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  • 1.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Incubator best practice: A framework2008In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a holistic approach, where the goals of the incubators are taken into account and the performance of different incubators are put in relation to their incubator models. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework that can serve as a basis for identifying best practice incubator models and for more rigorous evaluations of incubator performance. The framework suggested includes three distinguishing model components: selection, business support and mediation. We distinguish between idea-focused selection and entrepreneur-focused selection as well as between “picking-the-winners” and “survival-of-the-fittest” selection. Business support is seen as a continuum from “laissez-faire” to “strong intervention”. Mediation strategies vary in terms of the type of innovation system in focus: technological, regional or cluster. The framework is applied to 16 Swedish incubators.

  • 2.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms2015In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 514-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.

  • 3.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to NTBFs: a typology with implications for policy makers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy makers consider the start-up and growth of new technology-based firms (NTBFs) to be one of the primary solutions to increase economic growth, as they contribute both to the development of new technologies and products and to job creation. In consequence, public support to NTBFs has been a prioritized issue. Such support has traditionally been justified by referring to market failures in terms of, e.g., underinvestment in R&D (Nelson, 1959; Pavitt, 1991) and “financial gaps” faced by early-stage ventures (Bygrave and Timmons, 1992). However, the argument of this paper is that supply of support does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of NTBFs. In order to remedy this shortcoming, this paper combines entrepreneurship and innovation research to develop a typology of NTBFs that is used to compare and integrate the demand and supply sides of public support to NTBFs.

     The first part of the paper focuses the demand side of public support to NTBFs. We first discuss general characteristics of NTBFs, with a particular focus on aspects of vulnerability and liability of newness (Stinchcombe, 1965): NTBFs are new, which implies immaturity (Penrose, 1959), lack of credibility (Birly and Norburn, 1985; Zimmerman and Zeitz, 2002) and limited resources (North et al., 2001), as well as technology-focused, which tends to imply lack of managerial skills and dependency on one main product (cf. Westhead and Storey, 1997; Mason and Harrison, 2001). We then argue that differences between NTBFs influence both the conditions for them overcoming their initial vulnerability and the types of problems they encounter in the early development phase. Thus, different types of firms will have different support needs and different potential to achieve certain types of outcomes within a specific time frame. Based on this discussion, a typology of NTBFs is developed, which takes into account the origin of the venture (academic spin-offs vs. corporate spin-offs vs. independent companies) (cf. Meyer, 2005; Wallin and Lindholm-Dahlstrand, 2006) and the degree of innovativeness of the venture’s main product (non-innovative vs. sustaining innovation vs. disruptive innovation) (cf. Rosenbloom and Christensen, 1994). The resulting nine types of NTBFs are illustrated by empirical examples and the support needs of each type are identified. The typology, thus, provides guidelines for policy makers with respect to the support needs of different types of NTBFs.

    The second part of the paper focuses the supply side, i.e. the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small-and-medium-sized-enterprise (SME) policy and science-technology-innovation (STI) policy. A comparative analysis between these two areas reveals interesting differences with regards to both goals and instruments used. Both aim at economic growth and to some extent social welfare, but whereas SME policy focuses on job creation (cf. Rothwell, 1984), STI policy focuses on national competitiveness through the development and diffusion of new products and processes (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005), which does not necessarily go hand-in-hand with job creation. Moreover, whereas an explicitly aim of SME policy is to improve attitudes and conditions for founding new firms (Storey, 2003), STI policy focuses on technology, products and processes and shows little interest in whether innovation happens in new or established firms (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005). With regards to the policy instruments used, both policy areas include financing, networking initiatives, regulation, education and training, but with quite different foci in terms of the level of aggregation of support initiatives (individual ventures vs. innovation system) as well as target types of NTBFs: The focus of SME policy is to support individual ventures, whereas STI policy aims at building or strengthening innovation systems, i.e. to remove system weaknesses (Jacobsson and Johnson, 2000; Klein Woolthuis et al., 2005) by improving the infrastructure for primarily research-based firms, often in specific technology fields.

