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  • 1.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship – new themes for new times2010In: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, ISSN ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, innovators and entrepreneurs have had a tremendous impact on development, exploration, trade, education, science, and integration. During the 20th century, innovation and entrepre-neurship have been regarded as key drivers in technological progress and productivity development worldwide. New radical innovations from new fields of knowledge such as information and communication technologies and biotechnology have emerged to influence everyday life for most people. Realizing this, policy makers as well as individuals argue that innovative and entrepreneurial change processes need to be further implemented on the micro as well as macro levels in society (Abouzeedan, Busler, & Hedner, 2009; Busenitz, Gomez, & Spencer, 2000). The study of innovation is therefore likely to be an increasingly important topic in, for example, economics, business, entrepreneurship, tech-nology, engineering, medicine, environmental biology, sociology, design, and reregional development (cf. Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005).

  • 2.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model2011In: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, p. 170-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

  • 3.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implementing the SIV Model on an Intensively Innovation-Oriented Firm: The Case of Autoadapt AB2012In: World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2042-5961, Vol. 8, no 2/3, p. 122-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) evaluation models lack a clear coupling to innovation and its impact on firm performance. A model which can achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate and predict the performance of a company. The firm, Autoadapt AB, is an innovation-oriented enterprise, adapting personal cars to be driven by handicapped people. The authors knew in advance about the good performance of the firm and its high efficiency in conducting its operations and expected the SIV model to reflect correctly on Autoadapt's performance. Because the handicap degree of each of the individuals who benefit from the firm activities differs from one person to another, product solutions have to be individually designed. Therefore the firm has had to pursue a high level of innovativeness and it had to abide with this policy right from the start. The product development processes in the firm needed to adapt to such strategies.

    To be able to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive performance due to the intensive innovation activities of Autoadapt AB, a case study approach was used. Case studies are very suited for in-depth analysis of an object under a longer period of time. It is a widely-used research method in firm performance studies.

    The results of the SIV analysis indicated that the model is able to project correctly the performance of the object firm. At all the four levels of analysis, i.e. SI values, the SPI slope, the survival factors, and the survivability coefficients, the SIV analysis performance indicated a stable positive development of the firm through the life time of the enterprise.

    Measuring performance of SMEs is an important issue. There are couple of models stemming from the traditional accountancy disciplines in use; however these models suffer from clear disadvantages. Recently a new model, the SIV model, was introduced and has shown the ability of being a better candidate for performance analysis. The paper demonstrates the ability of the SIV model to judge correctly the performance of an innovative firm.

  • 4.
    Adli, Abouzeedan
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Institute of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Internetisation Management as a Facilitator for Managing Innovation in High Technology Smaller Firms2013In: Global Business Review, ISSN 0972-1509, E-ISSN 0973-0664, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 121-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing innovation in smaller firms imposes challenges of specific nature. Such challenges include: scarcity of resources for R&D and innovation activities, complexity of scientific fields, coordinating innovation activities with the operational functions of the firm and availability of access to up-to-date scientific excellence. A question of importance should be raised as to how one can use the recent development in information and communication technologies (ITCs) to meet these challenges and to facilitate innovation activities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), specially the high- technology smaller firms (HTSFs), as these use innovation as their major competitive edge. In this conceptual paper we proposed using a newly introduced management paradigm, namely “internetisation management” to achieve the said. In the article we discussed the different challenges of innovation in HTSFs and how these challenges can be meet when adapting the internetisation management paradigm. The work shed the light on the need for a coupling between management and innovation studies in relation to SMEs while taking in consideration the e-globalized nature of the modern economy. It addresses in a more particular way HTSFs need for that coupling.

  • 5.
    Albahari, Alberto
    et al.
    Universidad de Malaga.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos
    Universidad de Malaga.
    Science and Technology Parks: A study of value creation for park tenants2018In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on Science and Technology Parks (STPs) is growing rapidly and, despite the positive impact of STPs on firms found by many studies, it remains unclear how STPs create value for tenants. In this paper, we study the STP supply side through a case study in a Swedish region. We identify two components of the business support provided by parks: a configuration-oriented component, and a process-oriented component. The former refers to the static design of the business support, and the latter to the active, hands-on support provided by parks’ management. Both components must be planned carefully in order to deliver value to tenants. We also discuss some implications for policy and managers.

  • 6.
    Autio, Erkko
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), Finland.
    Keeley, R. H.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ulfstedt, T.
    Entrepreneurial Intent Among Students: Testing an Intent Model in Asia, Scandinavia and USA1997In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 1997: Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Paul D. Reynolds, Wellesley, Mass.: Babson College , 1997, p. 133-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Autio, Erkko
    et al.
    London Business School.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study of two European business incubators1998In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 30-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the literature on the management of SME support arrangements, such as new business incubation programs, by presenting two European case studies of such arrangements. In the case studies, we have tried to identify management practices that seem to work well in both cases. The literature abounds with "success stories" of for example individual science parks but such stories tend to have two major shortcomings. First, what constitutes success is seldom defined. Second, it is difficult to determine to what degree this success depends on local factors and to what degree it can be attributed to the management practices of the support arrangement. This study discusses the management practices of these two arrangements against the background of their regional settings.

