. There was a strongcovariance between geographic and genetic distance, but there was no evidence of geographic or geneticdifferentiation in GR50. Nor did GR50 vary consistently between habitat types. We conclude that no indicationof past selection was found towards the resistance to glyphosate in E. repens clones in Sweden. The greatvariability in susceptibility suggests that there might be a potential for such selection.

  • 32.
    Espeby, Liv A
    et al.
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Fogelfors, Hakan
    Swedish University Agriculture Science.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Susceptibility variation to new and established herbicides: Examples of inter-population sensitivity of grass weeds2011In: CROP PROTECTION, ISSN 0261-2194, Vol. 30, no 4, 429-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to describe the intra-specific variation in herbicide response of weed populations when subjected to new vs. well-established herbicides, and to assess distributions of logLD(50)- and logGR(50)-estimates as a potential indicator for early resistance detection. Seeds of two grass weeds (Alopecurus myosuroides, Apera spica-venti) were collected in southern Sweden, mainly in 2002. In line with the objectives of the study, the collections sites were not chosen for noted herbicide failures nor for detected herbicide resistance, but solely for the presence of the target species. For each species, seedlings were subjected to two herbicides in dose-response experiments in a greenhouse. One herbicide per species was recently introduced and the other had been on the market for control of the species for a decade, with several reports of resistance in the literature. Fresh weight of plants and a visual vigour score were used to estimate GR(50) and LD50, respectively. Resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in A. myosuroides was indicated by the LD50-estimates to be present in frequencies sufficient to affect the population-level response in 9 of 29 samples, and was correlated to response to flupyrsulfuron, while low susceptibility to isoproturon in A. spica-venti populations was not linked to the response to sulfosulfuron. In the study as a whole, the magnitude of the estimated herbicide susceptibility ranges differed irrespective of previous exposure. No consistent differences were found in the distribution of LD50-estimates for new and "old" herbicides, and normality in the distribution of estimates could not be assumed for a non-exposed sample, even in the absence of an indication of cross-resistance.

  • 33.
    Florentine, SK
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Victoria 3350, Australia.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. per.milberg@liu.se.
    di Stefani, Julian
    Department of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, University of Melbourne, 4 Water St Creswick, Victoria 3363, Australia.
    Westbrooke, Martin
    Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Victoria 3350, Australia.
    Graz, Patrick
    Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Victoria 3350, Australia.
    Decade-long response of arid-land mallee vegetation to fire, flooding and grazing in south-eastern Australia2015In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 121, 7-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Australian arid vegetation has evolved within highly variable environments characterised by low rainfall and sporadic fire events. Episodic high rainfall events are a significant factor in plant species recruitment, but their unpredictability makes them difficult to study. We report on the response of vascular plants to a major rainfall event and flood in an arid region of south-eastern Australia. Fire that occurred two months before the flood was incorporated into the study. Paired fenced and unfenced plots were established at control locations and also in areas that had been either flooded, burnt, or flooded and burnt. Objectives were to quantify the long-term effects of fire, flood and vertebrate herbivory, and their interactions, on vegetation composition, plant life forms and species diversity. We found that relative to controls (i) there was a significant effect of flooding on vegetation composition, (ii) changes in life form abundance were driven by flooding and grazing, (iii) there was a strong positive relationship between grazer exclusion and species diversity that was maintained over time and (iv) there was little effect of fire. Understanding the long-term effects of both natural disturbances and vertebrate herbivory will benefit plant conservation in the arid zone.

  • 34. Florentine, SK
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology.
    Gibson, M
    Westbrook, M
    Post-wildfire seedling colonisation patterns in a Eucalyptus delegatensis (Myrtaceae) windthrow site at Snowy River National Park, Victoria2008In: Australian Forestry, ISSN 0004-9158, Vol. 71, no 1, 48-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During June 1998, a severe windstorm caused significant damage to a sub-alpine stand of Eucalyptus delegatensis (Myrtaceae) at the Snowy River National Park. In 2002, about 4.5 y after the windstorm, a study documented the effects on E. delegatensis and early understorey succession. In February 2003, wildfire burnt across the windthrow site and we examined the seedling recruitment patterns at windthrow-burn and burn-only sites. Our aim was to document the regeneration of the canopy-dominant E. delegatensis and to confirm that Acacia dealbata is a pioneer species that potentially interferes with or prevents regeneration of E. delegatensis. Permanent transects were established within the windthrow-burn and burn-only sites. The data suggest that the heavily disturbed (mounded) soil at the windthrow site had a strong positive influence on regeneration of both species. By providing favourable growing conditions, the disturbed soil appears to have assisted seedling survival and subsequent growth of the E. delegatensis, despite competition from dense, concurrently established A. dealbata.

