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  • 1.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Assessing eczema and food allergy in young children2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atopic disease is an increasing problem. Eczema affects 10-20% of young children, and 33-37% of children with eczema are food allergic. Among other factors, nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a role in eczema and food allergy. Following the atopic march, pproximately 80% of children with atopic eczema will become sensitized to aeroallergens and develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test is used for investigating sensitization and is considered a safe method. However, systemic allergic reactions may appear when the test is performed. In diagnosing food allergy and for evaluating achievement of tolerance, the oral food challenge is the method of choice, and the double-blind placebocontrolled fashion is 'the gold standard'.

    Skin prick test: We examined six cases of generalized allergic reactions in connection with skin prick testing in order to identify risk factors, and thereby increase safety, and we investigated the necessity of performing skin prick tests in duplicate. We found that all six children with generalized reactions were <6 months of age. When analyzing skin prick tests in duplicate, we found only 1.3% that showed diverging results, and in infants <6 months even fewer, 0.9%.

    Food challenge: We developed recipes and a protocol for low-dose oral food challenge to milk and egg to be used in young children outgrowing their food allergy so as to facilitate early re-/introduction of small amounts of milk and egg. We performed 52 challenges, both open and double-blind placebo controlled. The recipes were validated for blinding. The lowdose challenge was tolerated well by the children and was easy to perform. Four children had a positive challenge outcome, all reacting to very small amounts of milk. All but two of the non-reacting children were able to introduce milk and egg into their diet.

    Nitric oxide and eczema: We investigated the effect of eczema treatment on the NO levels in urine. The sum of nitrite and nitrate was measured in urinary samples from 94 infants at two visits, with an interval of 6 weeks, and the results were compared with clinical data. The levels of NO products increased significantly when the eczema improved.

    The atopic march: The aim was to evaluate the atopic march in children with eczema, from referral at <2 years until 4½ years of age. We followed 123 children with eczema, 78 sensitized and 45 not sensitized to milk and/or egg, with respect to eczema severity, other allergic manifestations, development of airway sensitization, and achievement of food tolerance. The difference in severity of eczema at referral was significant when comparing food-sensitized with non-sensitized children. At follow-up, 62% were still affected by eczema, although 56% only mildly so. Tolerance was achieved in 81% of the children allergic to milk and 68% of those allergic to egg. Fifty-eight percent of the food-sensitized children and 26% of the non-sensitized children had become sensitized to aeroallergens, a significant difference. The difference in airway symptoms was not significant. Very few children were exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes.

    Conclusions: Increased precautions should be considered when performing skin prick tests in infants <6 months of age. The use of a single prick, to avoid the risk of summation of reactions, is justified when performing skin prick tests. We report recipes and a protocol for standardized open and double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenge in young children, enabling the introduction of small amounts of egg and milk into the diet during tolerance development. NO products in urine increases when eczema improves. This might be due to a Th2/Th1 shift induced by the eczema treatment and skin healing, and the variation in NO response may be due to individual variations in NO-induced feedback downregulation of Th1 and Th2 proliferation. The prognosis for achieving clinical tolerance is very good in children early sensitized and allergic to milk and egg, but they will become significantly more often sensitized to aeroallergens.

    List of papers
    1. Skin prick tests may give generalized allergic reactions in infants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin prick tests may give generalized allergic reactions in infants
    2000 (English)In: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, ISSN 1081-1206, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skin prick testing, a widely used method of studying sensitization, is usually considered quick, pedagogic, and relatively inexpensive. Previous studies have shown very few negative reactions and no fatalities. In contrast, both anaphylaxis and death have been reported as a result of intracutaneous tests.

    Objective: To examine detailed case studies of generalized allergic reactions in connection with skin prick testing in order to identify possible risk factors and thereby increase the safety of the test procedure.

    Method: A retrospective study of medical records of six cases with generalized allergic reaction occurring during the study period 1996-1998 at the Pediatric Clinic, University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Data about the total number of children tested during the period were collected from the clinic's database.

    Results: All six cases with generalized reactions were infants <6 months who showed positive skin prick tests to fresh food specimen. Other common features were active eczema and a family history of allergic disease. All infants received prompt treatment and recovered well. The overall rate of generalized reactions was 521 per 100,000 tested children. In the age group <6 months, the corresponding figure was 6522 per 100,000.

    Conclusion: The risk of generalized reactions after skin prick test with fresh food specimens in young children ought to be acknowledged and should lead to increased precautions when performing the test.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13929 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-05 Created: 2006-09-05 Last updated: 2009-08-17
    2. Skin prick test in duplicate: is it necessary?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skin prick test in duplicate: is it necessary?
    2001 (English)In: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, ISSN 1081-1206, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Duplicate skin prick testing has previously been recommended because of reports that accidental negative tests are common. However, duplicate tests also mean an extra allergen load, which may increase the risk of inducing a generalized reaction at the test situation, at least in the youngest infants.