  • 8.
    Bager-Sjögren, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krakowski, Sebastian
    University of Geneva, Geneva School of Economics and Management (GSEM), Switzerland.
    Firm growth and survival from a 14-year perspective: A cohort analysis2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether early growth is important for the short- and long-term survival and development of new firms. The study exploits registry data for a specific cohort of Swedish firms that tracks their development until their exit, or up to 14 years, at which point only 8% of the firms remain. We find growth to be associated with increased survival of the firms, that the number of employees (in the previous year) is positively correlated with survival in following years and somewhat surprisingly, we found subsidiaries to face a significantly larger hazard of closure than independent firms.

  • 9.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klaus, Fichter
    Borderstep Institute/Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators and securing the inflow of tenants – the case of Green Garage Berlin2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 157, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an attention in research and practise on entrepreneurial ecosystems, and how these, often using incubators, could support sustainable development through new firm start-ups. Despite the popularity of incubators in the literature and practise, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general or, more specifically, on processes that ensure a steady flow of tenants. Thus, this paper investigates how sustainable incubators ensures their inflow of tenants, how they organize their activities and whether the incubator environment affect tenant recruitment. A case study approach analysing the sustainability oriented incubator Green Garage Berlin have been used to generate an understanding of selection and recruitment processes as well the influence of external environments. The results show that regional and inter-regional co-operation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Incubator reputation and sufficient long term funding is also a key to success. A good practice case as Green Garage cannot simply be replicated, but require openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions.

  • 10.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fichter, Klaus
    Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators, regional factors and the recruiting of tenants2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses incubators that claim a sustainability approach and pays particular attention to their inflow of firms – tenant recruitment. We also discuss external environment influences on tenant recruitment to the incubator. A case study approach examined one sustainable incubator that was successful in exclusively targeting ideas with a sustainable, climate-oriented mission. The results show that regional and inter-regional cooperation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Success also dictates that sustainable incubators apply a generous, non-sector-specific intake approach so that as many entrepreneurs as possible enter the incubator process. Ventures with the greatest potential can then be sifted out from this pool over time. Another factor affecting whether an incubator reaches a critical mass of sustainable tenants is the external environment. Finally, we make some suggestions for demand-side legislation that would support sustainable business ideas and lead markets for climate-friendly solutions. Such legislation would encourage or discourage sustainable and less sustainable technologies, setting us one step closer to an ideally sustainable world.

  • 11.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Stanford University, USA.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    The permeable university: a study of PhD student mobility and academic entrepreneurship intentions2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Elg, Mattias, Ellström, Per-Erik, Klofsten, Magnus, Tillmar, Malin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 262-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Creating entrepreneurial networks: academic entrepreneurship, mobility and collaboration during PhD education2012In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network-building activities of PhD students are an important area of study in furthering our understanding of academic entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on PhD students’ participation in network-building activities defined as mobility and collaboration, as well as own interest in and perceived grade of support for commercialisation from various levels of the university hierarchy. The results of a large-scale survey (of 1,126 PhD students at Linköping University, Sweden, 41% response rate) presented here show that the majority of PhD students are engaged in collaborations with external organisations, though quite few (one quarter) have spent a part of their PhD education outside their home university. PhD students from all faculties are on average interested in commercialisation and in favour of it. However, PhD students from the faculty of Health Sciences state that it is difficult for them to combine research and commercialisation. Furthermore, interest in commercialisation of research results is relatively lowest amongst those PhD students who are undertaking mobility placements at other universities, thus pointing to an experienced incompatibility of research and academic entrepreneurship.

  • 13.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Creating entrepreneurial networks: Commercialisation of research, mobility and collaboration during PhD education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The universities are expected to contribute to the society in manifold ways; their main tasks include supplying the labour market with educated workers, developing scientific knowledge, both basic and applied, and recently also supporting entrepreneurial initiatives and commercialisation of research results. PhD education constitutes a considerable part of many universities’ activities and PhD students perform a large share of research. Yet there are few studies concerned with PhD students’ possibilities to commercialise research results or the university context supportiveness in this regard. Therefore, this paper investigates PhD students’ views on commercialisation and perceived grade of support from various levels of the university hierarchy. Moreover, the extent of mobility and external collaborations during PhD education and their correlations with opinions of PhD students are studied. These aspects are studied through analysis of data from a survey of 465 PhD students at Linköping University, Sweden.

    The results show that PhD students are on average slightly positive towards commercialisation of research results, although there are differences between various faculties. The university context is perceived as slightly supportive, except for the department and division levels at the faculties of Arts & Sciences (incl. Educational Sciences) and Health Sciences. A majority of PhD students are involved in external collaborations as a part of their PhD education, while a quarter have been spending a part of their PhD studies at another organisation. PhD students’ views on commercialisation are more connected to the direction of mobility than to mobility per se, while for external collaboration interest in commercialisation is lowest amongst those not involved in collaboration at all.

