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  • 1.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interventioner för att påverka sjukfrånvaro - en analys av tillvägagångssätt.2005In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, no 3, p. 210-222Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interventions used to impact sick leave

    -          An analysis of approaches

    This review concerns intervention research published during the 21st century where the purpose of the interventions was to impact sick leave in work life. The aim of this review was to create a systematic chart of interventions published in scientific journals during the period mentioned above. A second aim was to analyze the procedures in the papers and their overall goal concerning their interventions for papers published in year 2003. The papers were analyzed through Blake and Moutons’ model of intervention approaches. The review resulted in 60 scientific papers with intervention research concerning sick leave. During year 2003, 17 papers were published concerning this topic, which was the most during any year in the 21st century.  The intervention approach that was most common was the “ prescriptive interventions” (n=11). One explanation for this could be that many of the interventions (n=7) were carried out in a health care arena that has a long tradition of an expert authority relation towards the client. Twelve of the papers described disease prevention interventions and five described health promotion interventions. None of the 17 papers had a qualitative approach, which is noteworthy since it has been recommended that a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is the best method in intervention evaluation.

  • 2.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Return to Work - the Predictive Validity of the Assessment Instrument Worker Role Interview"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Return to Work - the Predictive Validity of the Assessment Instrument Worker Role Interview"

     

    Introduction: Long-term sick-listing entails great costs for the society and suffering for the individual. As rehabilitation could decrease these costs, valid and reliable methods are then required for assessing work ability and identifying individual rehabilitation needs. There is a need to develop and investigate the validity of work-related assessments tools and in particular assessments concerned with psychosocial aspects in relation to return to work.

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate if and how the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work and how the predictive validity of the WRI for return to work changes over a period of two years.

    Methods: WRI is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a person’s ability to return to work. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people constituted the study group. Differences in WRI ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann–Whitney test and logistic regression respectively

    Results: The item ‘Expectation of job success’ which concerns the person’s belief in their abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. Eight of 16 items in WRI were rated differently between the working or non-working groups at one or more of the three follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96% between the follow-ups.

    Conclusion and contribution to practice and evidence base of occupational therapy: The WRI assessment contains items which predict return to work. This implies that the WRI is a useful tool for occupational therapist working with vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs for people who are sick-listed.

  • 3.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Return to Work: Assessment of Subjective Psychosocial and Environmental Factors2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Swedish society the sick-leave rate is high and a better understanding is required of the factors that facilitate return to work. In the return to work process, assessments of peoples’ work ability play an important role. However, the lack of usable, valid, reliable, and theoretically sound assessment instruments for assessing work ability is a concern. Credible and theoretically sound assessment methods for assessing clients’ work ability strengthen the possibilities for making valid interpretations and obtaining important information for composing further intervention strategies which can guide suitable interventions in the process of returning to work. Such interventions need multi-professional expertise. In this area occupational therapists can offer valuable contribution. In the overall assessment of work ability the unique individual’s subjective perception of the situation needs to be considered since this has been found greatly relevant for return to work. The Worker Role Interview (WRI) and the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) are two work-related interview assessment instruments that have been developed to assess subjective psychosocial and environmental factors of work ability. The WRI and the WEIS have been primarily tested for reliability and validity and are theoretically founded in the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), which is an occupation-focused model addressing psychosocial factors. They have been adapted and translated to Swedish and are used among Swedish occupational therapists working with clients experiencing work-related problems.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the usefulness of the assessment instruments the Worker Role Interview and the Work Environment Impact Scale for identifying psychosocial and environmental rehabilitation needs essential for returning to work.

    Methods: Five empirical studies were performed, all of which were analysed quantitatively, with the exception of study IV in which both qualitative and quantitative analysing methods were used. Studies I, III and IV were cross-sectional while studies II and V were two-year longitudinal studies. In study I, data were collected by a questionnaire, in studies II, III and V the primary data constituted of ratings on the WRI items. In study IV the primary data were ratings of the WEIS items and the written notes beside the rating on each item.