  • 35.
    Friedrichsen, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care. Vrinnevi Hospital, Sweden.
    Hajradinovic, Yvonne
    Vrinnevi Hospital, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Vrinnevi Hospital, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Norrköping. Vrinnevi Hospital, Sweden.
    Palliative care consultation team on acute wards-an intervention study with pre-post comparisons2017In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 25, no 2, 371-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is little evidence regarding primary healthcare team members perceptions concerning palliative care consultation team (PCCT) and palliative care (PC) issues on their own wards. This study aimed to study whether a PCCT can influence and change primary healthcare team members perceptions regarding the palliative care at the end of life they are providing to patients in their own acute wards. The intervention was a PCCT visiting surgical and internal medicine wards in 1 year. We used a quasi-experimental design with pre-post-testing, measuring at baseline, and after 1 years intervention. A questionnaire was answered by all primary healthcare team members in three acute wards. A total of 252 team members (pre-post-intervention n = 132/n = 120) participated in the study. Overall, 11 of the 12 statements scored significantly higher after the intervention than before. Responses varied significantly between different professions and depending on the number of dying patients cared for during the last month. The five with the highest Wald values were as follows: the presence of a break point dialogue with a patient, where the changed aim and focus of care was discussed; early detection of impending death; adequate symptom relief and psychological and existential issues. It is possible to change perceptions about end-of-life care in primary healthcare team members on acute wards. Palliative care consultation teams should be a natural part wherever dying patients are cared for.

  • 36.
    Goug, Leonie A.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Aas NO-1432, Norway, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, United Kingdom.
    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Aas NO-1432, Norway.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilskog, Hanne E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Aas NO-1432, Norway.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsell, Mats
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, Uppsala SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Birkemoe, Tone
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Aas NO-1432, Norway.
    Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists2015In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 23, 5632-5641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient trees are considered one of the most important habitats for biodiversityin Europe and North America. They support exceptional numbers of specializedspecies, including a range of rare and endangered wood-living insects. In thisstudy, we use a dataset of 105 sites spanning a climatic gradient along the oakrange of Norway and Sweden to investigate the importance of temperature andprecipitation on beetle species richness in ancient, hollow oak trees. We expectedthat increased summer temperature would positively influence all wood-livingbeetle species whereas precipitation would be less important with a negligible ornegative impact. Surprisingly, only oak-specialist beetles with a northern distributionincreased in species richness with temperature. Few specialist beetles and nogeneralist beetles responded to the rise of 4°C in summer as covered by our climaticgradient. The negative effect of precipitation affected more specialist speciesthan did temperature, whereas the generalists remained unaffected. In summary,we suggest that increased summer temperature is likely to benefit a few specialistbeetles within this dead wood community, but a larger number of specialists arelikely to decline due to increased precipitation. In addition, generalist species willremain unaffected. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on this importantcommunity, long-term management plans for ancient trees are important.

  • 37. Gustafsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Changes in the abundance of Lobaria pulmonaria in southeastern2008In: Graphis Scripta, ISSN 0901-7593, Vol. 20, 44-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In a follow-up study on the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in the province of Östergötland in south-eastern Sweden, 26 local populations were investigated in an attempt to assess and quantify changes in the local abundance and distribution of the lichen. Descriptive data on the lichen and substrate trees collected in 2007 were compared to corresponding data from 1994. There was a clear increase in the number of trees with L. pulmonaria and an indication of an increase in total amount (dm2) of the lichen. A surprisingly high turnover was indicated based on permanently marked L. pulmonaria. The species seems to be increasing in the region.