  • 14.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurship and the PhD: A case study of a doctoral mobility program2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the university context we see an intensified co-operation with industry which includesmobility aspects e.g. PhDs increasingly working in the private sector. This is a desirabledevelopment since it encourages network formation, knowledge transfer and innovation. Dueto that we have devoted our interest to the formation of PhD students’ professional networksthrough mobility as part of doctoral education. The following questions are addressed in thispaper: 1) How could a mobility program for PhD students be designed and implemented? 2)How are mobility aspects of PhD studies affected by career plans and existing networks in thestudents’ research teams? The data used in this study comes from a novel Swedish approachto PhD education in life science technologies - a program called AgoraLink (ALP). The resultsshow that ALP is in many cases used to develop existing links with industry in the participants’home country and research organisations abroad. Furthermore, the PhD students admitted toextramural activities tend to have well articulated career plans and use the program to realizetheir ambitions. Finally, ALP seems to catalyse mobility and development of previouslyestablished contacts by providing a framework and legitimacy.

  • 15.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Entrepreneurship support and sustainability focus within business incubators: a European study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As societies strive to address current environmental challenges new markets and opportunities are opening up for both businesses and entrepreneurs implement sustainability within their operations. In a recent report by OECD (2013) it is noted that green entrepreneurs in general have to overcome higher barriers than other entrepreneurs, e.g. concerning regulations, immature markets and shortages of skills. Thus, one key question is how identification, evaluation and exploitation of business opportunities related to sustainable innovation and green business can be effectively supported by organizations such as business incubators. The aim of this study is to investigate business incubators in three European countries with the highest positions on European Union’s Eco-Innovation Scoreboard from 2014 (Finland, Germany, Sweden) with respect to how they manage sustainability aspects. More specifically, we are studying how sustainability in social and environmental terms is integrated into incubators’ processes for selection and support of their tenants. The data was collected through a survey where we reached the management of 360 business incubators in the three countries and received 96 responses. We show that there is substantial interest among incubators to gain an image of being sustainability-profiled. However, this image does not seem to be supported with practical organizational routines when selecting and supporting tenants. While the majority of incubators in Finland, Germany and Sweden consider sustainability an important issue for incubation, few incubators actually offer sustainability specific services or advice (e.g. related to ecodesign or marketing of green products). This is a clear gap in the existing entrepreneurship support system that should be addressed by policymakers, stakeholders and managers of incubators.

  • 16.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Triple Helix networking during PhD education: A study of mobility and attitudes towards commercialization of research2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rasmussen, Einar
    Bodø Graduate School of Business, University of Nordland, Norway.
    PhD students in the entrepreneurial university - a study of perceived supportiveness from the university context for academic entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Einar
    Nord University Business School,Bodø, Norway.
    PhD Students in the Entrepreneurial University - Perceived Support for Academic Entrepreneurship2016In: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 56-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities are currently in the process of change and adaptation to shifting expectations that for example include closer engagement with businesses and increased facilitation of entrepreneurship among faculty and graduates. By supporting academic entrepreneurship, universities can address these expectations whilst also becoming more entrepreneurial institutions. However, more knowledge is needed on how this support provided by different levels in the university organisation is perceived by academics. This is particularly relevant in the case of PhD students because many of them will go on to become the next generation of senior faculty and because PhD education constitutes a considerable part of most universities’ activities with PhD students performing a large share of university research. Our study is based on survey responses of 464 PhD students from all faculties at one of the biggest universities in Sweden. The results show that the perceived support of commercialisation of research results varies at different hierarchical levels within the university. The score for perceived support from the highest level (central administration) did not differ much between the faculties, while significant differences were found at lower levels. We argue that variations between faculties and departments with regard to norms and cultures should be considered when stimulating entrepreneurial engagement, for example by using multiple channels of communication, as well as tailor-made strategies and activities.

  • 19.
    Brulin, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kloftsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy Programmes to promote Entrepreneurship and Innovation: A study of the art, design and impact issues2011In: Proceedings of 56:th ISCB world conference, 2011, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe 2020 strategy EU puts forward three mutually reinforcing priorities smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. A main driving force are innovation programmes. Our understanding of programme-drivingwill always be tentative but can be improved. Analysis of programmedriving provides an alternative way of tackling the problem. It is an approach that enhances the understanding – contextually, practically and theoretically. Rather than heading for final, concrete and onedimensionaloften quantitative knowledge we should get used to the fact that our understanding always will be fragmentary and imperfect though, on a higher level! Knowledge on innovation programme-driving should improve innovation institutions/practices/ethos in different respects.