    The third part of the paper compares the demand side and the supply side and identifies the main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs as a basis for recommendations on how to improve the support portfolio. First, there is a bias in the public support portfolio towards some types of NTBFs, most notably academic spin-offs, whereas for example corporate spin-offs and independent inventors are overlooked – irrespective of their support needs. In order to overcome this bias, policy makers need to align the supply of support to NTBFs with the support needs of the targeted firms. Second, market aspects are under-emphasised in comparison to technology and product aspects, both in individual-level support and system-level support. Thus, both the firm-level support and the system level support would benefit from measures developing marketing and sales capabilities of individual ventures or stimulating entrepreneurial experimentation and market formation on the system level. Third, there is a missing link in the support instrument portfolio: NTBFs frequently lack the information, competences and networks needed to identify and connect to relevant innovation systems, but the current support portfolio includes few measures to assist them with this. The support portfolio should therefore be complemented by mediation (Bergek and Norrman, 2008) between individual firms and relevant innovation systems, i.e. support measures helping NTBFs to access and utilise resources on the system level.

    To sum up, we recommend policy makers from SME and STI policy to (1) take into account that NTBFs have different support needs and to align their support to the needs of the targeted firms, (2) increase the market focus of the supplied support and (3) complement the current support portfolio with instruments directed at mediation between individual firms and relevant innovation systems. Implementing these recommendations would, however, require increased co-ordination between SME and STI policy, which is our forth and final recommendation to policy makers.

  • 4.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Policy to Promote NTBFs: A Tentative Framework2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sorting Out the Apples, Pears and Fruit Salads in Incubator Performance Assessment2005In: The Annual High Technology Small Firm Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adaptation of the CDIO-framework in Management Courses for Engineering Students - a Micro-level Approach2016In: Proceedings of the 12th International CDIO Conference, Turku, Finland, June 12-16 2016 / [ed] Jerker Björkqvist, Kristina Edström, Ronald J. Hugo, Juha Kontio, Janne Roslöf, Rick Sellens & Seppo Virtanen, 2016, p. 366-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO-Framework is developed in order to enable engineering students to engineer (Crawley et al 2014) and is relatively straightforward when applied on courses and projects that have a high degree of practical, hands-on engineering elements, such as e.g. developing software or a physical product/prototype. However, in many engineering programs a large part of the courses concern managerial aspects such as project management, leadership, marketing, innovation and entrepreneurship, especially in later years of a program. We are well aware of the fact that the CDIO-framework is developed to work on program-level, however, applied on management courses, commonly only the Conceive and Design can be obtained. Furthermore, these courses are not always structured in such a way that they immediately builds on each other. This dilemma has caused us to adapt CDIO to circumstances of the courses that we give and to reflect upon how more of the CDIO spirit can be transferred to our own modules and activities on course level. The aim of this paper is therefore to develop ways for application on a micro-level where the CDIO spirit can be implemented in management courses at engineering programs. In the paper we give three different practical cases where the CDIO-framework have been applied. The cases show that CDIO works both on micro-level, e.g. in two hour exercises and within the frame of individual courses. For management courses, and especially courses in entrepreneurship and marketing, the framework need to apply a more extrovert focus, i.e. on verification of customer needs and benefits, rather than on technological solutions. 

  • 7.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nählinder, Johanna
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Research, facilitate, evaluate: The roles of ongoing evaluation in triple helix projects2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uppfinningars betydelse för Sverige: hur kan den svenska innovationskraften utvecklas och tas tillvara bättre?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten handlar om frågor som är komplexa och svåra. Vare sig vi eller någon annan kan göra den ultimata analysen eller få fram de ultimata lösningarna. Därför ska den här rapporten betraktas främst som ett bidrag till en diskussion som i sin tur kan leda oss mot bästa möjliga analys och handlingsförslag. Vi välkomnar alltså dig, ärade läsare, att delta i den dialogen.

  • 9.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Knut
    Scientific Engineering QED, Linköping, Sweden.
    Agricultural Innovation and the Role of Institutions: Lessons from the Game of Drones2017In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, observers argued that the fourth agricultural revolution had been initiated. This article focuses on one part of this high-tech revolution: the origin, development, applications, and user value of unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Institutional changes connected to the UAS innovation are analyzed, based on a Swedish case study. The methods included autoethnography. The theoretical frame was composed by four perspectives: innovation, institutions, sustainability, and ethics. UAS can help farmers cut costs and produce higher quantity with better quality, and also has environmental benefits. However, this promising innovation was exposed to institutional forces and suddenly became subordinated the Act of Camera Surveillance. This study illuminates how legislative institutions can inhibit responsible innovation. The study shows that different ethical perspectives can collide with each other.