  • 38. Hallgren, E
    et al.
    Palmer, MW
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Data diving with crossvalidation: an investigation of broad-scale gradients in Swedish weed communities1999In: Journal of ecology., Vol. 87, 1037-1051 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 39.
    Ibbe, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tunér, Albert
    Department of Crop Production Exology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    History matters: impact of historical land use on butterfly diversity in clear-cuts in a boreal landscape2011In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 261, no 11, 1885-1891 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish boreal landscapes, the loss of species-rich semi-natural grasslands is largely due to a longhistory of agricultural abandonment. Large areas historically managed as meadows have become matureconiferous forest. This study focused on the potential biological legacy following a long period of grasslandabandonment. The butterfly fauna in clear-cuts which was historically meadows and abandoned longenough to allow a generation of conifers to mature (70–90 years) was compared with clear-cuts whichwere historically coniferous forest. The results showed that clear-cuts historically managed as meadowswere: (i) much richer in individuals, (ii) more species-rich, and (iii) contained many more grasslandspecialists than clear-cuts with a history as forest, with many of these species threatened in other partsof Europe.The results from our study demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that the legacy of historicalland-use in remnant plant communities can affect butterfly diversity in clear-cuts and hence the largescaledynamics over a timescale of a full tree rotation. The results of this study have implications for forestmanagement practices. Replanting clear-cuts on land that was previously meadows with deciduous treesor allowing the forest to regenerate naturally instead of planting conifers would make it possible topreserve a greater diversity of habitats for butterflies and other organisms.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsell, Mats
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An indicator system for identification of sites of high conservation value for saproxylic oak (Quercus spp.) beetles in southern Sweden2009In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 13, no 4, 399-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The saproxylic beetle fauna on old oaks was sampled in four regions of southern Sweden using two methods: window and pitfall trapping. The aim was to test a way of finding indicator species which can be used to identify sites with high species number or that scored high on a conservation priority species index, based on occurrence of red-listed species. From 92 sites surveyed, in total 164 species of saproxylic beetles were identified. Different sets of indicator species were selected based upon 22 sites from a centrally located region. Predictions of species number and the index for 30 other sites from the same province were made. The correlation between observed and predicted species number and the index increased with increasing number of indicators. When comparing different treatment of species indata, the explanatory power of predictions was strongest for presence/absence data. Indicator sets of species effectively caught with pitfall traps gave overall the best predictions of both species number and the index. Predictions of species number and the index worked well within the same regions but gave varied result for the three other regions which shows that transferability of indicators between regions may be doubtful.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boxes mimicking tree hollows can help conservation of saproxylic beetles2009In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old hollow trees have declined in Europe and many saproxylic (i.e. wood-dwelling) invertebrates living on them are threatened. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent artificial habitats can be exploited by saproxylic beetles. To mimic the conditions in tree hollows, we constructed wooden boxes filled with different combinations of substrates like oak saw dust, oak leaves, dead hen (Gallus domesticus), chicken dung, lucerne flour or potatoes and placed them on tree trunks. To investigate the importance of distance from dispersal sources, we placed boxes at different distances (0 to 1800 m) from three species-rich sites with high densities of hollow oaks. Over three years, 3423 specimens of 105 saproxylic beetle species were caught in 47 boxes. Among beetles found in hollow oaks that were either tree-hollow species, nest species, or wood rot species, 70 % were also found in the boxes. A dead hen added to the artificial wood mould gave a higher number of beetle specimens. The number of species associated with tree hollows in oak decreased with distance from sites with hollow oaks. In conclusion, the prospects for using artificial environments for boosting substrate availability, or to fill spatial and temporal gaps therein, for saproxylic beetles are good.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tree and site quality preferences of six epiphytic lichens growing on oaks in southeastern Sweden2009In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 46, no 6, 496-506 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oaks (Quercus robur) can reach a considerable age, which makes them an important substrate for many epiphytic lichens, including several red-listed species. We studied the importance of tree size and other environmental factors for the occurrence of six epiphytic lichens at two sites, in southeastern Sweden, differing in quality as judged by tree size distribution and number of old trees. The effects of tree circumference, light availability, trunk inclination and site were analysed. Results showed that different lichen species responded differently to these factors, but, overall, tree size was most important for lichen occurrence. Five species showed a positive relation to tree size, but the 50% probability of occurrence was reached at different tree sizes among these species and there were also site differences. This study shows that the maintenance of old trees is crucial for several lichen species, which highlights the importance of long-term management plans.

  • 43.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Land-use history exerts long-term effects on the clear-cut flora in boreonemoral Sweden2016In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 19, no 4, 634-643 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QuestionsCan signs of 19th century grassland management, which can be observed in the flora immediately (2-4yrs) after clear-cutting in boreonemoral Sweden, still remain 4yrs later? Do the effects from the time since clear-cutting differ between forest and grassland plant species? LocationProvince of ostergotland, southern Sweden. MethodsTwelve contemporary clear-cut areas that were once meadows and 12 that were once forests were selected using land-use maps from the 1870s. Grasses and herbaceous plants were surveyed twice, once in 2009 and once in 2013 (2-4 and 6-8yrs after clear-cutting, respectively). Plant presence was recorded within 100 circular sample plots (radius 1m) placed evenly throughout each respective clear-cut area along transects spaced 25-m apart. The number of sample plots in which a species was present was taken as a measure of that species frequency. Random effects meta-analysis, odds ratios and ANCOVA were used to analyse species responses to clear-cutting over time. ResultsA total of 170 plant species were found in the study, of which 33 were classified as grassland indicator species and 31 as plants primarily confined to forests. Clear-cut areas with a history as meadowland had, on average, up to 64% higher total species richness and 110% more grassland indicator species than did clear-cut areas with a history as forest. The time since clear-cutting had no effect on total species richness. However, the odds of finding a grassland indicator species decreased with the time since clear-cutting, whereas the odds of finding a forest species increased. ConclusionsWe concluded that land-use history plays an important role in explaining the flora found in Swedish clear-cuts, and that its effects on species richness remain for a minimum of 8yrs after harvest (conservative estimate). This phenomenon highlights the importance of acknowledging land-use legacies in ecological research and conservation. Future studies should investigate various options for the promotion of grassland plants in clear-cuts with a history of grassland management while also acknowledging the potential conflicts between conservation and production. The results may pertain to other countries with similar land-use histories.