  • 20. Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University.
    Science Parks - University interaction: A literature2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of Science Parks, many studies have shown that Science Parks have ceased to be mere facilitators of physical spaces, to become important providers of services and resources to their tenants. Considering that skilled professionals are one of the most sought after resources by technology and knowledge intensive firms, Science Parks have dedicated numerous activities and means in order to become even more attractive to talents. In this context, universities situated in or next to Science Parks play a key role in developing and attracting talents to Science Parks and to its firms as well as to the region, functioning as a regional node of a large national and international network of universities. Science Parks and universities are vital parts of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of a region and have many complementarities. In this study, we review the literature regarding the relationship existing between Science Parks and universities and the ways in which they can collaborate. Talent, recruitment, and entrepreneurship issues are addressed as the building blocks of these interactions. Other stakeholders, inside and outside a Science Park, are also analysed in order to widen the perspective to the ecosystem of actors involved, allowing a better understanding of the role, the interests, the means and the implications of each one. The purpose of this study is to understand and qualify the university's role in attracting and developing talent that firms in Science Parks can recruit later on. We identify the types of interactions occurring between Science Parks and their nearby universities. We strive to find what kinds of skills are considered relevant by employers, and to describe the initiatives developed by universities and Science Parks – separately and together – aiming at drawing, developing and retaining talents. We also seek to identify who are the actors involved; private or public organisations, or people embodying specific functions in these organisations. In the end, we recognize and point out policy implications, concerning both universities and Science Parks.

  • 21.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Future developments for Science Parks: Attracting and developing talent2017In: Industry and Higher Education, ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, science parks have developed and improved their processes to offer better support to their tenants and promote the growth of the region in which they are located. Since regional growth is closely associated with groups of talented people, science parks carry out various activities at the company or individual level to attract and recruit talent. In order to understand how such activities have been and are being performed at Mja¨rdevi Science Park in Sweden, the authors highlight and analyse four talent-related cases. Their aim is to identify how talent can be attracted or recruited and to consider the stakeholders, their relationships and their motivations. The results confirm the importance to a science park of being close to a student community and of being connected to an international network with a well-recognized brand.

  • 22.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Albahari, Alberto
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Science Parks and the attraction of talents: Activities and challenges2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores activities that Science Parks undertake in order to attract entrepreneurial talent for their tenants. Despite the importance of accessing talent, there are very few studies focusing this research area. The data comes from seven cases studies on talent attraction activities run by three Swedish Science Parks. We show that the parks conduct many different activities in order to attract entrepreneurial talent, which includes headhunting of key personnel for start-ups; organising establishment platforms for foreign companies, as well as facilitating exchanges of knowledge and talent with Higher Education Institutions. Science Parks host firms with different sizes, ages, and business orientation and therefore, park managers should be sensible to respond to real needs of tenant firms when performing talent attraction activities.

  • 23. Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Johanson, Sten Gunnar
    Science parks - recruitment and development of talents2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science parks have from the very beginning been important and valuable tools for the development of knowledge intensive economies. Most science parks have also strongly attracted talents, ideas, capital, R&D and firms. During the past decades we have witnessed a number of other structures and organisations being established, i.e. innovation hubs, clusters and so forth. We have also seen a very clear trend that the science parks abandon the idea of being strict geographical locations and become more of a function in the city. One issue that quite recently has been recognised, connected to science park development, is the potential they have as attracters of talented individuals. The starting point is, which goes in line with Richard Florida and his thoughts about the “Creative class”, that regions´ ability to attract firms and human capital is a key in their economical development. Talent individuals will undertake entrepreneurial activities and building values for the environment in which they are operating. This paper will describe and analyse the role that science parks could have when it comes to recruiting and developing talents within the region they are operating. More precisely we are interested in the following research questions: 1) What strategies are science parks using to stimulate the attraction of talents in order to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship for their stakeholders? 2) How are these strategies implemented? 3) Why (if so) and in what way have the strategies been successful?

  • 24.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sten Gunnar, Johansson
    The development of a modern Science Park: A Swedish good practise2017In: Revista Militar de Ciência E Tecnologia, ISSN 2316-4522, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to get a deeper understanding of the reasons and activities related to the development of Science Parks of today, identifying actors involved and their relationships. To achieve the goal, we analysed the story of Mjärdevi Science Park (MSP), located in Linköping, Sweden, from its inception to the present. In our study, we could identify the several interactions car-ried out by the MSP with regional, national and even international actors, thus building an extensive network of relationships. Having built a solid foundation, working very close to its tenants, it was pos-sible to maintain a continuous development over the years, even in times of crises and difficulties. In the middle of the 90s, Mjärdevi Science Park was considered the 9th park fastest growing in the world [1] and today is undoubtedly a success story. It has become a ‘good practise’ in the European context regarding the innovative approach of being a park integrated in a regional framework.

  • 25.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    et al.
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Wolf, Roland
    AMS Advanced Medical Services GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Olausson, Michael
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decision-making in the pharmaceutical industry: analysis of entrepreneurial risk and attitude using uncertain information2011In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 321-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate judgments made by employees from the pharmaceutical industry and allied health-care sectors in a set of four different drug discovery and development cases derived from real scenarios. Each case study related to go/no-go decisions taken from various steps in drug discovery through preclinical and clinical development (investigational new drug) on to market introduction (new drug application) and treatment of the target population. Using a web-based questionnaire, 52 respondents made five sets of judgment within each drug case whether to continue or halt further project development. For each case, additional details of the developmental scenario were disclosed to the respondent after completion of each judgment response. We also assessed to what extent the individual judgments given by the respondents were influenced by work experience and functional role, education, or their perceived entrepreneurial character. Our study demonstrates that health-care employees differ substantially in their individual intuitive judgments of benefit and risk in go/no-go decisions during the drug discovery and development process. This lack of coherence and wide variability with respect to the drug development cases selected may reflect judgment in the real world. Such judgments are usually taken from incomplete information, and individual decision-making rules vary substantially between experts in the field. Further knowledge about this inherent human functional judgment variability may be helpful to form a better understanding of individual decision-making in relation to inherent uncertainties. Additional research may also clarify how personal experience within drug discovery and development influences judgment and help to optimize decision outcomes in the drug development sector. Importantly, a deeper insight of the fundamentals and rules that shape individual and group decision-making of everyday drug discovery and development may help to optimize the decision processes in the pharmaceutical industry.