    Objective: To investigate whether the occurrence of both a positive and negative test result is a common feature when performing duplicate skin prick tests and can therefore justify the duplicate method.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of all skin prick tests performed in duplicate at the pediatric clinic at University Hospital in Linköping, Sweden, in 1997.

    Results: Of 1,087 skin prick tests, 14 resulted in one positive and one negative test, or 1.3%. The corresponding figure in the youngest age group, (ie, <2 years of age) was 3 of 340 (0.9%).

    Conclusions: Considering the risk of inducing a summation of the reactions, and thereby a generalized allergic reaction, when applying an extra allergen load on the limited surface of the small arm, we conclude that the results of this study justify using single prick test, at least in the youngest age group and probably when testing children of all ages.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13930 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-05 Created: 2006-09-05 Last updated: 2009-08-17
    3. A new model for low-dose food challenge in children with allergy to milk and egg
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new model for low-dose food challenge in children with allergy to milk and egg
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 95, no 9, p. 1133-1139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atopic eczema and food allergy are common in early childhood. Children seem to gradually develop tolerance to milk and egg, and it is a relief for families when their child can tolerate small amounts of these basic foods, even if larger doses may still cause symptoms. Aim: To develop a model for low-dose oral food challenge, facilitating re-/introduction of milk or egg. Methods: In 39 children sensitized to milk and/or egg, we performed 52 challenges using a new standardized model for low-dose oral food challenge. The recipes were validated for blinding with sensorial tests. Results: Four children challenged to milk had a positive challenge outcome. There were no significant differences with respect to family history, associated atopic manifestations, nutritional supply, eczema severity, or skin-prick test compared with the non-reacting children, but total and specific IgE values were significantly higher. All but two of the non-reacting children were able to introduce milk and egg into their diet without problems.

    Conclusion: We report recipes and a protocol to be used for standardized open and double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenge in young children, enabling the introduction of small amounts of egg and milk into the diet during tolerance development.

    Keywords
    Atopic eczema; double-blind; food allergy; food challenge; skin-prick test
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14561 (URN)10.1080/08035250500516672 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-19 Created: 2007-06-19 Last updated: 2009-03-30
    4. Urinary nitric oxide excretion in infants with eczema
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urinary nitric oxide excretion in infants with eczema
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 21, no 1, p. e229-e234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Eczema is characterized by inflammation of the skin and is commonly associated with food allergy. It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is an important player in eczema, food allergy and intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of urinary NO breakdown products in infants with eczema and the effect of eczema treatment on NO levels. Ninety-four infants with eczema, 58 boys and 36 girls, with a mean age of 7.5 ± 5.2 months (mean ± s.d.) at inclusion were examined twice with an interval of 6 wk. The sum of nitrite and nitrate was measured colorimetrically in urinary samples from both visits and compared with clinical data concerning eczema severity, nutrition, gastrointestinal symptoms, asthma and skin prick positivity. The levels of NO products increased significantly from the first to the second visit: 289; 374 μm (median; IQR) vs. 457; 678 μm (median; IQR) (p < 0.001) in parallel with a significant improvement of the eczema. After eczema treatment consisting of skin care and elimination diet during the 6-wk interval between evaluations, the NO levels approached the values previously found in healthy children. The results support previous studies indicating that the homeostasis of nitrogen radicals is disturbed in childhood eczema.

    Keywords
    paediatric • eczema • clinical immunology • nitric oxide
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13932 (URN)10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00892.x (DOI)000276186200019 ()19725898 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Tidigare titel: Nitric oxide urinary products in infants with eczema This is the authors’ version of the following article: which has been published in final form at:Irene Devenney, Gunilla Norrman, Tony Forslund, Karin Fälth-Magnusson and Tommy Sundqvist, Urinary nitric oxide excretion in infants with eczema., 2010, Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, (21), 1, E229-E234which has been published in final form at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00892.xCopyright: Wiley-Blackwell

    Available from: 2006-09-05 Created: 2006-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. Eczema in infancy and the atopic march
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eczema in infancy and the atopic march
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13933 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-05 Created: 2006-09-05 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 2.
    Devenney, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Skin prick test in duplicate: is it necessary?2001In: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, ISSN 1081-1206, Vol. 87, no 5, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Duplicate skin prick testing has previously been recommended because of reports that accidental negative tests are common. However, duplicate tests also mean an extra allergen load, which may increase the risk of inducing a generalized reaction at the test situation, at least in the youngest infants.

    Objective: To investigate whether the occurrence of both a positive and negative test result is a common feature when performing duplicate skin prick tests and can therefore justify the duplicate method.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of all skin prick tests performed in duplicate at the pediatric clinic at University Hospital in Linköping, Sweden, in 1997.