  • 44.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibbe, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tunér, Albert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vegetation in clear-cuts depends on previous land use: a century-old grassland legacy2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 22, 4287-4295 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant species richness in central and northern European seminatural grasslandsis often more closely linked to past than present habitat configuration, which isindicative of an extinction debt. In this study, we investigate whether signs ofhistorical grassland management can be found in clear-cuts after at least80 years as coniferous production forest by comparing floras between clear-cutswith a history as meadow and as forest in the 1870s in Sweden. Study sites wereselected using old land-use maps and data on present-day clear-cuts. Speciestraits reflecting high capacities for dispersal and persistence were used toexplain any possible links between the plants and the historical land use. Clearcutsthat were formerly meadow had, on average, 36% higher species richnessand 35% higher richness of grassland indicator species, as well as a larger overallseed mass and lower anemochory, compared to clear-cuts with history asforest. We suggest that the plants in former meadows never disappeared afterafforestation but survived as remnant populations. Many contemporary forestsin Sweden were managed as grasslands in the 1800s. As conservation of remaininggrassland fragments will not be enough to reduce the existing extinctiondebts of the flora, these young forests offer opportunities for grassland restorationat large scales. Our study supports the concept of remnant populationsand highlights the importance of considering historical land use for understandingthe distribution of grassland plant species in fragmented landscapes, aswell as for policy-making and conservation.

  • 45.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context in south-eastern Sweden2010In: JOURNAL FOR NATURE CONSERVATION, ISSN 1617-1381, Vol. 18, no 1, 22-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring of butterflies is often directed only towards grassland fauna. Species associated with other habitats, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, are often neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform and evaluate a landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse habitats and more specifically to (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance; (ii) compare the distribution of butterflies in different habitats; and (iii) analyse data from the study with the aim of improving the method. Eight randomly placed study sites (750 m x 750 m) located in south-eastern Sweden were used. The vegetation composition (tree cover, percentage of coniferous and deciduous forest, shrubs, dry, mesic, damp and wet land) inside the squares was analysed using aerial photos and habitats along transects were categorised in the field. The butterfly composition varied depending on the landscape composition. Tree cover had the largest impact on butterfly abundance with a negative relationship between abundance and increasing tree cover. The most species-rich habitats were other grasslands (abandoned fields and fallows), clear-cuts, semi-natural grasslands, and bogs, each habitat also harbouring unique species. Clear-cut was the habitat harbouring the highest abundance and other grasslands the highest diversity of butterflies. Semi-natural grasslands, where the nationally based monitoring of butterflies in Sweden currently is being performed, constitutes andlt;1% of the total land area in Sweden, indicating a current bias in monitoring directed towards only a part of the species pool. The landscape-based form of monitoring presented here can, if performed regularly, increase our knowledge of how structural changes of landscape affect butterflies and thereby improve conservation efforts.

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ericsson, Jal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seed dormancy and germination in the summer annual Galeopsis speciosa2006In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 46, no 5, 353-361 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined germination and dormancy in Galeopsis speciosa (Lamiaceae), a common summer annual weed in cold-temperate areas. Seeds collected in southern Sweden were subjected to several experiments. The seeds were dormant at maturity. Seeds sown outdoors after collection produced a small number of seedlings, that emerged early in the spring. After long cold stratification or stratification outdoors over two winters, the maximum germination was 40 to 50%; germination occurring over a wide range of temperatures. Warm stratification preceding cold stratification had no effect on germination, but repeated warm and cold periods seemed to promote germination. Gibberellic acid (GA) stimulated germination but full germination was only achieved after more than two months of incubation at the most suitable temperature regime tested. Excised embryos grew and developed into normal seedlings. With these results, the species does not fit into the currently used system for seed dormancy classifications. The response to GA and the growth of excised embryos indicate non-deep or intermediate physiological dormancy, but dormancy alleviation by stratification was not in line with the guiding principles for these classifications. Galeopsis speciosa has a strong dormancy that is sufficiently alleviated during the winter to allow germination of only part of a seed batch each year, hence a stepwise germination pattern occurs over a period of several years.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Hidayati, SN
    Walck, JL
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Complex combination of seed dormancy and seedling development determine emergence of Viburnum tinus (Caprifoliaceae)2005In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, no 95, 323-330 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparative Study of Germination Ecology of Four Papaver Taxa2007In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 99, no 5, 935-946 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Comparative studies of closely related taxa can increase understanding of adaptations and changes in seed dormancy and germination preferences in an evolutionary perspective. For such studies, a method to describe and compare the performance of taxa in a general way is needed. The germination ecology of four Papaver taxa was studied with the aim of describing and comparing their responses to different seasonal temperature regimes.