  • 26.
    Davidsson, P
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, CIE, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    The business platform: Developing an instrument to gauge and to assist the development of young firms2003In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented here addresses the following problems we perceive in research on the development of young firms. First, we feel there is a lack of holistic yet quantifiable and generalizable ways in which to assess the state of newly started firms. Quantitative research typically relies on additive models that are unable to explain more than half of the outcome variance at the most. Holistic approaches tend to be qualitative and therefore have unknown generalizability. Second, we feel there is a lack of action-oriented assessment models that are firmly anchored in research. Research models typically take a passive prediction position and often build on relationships that give little hands-on advice to managers. Numerous practical tools for assessing and developing firms during their early development can be found in how-to literature, but these typically are not anchored in systematic research and therefore have unknown validity. Hence, what we set out to do in the research presented in this article is to develop a quantifiable, holistic, and research-based instrument for assessing and assisting the development of young firms.

  • 27.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Brisbane Graduate School of Business, QUT, Australia and Jönköping International Business School.
    Hunter, Erik
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Institutional Forces - The invisible hand that shapes venture ideas?2006In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 115-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional theory is employed for examining how and to what extent external pressure leads to changes in the venture idea during the start-up and early life of new, knowledge-intensive ventures. From a population of 321 young, knowledge-intensive firms that underwent a training program at Linköping University, Sweden, structured telephone interview data were obtained from 167 firms. The results confirmed that the venture idea had undergone more change in ventures that had more external owners a dominant customer, and an incubator location. The results imply that institutional theory is a meaningful tool for understanding why and how venture ideas change over time.

  • 28.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    JIBS.
    Hunter, Erik
    JIBS.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The discovery process: external influences on refinement of the venture idea2004In: Babson College-Kauffman Foundation Entrepreneurship Research Conference,2004, Boston: Babson , 2004, p. 327-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Hunter, Erik
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Discovery Process: External Influences on Refinement of the Venture Idea2005In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Shaker A. Zahra, Wellesley: Babson College , 2005, p. 327-337Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    de Almeida Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sten Gunnar, Johansson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Future Challenges for Science Parks: Attractiveness and Recruitment of Talents2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Science parks have from the very beginning been important and valuable tools for the development of knowledge intensive economies. Most science parks have also strongly attracted talents, ideas, capital, R&D and firms. During the past decades we have witnessed a number of other structures and organizations being established, i.e. innovation hubs, clusters and so forth. We have also seen a very clear trend that the science parks abandon the idea of being strict geographical locations and become more of a function in the city. One issue that quite recently has been recognized, connected to science park development, is the potential they have as attracters of talented individuals. The starting point is, which goes in line with Richard Florida and his thoughts about the “Creative class”, that regions´ ability to attract firms and human capital is a key in their economic development. Talent individuals will undertake entrepreneurial activities and building values for the environment in which they are operating.

  • 31.
    de Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    University of Antwerp, Belgium .
    Braet, Johan
    University of Antwerp, Belgium .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How human capital interacts with the early development of academic spin-offs2015In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 599-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on venture team characteristics with respect to human capital dimensions in early stage ventures emerging from academic research (institutions). Three major groups have been investigated: founders, top managers and directors. Data was obtained using personal interviews with 185 product-oriented academic spin-offs in nine European countries, including those of 17 failures. The results show a significant positive—but diminishing—impact of team heterogeneity on venture success, as well as a positive impact from legal expertise within the board of directors. At management level, the results further indicate that larger management team are better equipped to face the challenges in academic spin-offs. Furthermore, the added value of serial entrepreneurs is questioned, since they seem to negatively impact a spin-off’s survival chances. Several implications are addressed, dealing with an appropriate team composition (on the levels of both top management and the board of directors) as well as the importance of paying attention to team development

  • 32. de Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    Braet, Johan
    Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What Can We Learn from Academic Spin-Off Failures? Insights from Five Cases2013In: New technology-based firms in the new millennium. Vol. 9 / [ed] Aard Groen, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's academic literature on new technology-based firms is rather growth and success-oriented, despite the fact that many valuable lessons can be learned from failures. This study aims at contributing to our understanding of failure processes by documenting five case studies of spin-offs that originated from European universities. Within the framework of the resource-based view of the firm and social capital theory, the venture's resource base is used as a central element in explaining the failures through the presence ...