  • 10.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parment, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknadsföring: vetenskap och praktik2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsföring har alltid spelat en stor roll i samhället. Men spelplanen har förändrats och i dag har marknadsföring fått en delvis ny innebörd. Det har tillkommit nya dimensioner, såsom ekologisk och social hållbarhet, som företag måste förhålla sig till. Den här boken innehåller inte bara grund­stenarna i ämnet, utan även nya teorier och handfasta verktyg. Resonemangen förklaras och fördjupas genomgående med exempel och praktikfall. Boken genomsyras av kritisk analys. Författarna poängterar att marknadsföring framför allt handlar om att fördjupa förståelsen för kunder, användare och annat som påverkar marknaden. Vilket problem har kunden egentligen, det vill säga vilken nytta borde företaget skapa? Hur ser konkurrenternas lösningar ut? Vilka faktorer påverkar kundens preferenser och köpkraft? Genom att svara på sådana frågor kan man framgångsrikt välja väg för hur produktkonceptet bör designas och hur företaget ska kommunicera och interagera med sin omvärld.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entreprenörskap och Företagande – Förutsättningar i projekt: En förstudie av socialfondsprojekt 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att utreda i vilken utsträckning projekt med stöd från europeiska socialfonden (ESF-projekt) kan leda till entreprenörskap och företagande och i så fall hur.

    Detta har gjorts utifrån ett urval av 14 ESF-projekt från en mindre lista som Tillväxtverket anvisat. De utvalda projekten har studerats beträffande entreprenörskap och företagande, om detta kan bidra till att förhindra utslagning och underlätta återgång till arbetslivet. De utvalda projektens projektlogik har analyserats – hur de arbetat med entreprenörskap och företagande, de studerade projektens arbetsprocess och uppbyggnad – hur man praktiskt arbetat. Datainsamlingen har gjorts genom besök och telefonintervjuer samt via enkät.

    Studien fokuserar på att visa på lärorika exempel som illustrerar framgångsfaktorer och hinder i arbetet för att förändra, förbättra och förstärka sysselsättningspolitiken, vilken inbegriper arbetsmarknads och näringspolitik samt kopplingar till social- och socialförsäkringspolitiken. Studien har kompletterats, för ett urval av projekten, med en undersökning av målgruppen – individerna som deltar i projekten. Det är dessutom viktigt att både projektarrangörernas och deltagarnas erfarenheter speglas i slutsatserna då detta är avgörande för att kunna uppfylla studiens syfte.

    De huvudsakliga resultaten från vår studie är följande:

    • Entreprenörskap och företagande i olika former kan vara en typ av lösningar för att häva individers utanförskap.
    • Det måste finnas en koppling mellan projektens mål, interventionen och resultaten, dvs. programlogiken måste vara tydlig. För detta krävs bland annat att projekten är väl förankrade i den kontext de verkar i. Det krävs även samverkan mellan inblandade aktörer, inte minst vid rekrytering/anvisning av deltagare till projekten.
    • Projektledningen är en nyckelfaktor för projektets framgång.
    • Vilken typ och grad av utanförskap som representeras hos de individer som deltar i projekten är styrande för projektens inriktning och aktiviteter.
  • 12.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Integrated Approach to Measuring the Development of High Technology Firms2013In: High Technology Entrepreneurship: A Festschrift for Ray Oakey / [ed] Peter van der Sijde, Gary Cook ,Ingrid Wakkee,Wim During and Aard Groen, Linköping: VU University Press , 2013, p. 53-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small high-technology firms are a central element in technological innovation and economic growth; as such, they have attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners. In the last 20 years Ray Oakey has become an undisputed authority in this field. This volume of conceptual and empirical studies provides an overview of Ray Oakey’s exceptional career and work and of the most important topics in the field of high-technology entrepreneurship. It discusses the intricate dynamics between entrepreneurs, venture, and networks, as well as the issue of university-entrepreneurship interactions and other forms of public private partnerships in the field of high technology. The present volume contains diverse contributions in terms of both the methodology applied—from case studies to large scale surveys—as well as the fields and countries investigated and the theoretical frameworks applied, reflecting the broad scope of Ray Oakey’s thinking and writing.