    Results: In study I, theoretical approaches and professional models that influenced psychiatric care and psychiatric occupational therapy practice among occupational therapists in Sweden was investigated. The most common approach in psychiatric care was the psychosocial approach, and the practice model which was most often used was the Model of Human Occupation. The results indicated that the psychosocial approach and the Model of Human Occupation seemed applicable in occupational therapy, motivating further use of that model. However, it was also found that occupational therapists in psychiatric care used professional practice models to a rather low extent. One way to enhance the application of theory into practice is the use of theory- based assessment instruments. Consequently, the Model of Human Occupation- based assessment instruments, the WRI and the WEIS, have been evaluated and used in the other studies in the present thesis The value of the WRI for predicting return to work after long term sick-leave was investigated in studies II and V. The content area in the WRI with best overall predictive validity for return to work was ‘Personal causation’. Its items focus on the individual’s motivation for return to work in relation to the individual’s feeling of competence and effectiveness in doing work tasks and facing challenges at work. The two WRI items which best predicted whether the participants would be in the working or the non-working groups at the two-year follow up were ‘Expectations of job success’, which concerns beliefs in personal abilities in relation to returning to work, and the item ‘Daily routines’ which concerns the individual’s routines and organisation of time outside work. These results suggest that knowledge about how to strengthen the person’s belief in his or her abilities, how routines impact occupational performance, and how to support the individual in structuring his or her daily doings are needed in interventions aiming at supporting the individual to return to work.

    In study III the construct validity of the WRI was investigated in an international study. All the WRI items except those related to the environment area seemed to capture the intended construct of the WRI, namely psychosocial ability for return to work. The construct of the WRI seems to be stable and valid across different countries and populations, and the WRI showed an ability to separate clients into three distinct levels of psychosocial ability for return to work.

    In study IV the impact of the work environment was investigated by using the WEIS among people with experiences of sick-leave. Social interactions at work and the meaning of the work had the most supportive impact and different work demands and the rewards received for the work were perceived as most interfering with work performance, well-being, and satisfaction.

    Conclusion: The WRI seems to be suitable for estimating psychosocial work ability. In addition it contains items which can predict return to work up to two years after the assessment is conducted. The use of the WEIS revealed supportive and interfering factors for work performance, well-being, and satisfaction among people with experiences of long term sick-leave. The interview format of the WRI and the WEIS seems valuable since it provides comprehensive information which can contribute to the planning of rehabilitation interventions for the unique client. Thus, the WRI and the WEIS, which are theoretically founded in the Model of Human Ocupation are juged to be useful for identifying psychosocial and environmental rehabilitation needs in order to support the individual in returning to work after sick-leave.

    List of papers
    1. Practice models in Swedish psychiatric occupational therapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practice models in Swedish psychiatric occupational therapy
    2000 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical settings, occupational therapists need models both from their own field, occupational therapy, and from other fields in order to offer the clients adequate treatment. It is unknown which theoretical approaches and practice models influence Swedish occupational therapists' daily work. In this study a questionnaire (n=334) was used to investigate approaches and models used in Swedish psychiatric care service and in psychiatric occupational therapy service. The results showed that the psychosocial approach influenced both psychiatric care and psychiatric occupational therapy most. The most frequently used practice model was the Model of Human Occupation. However, 75% of the respondents did not identify theoretical thinking based on models from their own field behind their actions. Many practitioners seemed to use knowledge developed by other disciplines more often. Years of clinical experience in the profession or education did not seem to have any impact on the ability to identify the practice models that were used. The results indicate that education in occupational therapy must emphasize knowledge in its own field more than has been done up to now.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13268 (URN)10.1080/110381200300006050 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07
    2. The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 131-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to test the statistically significant differences in WRI ratings between those who were working (n=6) and those who were not (n=42) 2 years after their investigations. Five of the 17 items in WRI had a tentative predictive validity of return to work. The content area personal causation in WRI, had the best predictive validity. The results emphasize the importance of considering the unique individual's beliefs and expectations of his/her effectiveness at work when assessing clients' work ability and planning for further rehabilitation.

    Keywords
    prediction, return to work, assessment, psychosocial, sick leave, insurance medicine
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13269 (URN)10.1023/B:JOOR.0000018329.79751.09 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Elin Ekbladh, Lena Haglund and Lars-Håkan Thorell, The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation, 2004, Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, (14), 2, 131-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JOOR.0000018329.79751.09 Copyright: Springer http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2010-12-06
    3. Psychometric properties of the Worker Role Interview
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychometric properties of the Worker Role Interview
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Work, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 313-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study examined the psychometric properties of the rating scale of the Worker Role Interview (WRI). The study also asked whether the scale's items formed a valid measure of the construct, psychosocial capacity for work, and whether they were targeted to and could effectively discriminate between persons at different levels of psychosocial ability for work.

    Method of study. Data were collected from 21 raters on 440 participants from the United States, Sweden and Iceland. A many-faceted Rasch model was used to analyze the data.