  • 33.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Sustainable development in organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices / [ed] Elg, Mattias, Ellström, Per-Erik, Klofsten, Magnus, & Tillmar, Malin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-ErikLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.Klofsten, MagnusLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.Tillmar, MalinLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly competitive environment can lead to considerable problems for many organizations as they struggle to adapt to change. As a result, they fail to create the conditions that can lead to sustainable development over the long term, thus affecting the capabilities of employees. This book provides a fresh perspective on sustainable change and development in organizations, as well as a critical perspective on lean implementation, work environment and sustainability.

    The expert contributors address the development in, and of, organizations, as well as the development process between organizations, such as in networks or clusters. They discuss topics, such as the role of customers in the development of public organizations; developing knowledgeable practice at work; exploring evidence-based practice and the challenge of regional gender contracts.

    Undergraduates and postgraduates in different management fields including organizational theory, innovation, human resources, quality development and entrepreneurship will find this book to be of interest. The empirical results and interdisciplinary approach will appeal to practitioners and policy-makers at national, as well as international levels.

  • 35.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    et al.
    State University of New York.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The innovating region: Toward a theory of knowledge-based regional development2005In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 243-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets forth a model of knowledge-based regional development conceived as a set of multi-linear dynamics, based on alternative technological paradigms. Utilizing longitudinal data from a Swedish region, and international comparisons, four stages of development are identified: Inception, Implementation, Consolidation and Renewal. Innovation policy is created 'bottom-up' as an outcome of 'collective entrepreneurship' through collaboration among business, government and academic actors - the 'triple helix'. The key event is the creation of an entrepreneurial university, whether from an existing academic base or a new foundation, which takes initiatives together with government and industry to create a support structure for firm formation and regional growth. The result of these initiatives is a self-sustaining dynamic in which the role of academia and government appears to recede as industrial actors come to the fore and a lineage of firms is created. Nevertheless, as one technological paradigm is exhausted and another one is needed as the base for new economic activity, the role of academia and government comes to the fore again in creating the conditions for the next wave of innovation. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2005.

  • 36.
    Feldman, JM
    et al.
    Natl Inst Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden Ctr Innovat & Entrepreneurship, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Medium-sized firms and the limits to growth: A case study in the evolution of a spin-off firm2000In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 631-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores potential barriers to growth in key areas which can become increasingly problematic for some smaller to medium-sized firms (SMEs) as they grow and evolve from their early status as small scale spin-offs. These potential growth barriers can occur in: finance, competition from new firms or products and organizational integration of resources. Finns that fail to properly plan, manage and allocate resources will encounter difficulties in each area. Such firms are said to have poor 'governance systems'. While not proposing a universal theory about small firm behaviour, we argue that firms can encounter the same problems associated with poor communication, bureaucracy and loss of entrepreneurial spirit that plague large firms. We also show that the routines used to promote growth based on collaboration can sometimes create problems for firms as they ignore new challenges. We elaborate various theories on the limits to growth by examining the case of IV, a university spin-off.

  • 37.
    Fredriksen, Öystein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    CEO vs Board Typologies in Venture Capital-Entrepreneur Relationships1999In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 1999: Proceedings of the nineteenth annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Paul D. Reynolds, Wellesley, Mass: Babson College , 1999, p. 335-348Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Fredriksen, Öystein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Venture capitalists' governance of their portfolio companies2001In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several sources have emphasized the importance of the entrepreneurial economy, and the role venture capitalists (VCs) plays as financiers. VCs are often actively and personally involved in their portfolio companies, but the cost of governance is high and they therefore have to select when to be active participants. Four different risks are identified in this paper: agency risk, business and market risk, coalition risk, and conformity risk. Weak support is found for the categories of agency and business and market risk. The data speak in favor of VCs getting more involved when the portfolio companies experience some kind of trouble. Their activity level increases when the portfolio companies have an inexperienced CEO, when the companies are in an early stage of their development, are young, have a weak board of directors, and/or a weak performance.

  • 39.
    Fredriksen, Öystein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landström, Hans
    University of Lund.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Linköping University.
    Wahlbin, Clas
    Linköping University.
    Entrepreneur-Venture Capitalist Relations: The Entrepreneur’s Views1991In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 1990: Proceedings of the tenth annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Neil C. Churchill, Wellesley, Mass: Babson College , 1991, p. 251-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Fredriksen, Öystein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Linköping University.
    Wahlbin, Clas
    Linköping University.
    Growth, Performance and Financial Structure of New Technology-Based Firms: A Preliminary Analysis1989In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 1989: Proceedings of the ninth College Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Robert H. Brockhaus, Wellesley, Mass: Babson College , 1989, p. 189-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Frykfors, Carl-Otto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emergence of the Swedish Innovation Systemand the Support for Regional Entrepreneurship: A Socio-Economic Perspective2011In: Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship: Global Experience in Policy and ProgramDevelopment / [ed] Mian, S.A. Edward Elgar, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and the shift towards knowledge a major source of competitiveness have rendered traditional policy instruments less effective. Traditional economic/industrial policies can no longer guarantee high growth and employment, certainly not for all countries and regions. System failure and a more systemic view on innovation and science and technology development as an integral system is often seen as a more appropriated way. This chapter gives a broad overview of the development of the Swedish innovation system that served Sweden as an industrial advanced country well for more than 100 years and current policy shift in search for a new R&D and innovation model towards a knowledge driven entrepreneurial economy. The thesis brought forward is that a basic understanding of the structure and the development of the Swedish innovation system and the shift require an understanding of the importance of ”la longue durée” and of innovative technology procurement by “development pairs” as a regime for innovation policy and entrepreneurial growth. An interplay between economic, technological and governance drivers has led to radical change of the prevalent model during the last decades. To some extent the established model became a victim of a tandem effect from globalisation and deregulation. The most important consequence was that a new order that is transactional in character replaced the old model that was basically relational.