    Methods: Germination of Papaver argemone, P. rhoeas, P. dubium ssp. dubium and P. dubium ssp. lecoqii was investigated in three different artificial climates over 2.5 years. Seeds were collected in southern Sweden, and samples from different populations were used as replicates of taxa.

    Key Results: Despite substantial intra-taxa variation, there were clear taxon-specific responses. Most germination occurred in the warmest climate. In general, the warmer the climate the more germination occurred in autumn instead of spring. Papaver argemone, phylogenetically most distant from the others, was, in contrast to the other taxa, restricted to germinating only at lower temperatures.

    Conclusions: Seed dormancy and germination may be described by dormancy pattern, germination preferences and dormancy strength. The general dormancy pattern was a common feature for these taxa and therefore probably an evolutionary conservative character. Germination preferences varied between taxa, resulting in different temperature optima and intervals for germination, and dormancy strength was to some extent taxon-specific, but highly variable. The dormancy pattern explained how the taxa can perform as winter annuals in warmer climates, but mainly as summer annuals in colder climates. Hence, there is no need to interpret the within-taxon temporal differences in seedling emergence as local adaptations. In the field, an entire seed cohort will not germinate during a single season. Instead, emergence will be distributed over several seasons, regardless of local climate, weather and soil cultivation methods.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparing after-ripening response and germination requirements of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis (Asteraceae) through logistic functions2007In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 47, no 5, 433-441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germination requirements and after-ripening effects during one year of dry storage at 15/5 and 25/15°C (day/night) were compared for Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis (Asteraceae). A logistic function was fitted to the results from tests over time in various incubation conditions, using three populations of each species as replicates. Time required for response to dry storage was measured by using a new method; the third derivative of the logistic function. Therefore, a point when major germination was achieved could be detected, without having to rely on maximum germination (which is uncertain), individual data points or any subjectively chosen limit. Fresh seeds of both species were dependent on light for germination and after-ripening was mainly manifested by increasing germination in darkness. Low dormancy status and light requirement might indicate that soil cultivations should rapidly reduce the seed banks of these species, although fecundity and wind dispersal will affect population levels. The species differed in their germination response, with C. bonariensis germinating at lower temperatures than C. canadensis. This seemingly counter-intuitive result may explain the prevention of fatal germination of C. canadensis in cold conditions and its behaviour as a summer annual in northern climates, while C. bonariensis is restricted to warmer parts of the world.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seed dormancy pattern and germination preferences of the South African annual Papaver aculeatum2007In: South African Journal of Botany, ISSN 0254-6299, E-ISSN 1727-9321, Vol. 73, no 3, 422-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seeds from two populations of Papaver aculeatum, collected in South Africa, were subjected to a series of experiments to investigate their dormancy and germination. Dormancy was weak: fresh seeds germinated to nearly 100% at 20/10 and 25/15°C day/night if provided with light, up to 50% at 15/5, but not at all at 30/20°C. Warm stratification increased germination, both in darkness and at 15/5°C, but did not lead to germination at 30/20°C. Cold stratification reduced germination and limited germination to the cooler temperatures. Alternating cold and warm stratifications showed that the species undergoes dormancy cycles. When subjected to three different artificial annual changing climates, with onset both in summer and autumn, most seed germinated in the first autumn. However, in cooler climates, some germination occurred during spring and the second autumn. The general dormancy pattern; reduction during a warm period and induction during a cold, was similar to that of P. rhoeas, a European species and a wide-spread weed. However, germination temperature preferences differed by P. aculeatum avoiding germination at high temperatures, having substantially weaker dormancy when fresh and having more easily reduced dormancy, compared with P. rhoeas. These differences most likely result in differing temporal pattern of germination in the field.

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