  • 13.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurship Policy: Public Support for Technology-Based Ventures2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is entrepreneurship policy and the focus is on public support programmes directed to early stages technology-based ventures. It advocates that a broad view should be taken with regard to the type of policies for entrepreneurship that aim at supporting the facilitation of the supported ventures’ ability to link to their surrounding innovation system, in which they can secure their access to crucial external resources. Taking the departure in the perspective that early stages technology-based ventures are vulnerable, this thesis shows that publicly financed entrepreneurship supporting programmes can be motivated because small and newly started ventures have got limited resources, and because the risks, with which they are associated, generally make them unattractive in the eyes of private actors.

    Among the practical implications of this thesis, the following findings are emphasised: Public support, directed to the very earliest stages of venture development benefits from broadness, for the latter stages, specialisation and a higher degree of selectiveness could be an advantage. Moreover, it is important that the support provided take into account the whole process of business development, i.e. both the issues concerned with product/service and the issues connected to the market. A long-term commitment, cooperation between different actors and information about what support is available, are other aspects that are important for policymakers to consider in their design of public policies to support entrepreneurship. Finally, the importance of evaluative awareness must be emphasised from the very start.

    List of papers
    1. Incubator best practice: A framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incubator best practice: A framework
    2008 (English)In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a holistic approach, where the goals of the incubators are taken into account and the performance of different incubators are put in relation to their incubator models. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework that can serve as a basis for identifying best practice incubator models and for more rigorous evaluations of incubator performance. The framework suggested includes three distinguishing model components: selection, business support and mediation. We distinguish between idea-focused selection and entrepreneur-focused selection as well as between “picking-the-winners” and “survival-of-the-fittest” selection. Business support is seen as a continuum from “laissez-faire” to “strong intervention”. Mediation strategies vary in terms of the type of innovation system in focus: technological, regional or cluster. The framework is applied to 16 Swedish incubators.

    Keywords
    Incubator, Performance, Best practice, Incubator model, Selection, Business support, Mediation
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13255 (URN)10.1016/j.technovation.2007.07.008 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Anna Bergek and Charlotte Norrman, Incubator best practice: A framework, 2008, Technovation, (28), 1-2, 20-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2007.07.008 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Postprint available at: Linköping University Electronic Press http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13255 Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Which New Venture Ideas Get Public Sector Innovation Support?: A study of Early-Stage Financing from a Supply Side Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which New Venture Ideas Get Public Sector Innovation Support?: A study of Early-Stage Financing from a Supply Side Perspective
    2007 (English)In: New Technology-based firms in the new millennium / [ed] Aard Groen, Ray Oakey, Peter van der Sijde, Saleema Kauser, Elsevier, 2007, p. 89-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book consists of selected papers from the Annual High Technology Small Firms (HTSFs). The conference is acknowledged by experts in the field to be a particularly useful and authoritative record of the evolution of HTSF research since the inception of the series in 1993. It addresses strategic growth for small firms. It discusses how to harness external resources to promote growth (i.e., government and/or larger firms) while maintaining a win-win. It includes discussion of "spin off" the transformation from a non-profit making entity to a competitive busines world

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2007
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13256 (URN)978-0-08-045152-7 (ISBN)0-080-45-152-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Selection Mechanisms of a Public Support Scheme
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Selection Mechanisms of a Public Support Scheme
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on public innovation support for ventures in their early stages of development. Based on quantitative analysis of programme-specific data, the authors explore and discuss what mechanisms have influenced a public sector actor in selecting ideas for funding. The main findings show, first, that the 'legal form of the firm' and the 'type of industry' are the main factors that discriminate among firms that have gained public financial support and, second, that explicit and tacit selection criteria affect the process that determines which ideas are to receive support.

    Keywords
    PUBLIC INNOVATION SUPPORT; SUPPORT SCHEMES; SELECTION MECHANISMS; EARLY-STAGE VENTURES
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13257 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas
    2005 (English)In: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13776 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-02-27 Created: 2006-02-27 Last updated: 2017-10-23
    5. Public Support to Innovative Ventures: Does it Have Any Impact?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Support to Innovative Ventures: Does it Have Any Impact?
    2007 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13259 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-10-23
    6. What Can be Expected from a Public Venture Support Programme?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Can be Expected from a Public Venture Support Programme?
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13260 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2017-01-26
    7. Some findings from the ongoing study of the Vinnova Vinn Nu programme
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some findings from the ongoing study of the Vinnova Vinn Nu programme
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13261 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 14.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Genus och innovationsstöd. En studie av SIC: s villkorslån åren 1994-20032004Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Innovationsbidrag och villkorslån. Statistiska data om SIC: s innovationsbidrag och villkorslån mellan åren 1994 och 20032006Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Publicly Funded Support of Technology-Based Ventures2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about publicly funded support of technology-based ventures. These ventures are regarded as solutions to create growth and societal development. They are commonly originated from universities, institutes or other firms and their products or techniques are commonly new or at least different from the ordinary. They are therefore considered as being of higher risk than generic new firms, but if successful they may also give higher returns. Hence, a range of efforts has been undertaken to support them. However, concerning the issue of public support, gaps of research have been exposed.