  • 42.
    Frykfors, Carl-Otto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Firm Network to a Sector-System of Production and Innovation: A Case Study of Innovation Policy Initiative2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines innovation policy making during the transition of innovative ideas into mature industries within building/construction and mineral extraction/mining industries. The main focus is how interaction occurs between major stakeholders and intermediating actors and how industrial change processes are orchestrated. A case study approach examines the rather complex processes occurring within industrial sector development. Two main success criteria were observed: (1) continuity in initial vision and leadership and (2) a clear intention to achieve strategic interplay and knowledge fusion between heterogonous industrial sectors. Currently, this has been achieved in a classic way using R&D and technology development approaches combined with explorative market development to co-ordinate and allow knowledge fusion between the sectors. The transition process is illustrated in four phases: (1) idea and start-up, (2) formation of a technical R&D programme and networking, (3) consolidation of actor networks and formation of an embryological innovation system, and (4) development of a more sector-based production and innovation system.

  • 43.
    Guerrero, Maribel
    et al.
    Univ Deusto, Donostia San Sebastian, Spain.
    Urbano, David
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alain, Fayolle
    EM Lyon Business School, Ecully, France.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mian, Sarfraz
    School of Business, State University of New York, Oswego, NY, USA.
    Entrepreneurial Universities: Emerging Models in the New Social and Economic Landscape2016In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper and the special issue is to improve our understanding of the theoretical, empirical, managerial and political implications of emerging models of entrepreneurial universities in the new social and economic landscape. We accomplish this objective by examining the role of entrepreneurial universities as drivers of innovation and entrepreneurship activities. Our analysis starts with an overview by outlining an overarching framework. This allows us to highlight the contributions made in this special issue within the framework. We conclude by outlining an agenda for future research and discuss implications for university managers, policy makers and other academic agents involved in the development of entrepreneurial/innovation ecosystems.

  • 44.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating Entrepreneurship in DBT Project Courses at Linköping University2010In: Proceedings of the 6th International CDIO Conference, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An example of how entrepreneurship can be integrated into Design-Build-Test (DBT) project courses is presented. The example is taken from the engineering program Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Linköping University, where entrepreneurship has been introduced in ten different DBT project courses related to the specializations of the program. The purpose of the entrepreneurship part is that the students shall acquire knowledge and abilities within the general area of entrepreneurship with particular focus on business planning for new ventures. The organization and execution of the entrepreneurship activities are described in detail together with a summary of the experiences from the first year. The results of the entrepreneurship activities within the project courses are positive and will be further developed, with emphasis on the connections between project ideas and technical contents of the courses.

  • 45.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact of Uncertainty on Drug Development Decision Making in the Pharmaceutical IndustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the process of developing a new medicinal entity (NME) is associated with considerable risk and uncertainty. The present paper investigates how variability in the decision making process in pharmaceutical industry research and development (R&D) projects influences the expert group size needed to take informed go/nodecisions. In other words, we wanted to investigate how go/no go decision process is influenced by the degree of inherent project uncertainty. Since the information gap during the early as well as late phases of the R&D process of an NME is commonly prominent, we made a statistical forecasting of the impact of individual variations in go/no-go judgments and decision making. In respect to inherent project uncertainty, throughout the discovery/development process of 8 – 10 formal go/no-go steps, we then simulated the size of the expert group size needed to take a meaningful and coherent group decision based on individual real expert judgments.

    In the study, we used data from 52 experts in the pharmaceutical industry and allied sectors, making a series of go/no-go judgements in 4 different drug R&D case scenarios derived from real R&D cases from the pharmaceutical industry. The 4 case-scenarios related to go/no-go judgment decisions over phases of drug discovery (early) as well as development (late) ranging from target selection/pharmacology, toxicology, biopharmacy/galenics to clinical development/market introduction.

    Based on the intrinsic variability found in the real go/no-go (or go/no-go and recycle) judgments made by the experts, as each of the 4 cases gradually evolved, we modelled the impact of the real intrinsic judgment variability found, on a fictive R&D decision chain based on 10000 bootstrap samples involving between 5 -20 different major go/no-go decisions. We found, that when serial mean judgements were expressed as clear go or stop, some 10 – 15 experts were needed in order to arrive at a coherent go or stop group decision. However, when both go and stop (recycle) mean decisions were encountered at any step in the process development, the number of experts needed in a group to arrive at a decisive go or no-go judgment tended to be very large. In spite of the fact that large groups were involved, there was a substantial inherent uncertainty that remained in the decision chain.