    Results. Most items of the scale worked effectively to measure the underlying construct for which the WRI was designed. In addition, the items were ordered from least to more of the underlying construct as expected. The scale validly measured 90.23% of the participants, who varied by nationality, culture, age and diagnostic status. The scale's items distinguished participants into approximately three different strata and were appropriately targeted to the participants. Seventeen of the 21 raters used scale in a valid manner.

    Conclusions. The WRI scale and items are valid across ages, diagnoses, and culture and effectively measure a wide range of persons.

    Keywords
    Assessment, worker role, model of human occupation
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13270 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2009-05-14
    4. Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave
    2010 (English)In: WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims were to describe and analyze how people with experience of long term sick leave perceive that factors in their work environment support or interfere with work performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Method: The 53 participants were interviewed with the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The WEIS ratings and belonging notes were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis respectively. Differences in WEIS ratings between; women and men; participants with somatic and mental diseases; and participants working and on full-time sick leave were tested. Results: The most supportive factors concerned social interactions at work, and the value and meaning of work. The factors perceived as most interfering concerned work demands and rewards. The social relations at work were perceived as more supportive by the working group than by those on full-time sick leave. The participants with somatic diseases perceived physical work factors as more interfering than did participants with mental diseases, who in turn perceived the value and meaning of work as more interfering. Conclusion: Knowledge about the interaction between the worker and the work environment could reveal useful information about the complex phenomenon of reducing sick leave. The WEIS seems useful in providing information about how alterations and accommodations in the work environment could support individual workers.

    Keywords
    Psychosocial, assessment, WEIS, well-being, RTW, occupational therapy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54491 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2010-0964 (DOI)000275284100003 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Elin Ekbladh, Lars-Håkan Thorell and Lena Haglund, Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave, 2010, WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, (35), 2, 125-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2010-0964 Copyright: IOS Press http://www.iospress.nl/ Available from: 2010-03-19 Created: 2010-03-19 Last updated: 2010-12-06
    5. Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years
    2010 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

    Keywords
    assessment, motivation, psychosocial, RTW, sick-leave, work ability, vocational rehabilitation, occupational therapy, Model of Human Occupation, Bedömningsinstrument, arbetsförmåga, arbetsterapi, sjukfrånvaro, Model of Human Occupation
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Occupational Therapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13272 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2010-0968 (DOI)000275284100007 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 4.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    ÅTERGÅNG TILL ARBETE: Bedömning av subjektiva psykosociala och miljömässiga faktorer2009In: AT-forum, Förbundet Sveriges Arbetsterapeuter, Stockholmsmässan, 6-7 maj 2009, Stockholm: FSA , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Återgång till arbete-

    bedömning av subjektiva psykosociala och miljömässiga faktorer

     

    Bakgrund: Bristen på valida, reliabla och teoretiskt förankrade bedömningsinstrument för bedömning av arbetsförmåga är ett bekymmer eftersom tillförlitliga bedömningar är en förutsättning för utformning och genomförande av adekvata interventioner i syfte att stödja återgång i arbete. Worker Role Interview (WRI) och Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) är två arbetsrelaterade intervjuinstrument, som har utvecklats i syfte att bedöma subjektiva psykosociala och miljömässiga faktorers påverkan på arbetsförmåga.

     

    Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingsarbetet har varit att undersöka WRI och WEIS användbarhet för identifiering av psykosociala och miljömässiga rehabiliteringsbehov av betydelse för återgång i arbete.

     

    Metod: Avhandlingen består av fem empiriska studier. Samtliga studier har bearbetats kvantitativt och i en av studierna har även kvalitativ bearbetning genomförts. Tre studier är tvärsnittsstudier och två studier är två års longitudinella studier.

     

    Resultat: WRI är användbart för bedömning av psykosociala faktorers påverkan på arbetsförmågan. I WRI ingår flera variabler som kan predicera återgång till arbete upp till två år efter genomförd bedömning. WEIS är användbart för att identifiera arbetsmiljöfaktorer som stödjer respektive hindrar personers välbefinnande och utförande av arbete.

     

    Konklusion: Den information som WRI- och WEIS-intervjuer genererar är värdefull, då den kan utgöra en viktig grund för planering av individspecifika rehabiliteringsinsatser. Bedömningsinstrumenten WRI och WEIS med teoretisk förankring i Model of Human Occupation är användbara för att identifiera psykosociala och miljömässiga rehabiliteringsbehov i syfte att stödja personer i processen åter till arbete efter sjukskrivning.