    This thesis aims to give some answers on the question of what characterizes the public support given to technology-based ventures in Sweden. It elucidates two types of public support, the “configuration-type” and the “process-type” The first is studied by using statistical databases built upon the conditional loans and the innovation subsidies that were offered by Sweden Innovation Centre during the years 1994-2003. The second type concerns incubator support, and investigates how best practise incubators can be evaluated. Among the results, it can be mentioned that different support actors use different selection criteria depending on their goals, however the credibility of the applying venture is crucial for approval. Furthermore, a framework for best practice evaluation is developed.

    List of papers
    1. Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13775 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-02-27 Created: 2006-02-27 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    2. Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas
    2005 (English)In: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13776 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-02-27 Created: 2006-02-27 Last updated: 2017-10-23
    3. Sorting Out The Apples, Pears and Fruit Salads in Incubator Performance Evaluation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sorting Out The Apples, Pears and Fruit Salads in Incubator Performance Evaluation
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13777 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-02-27 Created: 2006-02-27 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 17.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bager-Sjögren, Lars
    Swedish agency for growth policy analysis.
    Entrepreneurship policy to support new innovative ventures: Is it effective?2010In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 602-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish data, we investigate whether the effectiveness of an entrepreneurship policy programme can be traced over time among those firms it supports. The results are drawn from a longitudinal matched pair analysis. Hypotheses were tested every year for eight years. The main conclusions are: when bias is considered the public support programme has not generated measurable additionality and the programme has to some extent been able to select firms on a general level; however, among those selected, the scheme has not been able to identify potentially successful firms.

  • 18.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bager-Sjögren, Lars
    Public Support to Innovative Ventures: Does it Have Any Impact?2007Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Moberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovative methods for entrepreneurship and leadership teaching in CDIO-based engineering education2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference, Barcelona: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on mixed methods for teaching and learning; with special emphasis on individualized learning and engagement of students for reaching better results and relevance in CDIO (Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating)-based engineering education. Four types of learning activities are discussed in the paper; “flipped classroom”, “experiential learning exercises”, “sharp live cases” and “theory-based practical exercises”. The empirical material consists of the authors’ own teaching experience. Based on a literature review and our own experience, we propose a model of components crucial to take into account when learning activities are designed and practiced. These components are stakeholders, pedagogics, technology and context.

  • 20.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundberg, Amanda
    Demola East Sweden.
    André, André
    Demola East Sweden.
    Simple Mockups: Tool to Enhance Visualisation and Creativity inEntrepreneurship Courses2017In: Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017 / [ed] Robert Brennan, Kristina Edström, Ron Hugo, Janne Roslöf, Robert Songer and Daniel Spooner, Calgary: University of Calgary , 2017, p. 481-489Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO framework encourages us to work with prototyping during the conceive and design phases integrated into engineering education. At Linköping university, we apply prototyping and working with simple mockups in several entrepreneurship and innovation courses in order to stimulate creative thinking and experimentation. We have seen that through working with a joint prototype, the students increase their level of engagement and self-confidence while learning to know each other, both as individuals, and according to their skills and competence. Prototyping events are appreciated as learning activities, not least as they signal a culture of playfulness and unpretentiousness within a course. We have also seen that it is important to inspire the participating students to reflect on the event in order to complete the learning process. In the paper we analyse and discuss our experience regarding how and at what time in a course simple prototypes can be used, how workshops can be developed, and what we have learned.

  • 21.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundberg, Amanda
    Demola East Sweden.
    André, Marcus
    Demola East Sweden.
    Simple Mockups - Tool to Enhance Visualisation and Creativity in Entrepreneurship Courses2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO framework encourages us to work with prototyping during the conceive and design phases integrated into engineering education. At Linköping university, we apply prototyping and working with simple mockups in several entrepreneurship and innovation courses in order to stimulate creative thinking and experimentation. We have seen that through working with a joint prototype, the students increase their level of engagement and self-confidence while learning to know each other, both as individuals, and according to their skills and competence. Prototyping events are appreciated as learning activities, not least as they signal a culture of playfulness and unpretentiousness within a course. We have also seen that it is important to inspire the participating students to reflect on the event in order to complete the learning process. In the paper we analyse and discuss our experience regarding how and at what time in a course simple prototypes can be used, how workshops can be developed, and what we have learned. 