    We conclude that in pharmaceutical industry R&D, rational decision making from initial drug discovery to late development and marketing, can commonly be managed by a group of 10 – 15 experts when mean group judgements over a series of decision points are clear go decisions. However, when mean group judgements from one decision point to another varies from go to stop in a specific case, i.e. involves a recycle component, there will be a need to expand R&D expert input substantially. In such cases the drug development process more or less takes on the form of an open innovation process. The present research findings may be used to construct a new model on how to plan and model the size of expert input in structured decision processes similar to those practised in the pharmaceutical industry.

  • 46.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wolf, Roland
    AMS Advanced Medical Services GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Olausson, Michael
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The changing structure of the pharmaceutical industry: perceptions on entrepreneurship and openness2011In: Entrepreneurship And Technological Change / [ed] Lucio Cassia, Tommaso Minola and Stefano Paleari, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 73-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost for radical innovation in the pharmaceutical industry, that is the development of a completely new molecular entity (NME), was recently estimated to be in the range of US$800 million (DiMasi et aI., 2003) and for a novel biologic it was calculated to be more than US$1300 million (DiMasi and Grabowski, 2007). These cost estimates were based on conventional discovery and process development programs in the pharmaceutical industry up to the point of registration and marketing authorization of an NME. However, there are additional costs stretching beyond the development program relating to the regulatory requirements to perform post-approval studies after introduction into the market. Such regulatory costs may include obtaining marketing approval in a variety of countries, costs for extended indications for new formulations as well as new patents (Gamier, 2008). In earlier estimates provided (DiMasi et aI., 2003; DiMasi and Grabowski, 2007), the authors assumed an average success rate for an NME emerging from clinical trials to be 21.5 per cent. Recent research has adjusted this estimate downwards to 11.5 per cent and the initial cost estimates of drug development have been adjusted upwards to more than US$1700 million per new NME. If further adjustment is made for additional cost increases over time and inflation, the true cost per NME is probably in the range of US$4000 million (Munos, 2009).

    However, it still remains a complex issue to accurately estimate the costs of NMEs since research and development (R&D) expenses are typically invested over decades and should be depreciated over a longer period. In real life the true duration of this life cycle cost is highly variable and has probably increased over time. Experts are not able to agree how to evaluate capitalization and depreciation of drug R&D for large pharmaceutical companies (Big Pharma). Therefore, providing simple and accurate cost estimates of NME development in Big Pharma is likely to remain a major difficulty. The ability to predict success for an NME and calculate return on investment is further complicated by the nature of the drug discovery R&D model which has recently been under extensive review and question.

  • 47.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Ska verkligen universitetet ta affärsrisk?2007In: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-6400, Vol. 19 januari, no DN DebattArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

         

  • 48.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin Göteborgs universitet.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Stimulera entreprenörskap och avlägsna infrastrukturella hinder2005In: Biotech Sweden, ISSN 1651-324X, Vol. 8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg Sweden.
    Maack, Karl
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emerging Open Models and Concepts of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector2011In: Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2071-1395, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-tech innovation in a number of emerging and rapidly changing areas such as the pharmaceutical and bio-tech sectors, show signs of a movement from a closed to a more open innovation paradigm. This is primarily due to the possibility of rapid and unlimited communication through the Internet and the www, the increasing global availability of experts, the international reach of the venture capital market, as well as the increasing possibility and interest of external suppliers and interest groups to participate in new product and service development. As a result of this, novel forms of multisource open and user innovation models such as crowd-sourcing and crowd-casting are currently emerging. These new innovation concepts are based on global open innovation and development communities have emerged in several fields of science and business, such as e.g. in the information technologies and bio-medicine. Crowd sourcing and crowd casting are innovation concepts that are based on loosely formed groups of customers, users, scientific communities, or groups of experts who form and collectively shape product or process innovations within a specific innovation field or sector. These open platforms are altering and reforming previously closed innovation concepts to become more open, capable, innovative and cost-effective by using the "wisdom-of-crowds" concept.

    This paper describes different formats and potential ways by which emerging open multisource innovation paradigms may alter the pharmaceutical innovation and value creation process in the future. The paper is focusing on how the involvement of a variety of market actors, such as academics, innovators and entrepreneurs, pharmaceutical industry employees, patient advocacy groups, medical professional organizations, hospitals and insurance companies, will influence the common biomedical innovation process and product - market platform. The paper will also introduce a range of new innovation concepts and paradigms by discussing various emerging models of multi-source and open innovator platforms.

  • 50.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Dermafol AB, Sundsvall.
    Edgar, Boo
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet och ­Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Olausson, Michael
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Lind, Lars
    Yield Life Science AB.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stora förändringar i den globala läkemedelsindustrin2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 324-325Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala läkemedelsindustrin är under kraftig för- ändring. Under de senaste tio åren har 300 000 arbets- tillfällen lagts ner i »Big Pharma«. I stället utvecklas mindre, kreativa och »öppna« innovationsnätverk och organisationsstrukturer för att ta fram nya läkemedel, skriver Thomas Hedner och medförfattare.

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