  • 5.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fan, Chia-Wei
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taylor, Renée
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Work environment impact scale: Testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment.

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument.

    In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. 

    Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity.  

    The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

  • 6.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Hälsa - utbildning - välfärdsinstitutioner (HUV) .
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Hälsa - utbildning - välfärdsinstitutioner (HUV) .
    Arbetsmiljöns betydelse för återgång i arbete vid sjukskrivning - en longitudinell studie över 2 år2007In: AT Forum,2007, Stockholm: Förbundet Sveriges Arbetsterapeuter , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 7.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    The Worker Role Interviews: s prediktiva validitet för återgång till arbete2003In: At-Forum,2003, 2003, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Work Environment Impact Scale, svensk version 3: Användarmanual för WEIS-S2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Manual för Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS)

    Den här manualen är tänkt att vara ett stöd för användare av WEIS. Bedömningsinstrumentet WEIS består av en semistrukturerad intervju och en fyrgradig skattningsskala. Intervjun är utformad för att erhålla information om hur personer upplever sin arbetsmiljö. Genom WEIS intervjun erhålls information om hur personen uppfattar att psykosociala och fysiska faktorer i personens unika arbetsmiljö påverkar personens känsla av tillfredställelse och välbefinnande vid utförande av arbete. Vid WEIS intervjun efterfrågas information om hur en given arbetsmiljö påverkar den enskilde personen. Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) utgör den teoretiska grunden till WEIS.

    WEIS kan användas för att identifiera arbetslivsinriktade rehabiliteringsbehov och som en del i bedömning av en persons arbetsförmåga.  För att få en så rik och mångsidig bild som möjligt av personen bör WEIS bedömningar kompletteras med andra bedömningar och bedömningsmetoder. Denna tredje svenska upplaga av WEIS kan användas för personer som är sjukskrivna och som har en anställning samt för personer som är i arbete eller utför arbetsliknande uppgifter i någon form av arbetsmiljö.

  • 9.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation2004In: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 131-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to test the statistically significant differences in WRI ratings between those who were working (n=6) and those who were not (n=42) 2 years after their investigations. Five of the 17 items in WRI had a tentative predictive validity of return to work. The content area personal causation in WRI, had the best predictive validity. The results emphasize the importance of considering the unique individual's beliefs and expectations of his/her effectiveness at work when assessing clients' work ability and planning for further rehabilitation.

  • 10.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Assessing work ability2009In: Nordic Occupational Therapy Forum, Helsinki, Finland: Vocational assessment, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Psychosocial Factors’ Influence on Work Ability of People Experiencing Sick Leave Resulting From Common Mental Disorders2015In: Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, ISSN 0164-212X, E-ISSN 1541-3101, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 283-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A description of how people with the experience of long-term sick leave resulting from common mental disorders perceive that psychosocial factors influence their work ability. The Worker Role Interview was conducted with 14 informants and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The informants believed in their future work ability. Most had had to adjust their habits and routines to manage their working and private lives in relation to their mental health problems. Occupational therapists need more knowledge about how to strengthen clients' beliefs in their occupational abilities and how to organize their daily activities in a balanced fashion.

  • 12.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theory based assessment of work ability2009In: Finnish occupational therapists national conference, Suomen Toimintaterapeuttiliitto ry, September, 2009, Helsinki, Finland: TOI , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory based assessment of work ability

     

    In the return to work process, assessments of peoples’ work ability play an important role. Credible and theoretically sound assessment methods for assessing clients’ work ability strengthen the possibilities for making valid interpretations which can guide suitable interventions in the process of returning to work. In this area occupational therapists can offer valuable contribution.

     

    A single assessment instrument generally does not address all the multiple factors involved in a client’s work ability. Therefore, assessors should use several instruments in combination. Four instruments frequently used in vocational rehabilitation are:

    • The Assessment of Work Characteristics (AWC) is an observation instrument that describes the extent to which a client has to use different working skills to perform a work task in an efficient and appropriate way.
    • The Assessment of Work Performance (AWP) assesses a client’s observable (working) skills during work performance, i.e. it assesses how efficient and appropriate the client performs a work activity.
    • The Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an interview instrument that focuses on how psychosocial and environmental factors influence a client’s ability to return to work.
    • The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an interview instrument that describes how clients experience their work environment.

     

    The instruments AWC, AWP, WEIS and WRI  are all based on The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO). MOHO is a theoretical framework that explains the meaning and importance of activities for human beings and offers a conceptual framework for the description of human occupation. Assessment instruments based on theoretical models have the advantage that they create conditions that are conducive to valid interpretations of assessment results and yield intervention strategies.