  • 22.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    CDIO-based entrepreneurship courses as drivers of innovation in industrial segments2017In: Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017 / [ed] Robert Brennan, Kristina Edström, Ron Hugo, Janne Roslöf, Robert Songer and Daniel Spooner, Calgary: University of Calgary , 2017, p. 288-297Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe and discuss how in two CDIO-based entrepreneurship courses at Linköping University, Sweden, we encourage students to identify and solve challenges and problems in two adjacent industrial sectors, i.e., environmental technology and agricultural/green industries. Both courses are offered to a broad range of engineering programs. The industrial sectors chosen give the students a delimited context incorporating direction, business culture and technology, that forms a basis for the students on which to build their entrepreneurship cases. Working with real challenges gives real-life experience of how models and frameworks can be utilized and correctly executed. In addition, it increases project relevance, student motivation and learning.

    One challenge to overcome is the fact that many students lack previous work-life experience and a thorough knowledge of the industrial sectors in focus. Experiences from earlier courses told us that this made it difficult for students identify and develop realistic, yet challenging and new business ideas on their own to. To remedy this, we tested facilitating interaction with industry, and through this help the students to detect real problems. Furthermore, it was anticipated that interaction with external actors, such as established businesses, organizations and potential customers, helps students to adjust and fine-tune needs and demands to create business ideas that could have real potential. As an added benefit, this approach could enable academia to act as co-creator in industrial problem solving, i.e., to put academic knowledge to practical use in society. Based on our own experiences and student feedback we discuss how this approach forced the students out of their comfort zones, challenged their creativity and enhanced their learning.

  • 23.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of ESF projects2013In: Capturing effects: of projects and programmes / [ed] Lennart Svensson, Göran Brulin, Sven Jansson, Karin Sjöberg ; translation: Brian Turner, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 117-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effekter av ESF-projekt2013In: Att fånga effekter: av program och projekt / [ed] Lennart Svensson, Göran Brulin, Sven Jansson, Karin Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 115-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stora projekt som finansieras av EU utvärderas alltid. Men är dessa utvärderingar rättvisande? Letar man efter de verkliga och hållbara effekterna? Att fånga effekter av stora projekt är en svår uppgift. Inte minst beror det på att verkningarna kan vara av många olika slag - oväntade, icke avsedda, överraskande, dolda och ibland utanför målområdet. Det gör det inte mindre angeläget: dessa effekter kan vara viktigare än de planerade, avsedda och förväntade. I denna bok beskrivs resultatet av ett flertal analyser av utvecklings­arbete i stora projekt och program - i organisationer, på regional nivå, i nationella program med mera. Slutsatserna dras från teoretiska analyser samt från en lång rad empiriska studier. Boken vänder sig till forskare, regionalt utvecklingsansvariga och myndighetsföreträdare. Den kan användas i utbildning av olika slag - inom flera områden i högskolan och till projektledare, utvärderare, följeforskare och finansiärer samt projektägare.

  • 25.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Entrepreneurship against all odds: tool to create social cohesion, inclusion and jobs2012In: 17th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research (NCSB 2012), Helsinki, FINLAND, ABSTRACT VOLUME / [ed] Markku Virtanen, Helsinki, Finland: School of Economics Small Business Center , 2012, p. 1-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large sums have during the recent years been allocated towards the European Social Fund (ESF) goals of job creation, inclusion and social cohesion. Entrepreneurship has been launched as important tool to reach the desired outcomes. In this paper we have investigated whether entrepreneurship is present in the context of ESF projects, how it is constituted and, by whom it is carried out. The findings show that there were grains of entrepreneurship in most of the projects studied. It was carried out by project participants in the form of new general ventures, and in the form of social entrepreneurship ventures. In the latter, the targeted individuals were in a deep social exclusion position, and the entrepreneurship was carried out by the project managers. Jobs and inclusion were created, but we question for how long.