    Results: Of 1,087 skin prick tests, 14 resulted in one positive and one negative test, or 1.3%. The corresponding figure in the youngest age group, (ie, <2 years of age) was 3 of 340 (0.9%).

    Conclusions: Considering the risk of inducing a summation of the reactions, and thereby a generalized allergic reaction, when applying an extra allergen load on the limited surface of the small arm, we conclude that the results of this study justify using single prick test, at least in the youngest age group and probably when testing children of all ages.

  • 3.
    Devenney, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Skin prick tests may give generalized allergic reactions in infants2000In: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, ISSN 1081-1206, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Skin prick testing, a widely used method of studying sensitization, is usually considered quick, pedagogic, and relatively inexpensive. Previous studies have shown very few negative reactions and no fatalities. In contrast, both anaphylaxis and death have been reported as a result of intracutaneous tests.

    Objective: To examine detailed case studies of generalized allergic reactions in connection with skin prick testing in order to identify possible risk factors and thereby increase the safety of the test procedure.

    Method: A retrospective study of medical records of six cases with generalized allergic reaction occurring during the study period 1996-1998 at the Pediatric Clinic, University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. Data about the total number of children tested during the period were collected from the clinic's database.

    Results: All six cases with generalized reactions were infants <6 months who showed positive skin prick tests to fresh food specimen. Other common features were active eczema and a family history of allergic disease. All infants received prompt treatment and recovered well. The overall rate of generalized reactions was 521 per 100,000 tested children. In the age group <6 months, the corresponding figure was 6522 per 100,000.

    Conclusion: The risk of generalized reactions after skin prick test with fresh food specimens in young children ought to be acknowledged and should lead to increased precautions when performing the test.

  • 4.
    Devenney, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norrman, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forslund, Tony
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Urinary nitric oxide excretion in infants with eczema2010In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 21, no 1, p. e229-e234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eczema is characterized by inflammation of the skin and is commonly associated with food allergy. It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is an important player in eczema, food allergy and intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of urinary NO breakdown products in infants with eczema and the effect of eczema treatment on NO levels. Ninety-four infants with eczema, 58 boys and 36 girls, with a mean age of 7.5 ± 5.2 months (mean ± s.d.) at inclusion were examined twice with an interval of 6 wk. The sum of nitrite and nitrate was measured colorimetrically in urinary samples from both visits and compared with clinical data concerning eczema severity, nutrition, gastrointestinal symptoms, asthma and skin prick positivity. The levels of NO products increased significantly from the first to the second visit: 289; 374 μm (median; IQR) vs. 457; 678 μm (median; IQR) (p < 0.001) in parallel with a significant improvement of the eczema. After eczema treatment consisting of skin care and elimination diet during the 6-wk interval between evaluations, the NO levels approached the values previously found in healthy children. The results support previous studies indicating that the homeostasis of nitrogen radicals is disturbed in childhood eczema.

  • 5.
    Devenney, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norrman, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Paediatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Leif
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A new model for low-dose food challenge in children with allergy to milk and egg2006In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 95, no 9, p. 1133-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atopic eczema and food allergy are common in early childhood. Children seem to gradually develop tolerance to milk and egg, and it is a relief for families when their child can tolerate small amounts of these basic foods, even if larger doses may still cause symptoms. Aim: To develop a model for low-dose oral food challenge, facilitating re-/introduction of milk or egg. Methods: In 39 children sensitized to milk and/or egg, we performed 52 challenges using a new standardized model for low-dose oral food challenge. The recipes were validated for blinding with sensorial tests. Results: Four children challenged to milk had a positive challenge outcome. There were no significant differences with respect to family history, associated atopic manifestations, nutritional supply, eczema severity, or skin-prick test compared with the non-reacting children, but total and specific IgE values were significantly higher. All but two of the non-reacting children were able to introduce milk and egg into their diet without problems.

    Conclusion: We report recipes and a protocol to be used for standardized open and double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenge in young children, enabling the introduction of small amounts of egg and milk into the diet during tolerance development.