     

    Ongoing and future research will focus on further psychometric evaluation and studies of how and with what results the above instruments could be combined with each other.

  • 13.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave2010In: WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims were to describe and analyze how people with experience of long term sick leave perceive that factors in their work environment support or interfere with work performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Method: The 53 participants were interviewed with the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The WEIS ratings and belonging notes were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis respectively. Differences in WEIS ratings between; women and men; participants with somatic and mental diseases; and participants working and on full-time sick leave were tested. Results: The most supportive factors concerned social interactions at work, and the value and meaning of work. The factors perceived as most interfering concerned work demands and rewards. The social relations at work were perceived as more supportive by the working group than by those on full-time sick leave. The participants with somatic diseases perceived physical work factors as more interfering than did participants with mental diseases, who in turn perceived the value and meaning of work as more interfering. Conclusion: Knowledge about the interaction between the worker and the work environment could reveal useful information about the complex phenomenon of reducing sick leave. The WEIS seems useful in providing information about how alterations and accommodations in the work environment could support individual workers.

  • 14.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

  • 15.
    Fan, Chia-Wei
    et al.
    University of Illinois, IL USA .
    Taylor, Renee R.
    University of Illinois, IL USA .
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Clinical Vocational Rehabilitation Outcome Measurement: The Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)2013In: OTJR (Thorofare, N.J.), ISSN 1539-4492, E-ISSN 1938-2383, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the validity and reliability of the Assessment of Work Performance (AWP) using Rasch analysis. The AWP was administered to 365 clients with a variety of work-related problems. Rasch analysis and principal component analysis were used to examine the appropriateness of the rating scales and unidimensionality of AWP items. The person-response validity, internal consistency, targeting appropriateness, and differential item function were also analyzed. The Rasch analysis confirmed the 4-point rating scale, and the item set met the criteria of unidimensionality. The AWP exhibited satisfactory person-response validity and internal consistency. Among the three subdomains, the targeting of item-difficulty was sufficient in the motor skills and process skills subdomains. Differential item functioning was found across gender and diagnoses. This study presented evidence to support that the AWP functioned as a reliable and valid assessment in assessing work performance.

  • 16.
    Forsyth, Kirsty
    et al.
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
    Braveman, Brent
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kielhofner, Gary
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fenger, Kristjana
    Occupational Therapy Program, University of Akureyi, Akureyi, Iceland.
    Keller, Jessica
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
    Psychometric properties of the Worker Role Interview2006In: Work, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 313-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study examined the psychometric properties of the rating scale of the Worker Role Interview (WRI). The study also asked whether the scale's items formed a valid measure of the construct, psychosocial capacity for work, and whether they were targeted to and could effectively discriminate between persons at different levels of psychosocial ability for work.

    Method of study. Data were collected from 21 raters on 440 participants from the United States, Sweden and Iceland. A many-faceted Rasch model was used to analyze the data.

    Results. Most items of the scale worked effectively to measure the underlying construct for which the WRI was designed. In addition, the items were ordered from least to more of the underlying construct as expected. The scale validly measured 90.23% of the participants, who varied by nationality, culture, age and diagnostic status. The scale's items distinguished participants into approximately three different strata and were appropriately targeted to the participants. Seventeen of the 21 raters used scale in a valid manner.

    Conclusions. The WRI scale and items are valid across ages, diagnoses, and culture and effectively measure a wide range of persons.

  • 17.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Practice models in Swedish psychiatric occupational therapy2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical settings, occupational therapists need models both from their own field, occupational therapy, and from other fields in order to offer the clients adequate treatment. It is unknown which theoretical approaches and practice models influence Swedish occupational therapists' daily work. In this study a questionnaire (n=334) was used to investigate approaches and models used in Swedish psychiatric care service and in psychiatric occupational therapy service. The results showed that the psychosocial approach influenced both psychiatric care and psychiatric occupational therapy most. The most frequently used practice model was the Model of Human Occupation. However, 75% of the respondents did not identify theoretical thinking based on models from their own field behind their actions. Many practitioners seemed to use knowledge developed by other disciplines more often. Years of clinical experience in the profession or education did not seem to have any impact on the ability to identify the practice models that were used. The results indicate that education in occupational therapy must emphasize knowledge in its own field more than has been done up to now.