  • 26.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovationssystemets stödaktörer möter unga 18-30 år2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av programmet Ungas Innovationskraft har vi gjort en kartläggning av stödaktörerna i det Svenska innovationssystemet. Syftet med kartläggningen är att undersöka hur aktörerna i det befintliga innovations- och entreprenörskapsstödjande systemet arbetar med att stimulera, synliggöra och utveckla/stödja ungas innovationskraft. Datainsamlingen har gjorts i två steg; först en webinventering som grund och därefter en intervjuundersökning där respondenter från 30 stödaktörer från sammanlagt 7 NUTS-regioner intervjuades. De intervjuade aktörerna är hämtade från såväl storstad som glesbyggd och representationen är spridd från Malmö i söder till Jokkmokk i norr.

     

    Våra resultat visar att det finns ett stort utbud av aktörer, med olika inriktning och kompetens som kan stötta idéutveckling, innovation, entreprenörskap och företagande ute i landet. Dock finns det mycket som tyder på att denna djungel av aktörer är svårnavigerad för den som söker stöd, varför en ökad positionering och en ökad samordning aktörerna emellan skulle vara lämplig. Målgruppen unga 18-30 år har hittills inte varit i nämnvärt fokus, dock ser vi att förändringar verkar vara på gång. Förmodligen behövs såväl kompetensutveckling som föryngring av rådgivargruppen för att bättre möta och hantera unga människors idéer. Vi kan också se att det är få aktörer som kan bistå med finansiering för ungas idéer. Sociala medier ses som en lösning att nå unga människor, men vi ifrågasätter om det är hela svaret.

  • 27.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Litteratur- och forskningsöversikt: Socialt företagande och arbetsintegrerande socialt företagande2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en systematisk genomgång av vilken forskning och vilka insatser som i dag finns på områdena ”arbetsintegration”och ”socialt företagande”. Detta arbete har genomförts under hösten 2012. Studien omfattar dels en översikt över forskningslitteraturen på området och dels en inventering av vad som görs ute på ”fältet”.

  • 28.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Entrepreneurship Policy Programme: Implications and Expectations2009In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which the expected outcomes from a public support programme match the real outcomes and whether the support given matches the needs of the receivers. The findings are drawn from a survey of 154 ventures supported by a major Swedish entrepreneurship policy programme. The results show that public support increases motivation and has a positive effect on product development processes. One major implication is that there is a mismatch between product development and market development. This should therefore be an important consideration for the designers of all types of public support programmes.

  • 29.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Financing New Ventures: Attitudes Toward Public Financing2007In: The Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 30.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Financing New Ventures: Attitudes Towards Public Innovation Support2010In: New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millenium / [ed] Oakey, R et al, Emerald Group Publishing , 2010, -, p. 89-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if there exist a gap between the supply (the financial scheme) and the demand (the entrepreneur) of public innovation support. Our research is built upon a survey of the applicant’s attitudes to the support given by the scheme Sweden Innovation Centre (SIC). In common for our respondents is that they have applied for public innovation finance from the SIC during its final years, 2002-2003. Among the recipients there are both rejected and supported cases. In total 294 questionnaires have been analysed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show upon that there is a gap between the support given and the support demanded. This gap is constituted by a demand for support coupled to the market. It is also shown that the support has increased the motivation of the supported firms, but we found no evidence that it has increased the credibility of the supported venture, nor it seem to have enlarged their networks or developed their business in a substantial way.

  • 31.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 32.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance, Venture Capital2010In: New Technology-Based Firms at the New Millennium / [ed] Ray Oakey, Aard Groen, Gary Cook, Peter van der Sijde, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. , 2010, p. -229Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

           "The New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millenium" series provides up to date research on a variety of aspects of High Technology Small Firm formation and growth (HTSFs) from a range of interdisciplinary perspectives and from national contexts throughout the world. This edited book series reflects on and shapes currently popular national government policies insofar as they relate to HTSFs. It is the only international publication specifically dealing with HTSF formation and growth and it uniquely provides an uninterrupted record of research in this area since 1993. This latest volume is a collection of the best papers presented at the HTSF Conference held in the United Kingdom at Manchester Business School in June 2007. Three major themes have emerged. Six particularly strong chapters of this volume are devoted to the critical problems of HTSF financing, comprising two contributions from the United Kingdom and individual chapters from Sweden, the Irish Republic, Italy, and Belgium. A further four papers are concerned with aspects of strategic development in HTSFs, and a final group of three papers deal with HTSF marketing problems, often in a 'born global' strategic context.