  • 6.
    Ekbäck, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Tedner, Michaela
    Pediatric Clinic, Täby, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Pediatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Norrman, Gunilla
    Pediatric Clinic, Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Leif
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Norrköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Severe Eczema in Infancy Can Predict Asthma Development. A Prospective Study to the Age of 10 Years2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99609-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children with atopic eczema in infancy often develop allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, but the term "atopic march has been questioned as the relations between atopic disorders seem more complicated than one condition progressing into another. Objective: In this prospective multicenter study we followed children with eczema from infancy to the age of 10 years focusing on sensitization to allergens, severity of eczema and development of allergic airway symptoms at 4.5 and 10 years of age. Methods: On inclusion, 123 children were examined. Hanifin-Rajka criteria and SCORAD index were used to describe the eczema. Episodes of wheezing were registered, skin prick tests and IgE tests were conducted and questionnaires were filled out. Procedures were repeated at 4.5 and 10 years of age with additional examinations for ARC and asthma. Results: 94 out of 123 completed the entire study. High SCORAD points on inclusion were correlated with the risk of developing ARC, (B = 9.86, P = 0.01) and asthma, (B = 10.17, P = 0.01). For infants with eczema and wheezing at the first visit, the OR for developing asthma was 4.05(P = 0.01). ARC at 4.5 years of age resulted in an OR of 11.28(P = 0.00) for asthma development at 10 years. Conclusion: This study indicates that infant eczema with high SCORAD points is associated with an increased risk of asthma at 10 years of age. Children with eczema and wheezing episodes during infancy are more likely to develop asthma than are infants with eczema alone. Eczema in infancy combined with early onset of ARC seems to indicate a more severe allergic disease, which often leads to asthma development. The progression from eczema in infancy to ARC at an early age and asthma later in childhood shown in this study supports the relevance of the term "atopic march, at least in more severe allergic disease.

  • 7.
    Kryh, H.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Abrahamsson, J.
    Institute for Clinical Science, Gothenburg.
    Jegeras, E.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjoberg, R.-M.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Kogner, P.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Martinsson, T.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Characterization of amplicon junction sequences in genomic regions surrounding the MYCN gene in neuroblastoma tumors; implications for clinical follow-up of high-risk patients in FEBS JOURNAL, vol 278, issue , pp 215-2152011In: FEBS JOURNAL, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2011, Vol. 278, p. 215-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8.
    Kryh, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Abrahamsson, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jegeras, Elsa
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjoberg, Rose-Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Kogner, Per
    Karolinska Institute.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg.
    MYCN amplicon junctions as tumor-specific targets for minimal residual disease detection in neuroblastoma2011In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 1063-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MYCN gene is frequently amplified in unfavorable neuroblastoma tumors. Therefore, this study aimed at characterizing the novel junctions connecting the amplified DNA segments (amplicons) and obtaining tumor-specific PCR fragments for use in detecting minimal residual disease (MRD). High-density SNP arrays were used to map the end-points of the MYCN amplicons in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. Primers were designed to give rise to a tumor-specific PCR product and were examined for MRD in the blood and bone marrow using quantitative PCR. Tumor-specific junction fragments were detected in all cases, confirming a head-to-tail tandem orientation of the amplicons and revealing microhomology at the amplicon junctions, thus suggesting a rolling circle caused by microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) as a possible mechanism initiating the MYCN amplification. We also evaluated the use of these junctions as tumor-specific targets for detecting MRD and observed that tumor DNA could be readily detected and quantified in either blood or bone marrow at a sensitivity of 1/10(6) tumor/control DNA. This study provides new information on the mechanisms of oncogene amplification and envisages means of rapidly obtaining highly sensitive PCR-based tools for tumor/patient-specific monitoring of treatment response and the early detection of relapse in patients with neuroblastoma.

  • 9.
    Tomičić, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norrman, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Devenney, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    High levels of IgG4 antibodies to foods during infancy are associated with tolerance to corresponding foods later in life2009In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with eczema and sensitization to foods are recommended skin care and, if food allergy is proven by challenge, an elimination diet. For most children the diet period is transient, but the process behind tolerance development and the influence of decreased allergen exposure is not fully known. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of elimination diet on serum and salivary antibodies and to identify immunological parameters related to the ability to tolerate foods. Eighty-nine children, below 2 yr of age, with eczema and suspected food allergy were included. Recommended treatment was skin care to all children, and 60 children had a period of elimination diet. At 4½ yr of age, the children were divided into two groups, based on if they had been able to introduce the eliminated foods, or not. Serum and salivary antibodies were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and UniCAP® before and after a 6-wk treatment period and at 4½ yr of age. Children sensitized to egg and/or milk that could eat and drink the offending foods at 4½ yr of age, had higher levels of Immunoglobulin G4 antibodies to ovalbumin and β-lactoglobulin and also higher IgG4/Immunoglobulin E ratios on inclusion in the study, than those who had to eliminate egg and/or milk from their diet, beyond 4½ yr of age. The highest IgG4/IgE ratios were found in children with circulating IgE antibodies to egg and/or milk but negative skin prick test on inclusion. The 6-wk treatment period did not significantly affect the levels of serum and salivary antibodies. In conclusion, eczematous, food sensitized infants with high levels of IgG4 and high ratios of IgG4/IgE antibodies to food allergens are more likely to consume these foods at 4½ yr than infants with low levels and ratios.

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