  • 18.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The Combination of Work Organizational Climate and Individual Work Commitment Predicts Return to Work in Women But Not in Men2013In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze if the combination of organizational climate and work commitment can predict return to work (RTW). Methods: This prospective Swedish study was based on 2285 participants, 19 to 64 years old, consecutively selected from the employed population, newly sick-listed for more than 14 days. Data were collected in 2008 through postal questionnaire and from register data. Results: Among women, the combination of good organizational climate and fair work commitment predicted an early RTW with an adjusted relative risk of 2.05 (1.32 to 3.18). Among men, none of the adjusted variables or combinations of variables was found significantly to predict RTW. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the importance of integrative effects of organizational climate and individual work commitment on RTW among women. These factors did not predict RTW in men. More research is needed to understand the RTW process among men.

  • 19.
    Kielhofner, Gary
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.
    Forsyth, Kirsty
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Clay, Christine
    Chicago Lighthouse for The Blind, USA.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Keponen, Riita
    Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia; Finland.
    Olson, Linda
    Rusch University, Chicago, USA.
    Talking With Clients: Assessments That Collect Information2008In: Model of Human Occupation: Theory and Application. 4:th edition / [ed] Gary Kielhofner, Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins , 2008, 4, p. 262-287Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      Model of Human Occupation, Fourth Edition offers a complete and current presentation of the most widely used model in occupational therapy, and delivers the latest in MOHO theory, research, and application to practice. This authoritative text explores what motivates individuals, how they select occupations and establish everyday routines, how environment influences occupational behavior, and more. NEW TO THIS EDITION: Case Vignettes that illustrate key concepts that students need to know Case Studies that help students apply the model to practice Chapter on evidence based practice (ch. 25) Chapter on World Health Organization and AOTA practice framework and language links the MOHO model to two widely used frameworks (ch. 27) Photographs of real patients help bring the concepts and cases to life

  • 20. Kielhofner, Gary
    et al.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Hedlund, M
    Psychometric properties of the work environment impact scale: a cross-cultural study.1999In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 12, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Applying the Model of Human Occupation to Vocational Rehabilitation2017In: Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation, Fifth Edition: THEORY AND APPLICATION / [ed] Renee Taylor, Wolters Kluwer, 2017, 5, p. 377-396Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Bedömning av arbetsförmåga utifrån arbetsterapeutisk teorigrund2008Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Yngve, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Clinical Utility of the Worker Role Interview - A Survey Study among Swedish Users2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work ability assessments are used to guide interventions designed to reduce or eliminate work disability and facilitate work participation. The clinical utility of assessments concerns the extent to which the assessment results support clinical decision-making. Aim: The aim was to investigate how users perceive the clinical utility of the Swedish version of the Worker Role Interview (WRI-S). An additional aim was to investigate differences in clinical utility related to the users’ level of WRI-S experience, attendance at courses on WRI-S application, and knowledge of the Model of Human Occupation. Material and methods: Data are based on 187 respondents’ answers to a web-based questionnaire and analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: In total, the respondents performed 12 000 WRI-S assessments. The respondents were mainly satisfied with the clinical utility of the WRI-S and experienced the assessment as supporting clinical practice. The main hindrance affecting clinical utility was the amount of time needed for conducting a WRI-S assessment. Experienced users and users with very good knowledge of MOHO conduct WRI-S assessments in a more time-effective manner. Conclusion: This study contributes to further development of the clinical utility of the Swedish version of the WRI-S, mainly focusing on time consumption.

  • 24.
    Yngve, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lidström, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Which students need accommodations the most, and to what extent are their needs met by regular upper secondary school?: A cross-sectional study among students with special educational needs2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 327-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to identify factors associated with a high level of accommodation needs in school activities among students with special educational needs (SEN) in regular upper secondary education; and (2) to investigate the extent to which schools have met students’ perceived accommodation needs. Accommodation needs and their provision in school activities were assessed with the School Setting Interview for 484 students with SEN. Students’ mean age was 17.3 years and 50% did not have a diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that a high level of school absence, studying a vocational programme, and a neuropsychiatric disorder were associated with a high level of accommodation needs. In the majority of school activities, about 50% of students had not received any accommodation despite an experienced need for support. About 30% of students perceived a need for support even though they had been provided with accommodations, and around 25% stated they were satisfied with received accommodations. Regular upper secondary school students with SEN are insufficiently provided with accommodations to satisfactorily participate in education. Specific student characteristics, e.g. high level of school absence, should receive special attention when investigating and accommodating students’ needs for support in school activities.

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