  • 33.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Selection Mechanisms of a Public Support Scheme2008In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on public innovation support for ventures in their early stages of development. Based on quantitative analysis of programme-specific data, the authors explore and discuss what mechanisms have influenced a public sector actor in selecting ideas for funding. The main findings show, first, that the 'legal form of the firm' and the 'type of industry' are the main factors that discriminate among firms that have gained public financial support and, second, that explicit and tacit selection criteria affect the process that determines which ideas are to receive support.

  • 34.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stöd till innovativa företag: Utvärdering av ett policyinitiativ2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den föreliggande rapporten redovisar vi resultaten av den uppföljning som utförts vid Linköpings Universitet av de 60 företag som år 2002, 2003 och 2004 fick det av VINNOVA och NUTEK instiftade programmet VINN NU. VINN NU-finansieringen är ett bidrag om 300.000 kronor som varje år i konkurrens delas ut till upp till 20 företag med idéer i kunskapsintensiva branscher. Programmet instiftades 2002 i syfte att möta finansieringsbehovet hos innovativa företag i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede. Uppföljningen har genomförts i form av enkätbaserade telefonintervjuer med VINN NU-företagen. Vi har kartlagt basuppgifter om företagen, följt upp deras utveckling baserat på de åtta hörnstenarna i Klofstens (1992) affärsplattformsmodell. Vidare har vi undersökt VINN NU-företagens attityder till programmet samt efterfrågat deras åsikter om styrkor och förbättringsområden för VINN NU-programmet.

    Sammantaget visar vår undersökning att VINN NU-programmet har uppfyllt sina mål. Företagen har, med genomsnittliga mått mätt, utvecklats positivt på samtliga centrala frågeställningar inom ramen för affärsplattformens hörnstenar. Vi bedömer det därför som högst sannolikt att VINN NUprogrammet bidragit till att de företag som fått stödet utvecklats positivt.Förbättringarna har varit allra störst på de centrala frågeställningar som konstituerar företagens produkter/ tjänster, övriga relationer (t ex med finansiärer och andra stödjande aktörer) och marknaden för dess erbjudande. De tillfrågade företagen ansåg att offentligt stöd till företag i tidiga utvecklingsskeden är viktigt. De ansåg även att dessa stöd bör kombineras med rådgivning och att de bör ges ett långsiktigt perspektiv. VINN NUfinansieringen sågs som en viktig ”morot” eller ”motivationshöjare” som som ökar företagarnas lust att lägga ner ytterligare kraft och engagemang på att vidareutveckla företaget. Man kan heller inte bortse från finansieringens trovärdighetsförhöjande effekt gentemot omgivande aktörer som exempelvis externa finansiärer.

    Andra resultat som framkommit är att de studerade företagen kan karaktäriseras som kunskapsintensiva från en rad olika branscher, där ICT och Biotech är de dominerande. Grundarna till företagen var även välutbildade eller mycket välutbildade (magisterexamen eller forskarutbildning). De skiljer sig åt storleksmässigt, det största företaget omsätter ca 30 miljoner medan flera helt saknar, eller har mycket låg omsättning. Företagen har tillväxtambitioner, dock var flertalet företag, sett till antalet anställda, fortfarande relativt små vid uppföljningstillfället.

  • 35.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What Can be Expected from a Public Venture Support Programme?2008In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas2005In: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Role of Seed Capital: A study of Small-Scale Governmental Subsidies to Innovative Ideas2005In: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    What ideas got public innovation support? A survey study of early stage financing of new ventures.2004In: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    What venture ideas get public innovation support? A survey study of early stage financing from a supply side perspective2004In: Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2004, Enschede: Univeristy of Twente , 2004, p. 241-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Which New Venture Ideas Get Public Sector Innovation Support?: A study of Early-Stage Financing from a Supply Side Perspective2007In: New Technology-based firms in the new millennium / [ed] Aard Groen, Ray Oakey, Peter van der Sijde, Saleema Kauser, Elsevier, 2007, p. 89-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book consists of selected papers from the Annual High Technology Small Firms (HTSFs). The conference is acknowledged by experts in the field to be a particularly useful and authoritative record of the evolution of HTSF research since the inception of the series in 1993. It addresses strategic growth for small firms. It discusses how to harness external resources to promote growth (i.e., government and/or larger firms) while maintaining a win-win. It includes discussion of "spin off" the transformation from a non-profit making entity to a competitive busines world

1 - 40 of 40
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