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  • 1.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive Conjugated Polyelectrolytes Based on EDOT From Synthesis to Organic Electronics2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CP) show interesting electrical and optical properties for organic electronics as well as for life science applications. Their possibilities of supramolecular assembly with nanowire like misfolded proteins, amyloids, as well as synthetic polypeptides or DNA forming conducting nano composites is highly interesting as being a truly bottom up approach for fabrication of OLEDs, photovoltaic’s as well as logic devices.

    A special class of CPs is that of electroactive cojugated polymers (ECPs), which, due to their structure, will exhibits a unique combination of properties, including the following; electrically conducting, ability to store an electric charge and ability to exchange ions. The positive or negative excess charge can be introduced into the conjugated polymer by means of chemical or electrochemical oxidation/reduction (a process called doping) following the polymerization reaction. In order to preserve overall electroneutrality of the polymer during introduction of excess charge, ionexhange processes occurs between the polymer phase and the surrounding electrolyte solution. This charge/discharge process can be utilized for application such as; pseudo super capacitors (energy storage through oxidation/reduction processes), electro mechanical actuators (convert electrical energy to mechanical energy) and sensors (converts a chemical signal to electrical conductivity).

    In this thesis we describes the synthetic challenges with ECPs for applications vide supra. These mostly relates to solubility, ionic functionalization, conductivity and macromolecular properties such as size and shape of the ECPs. The key requirement in the synthesis of ECPs is that the conjugated nature of the monomer is conserved in the synthesis process and that insertion of excess charge (doping) can be obtained. This limits both the choice of monomer and the choice of polymerization process. Monomers of great complexity have been synthesized with this careful goal in mind. Furthermore, the development of novel monomers must also target the appropriate functionality for polymerization. As such, most ECP monomers are electron-rich molecules with pendant groups containing pyrroles, thiophenes, or 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes. These three well known ECP monomers are excellent additions to conjugated systems as they typically enable electrochemical polymerization and direct the polymerizations toward linear polymers with good stability towards doping.

    The first topic of this thesis we demonstrate how we can obtain water soluble ECPs with good electrical conductivity by controlling the polymerization techniques and proper ionic functionalization of the monomer. We also show how these polymers can be incorporated by self-assembly with biomolecular templates, such as, DNA and amyloid fibrils, thus generating novel electrically conductive nanowires.

    The second topics of this thesis demonstrate how hydrogels of ECPs can be used as bioand charge storage materials, were we demonstrate electronically controlled cell release for biology applications. Both applications are based on ECPs ability to ionexhange processes during electrochemical redox reactions. As well as ions, solvent and other neutral molecules may enter the film during charge/discharge processes. This cause a swelling or shrinking of the ECP films and the expansion and contraction of the polymer network in conjugation with the sorption/desorption of solvent molecules and ions can be described in terms of mechanical work.

    In the first case we were able to synthesize a water soluble ECP with high amphiphilic character. The polymer was immobilized onto a flexible electrode, suitable for cell growth and subjected to a cell growth media. When the desired cell layer was formed we applied a potential to the flexible electrode. This resulted in that the mechanical work of the immobilized ECP during the applied potential overcame the week adhesive forces to the flexible electrode, which resulted in super swelling and disintegration of the ICP and the cell layer could be harvested.

    In the second case the possibilities of using synthetically modified ECPs as a dopant during electropolymerization of another ECP monomer to obtain a polymer integrated network with high charge density and good charge transport properties. We demonstrate how this polymer network can be used as porous electrodes suitable for supercapacitors.

    List of papers
    1. Iron-Catalyzed Polymerization of Alkoxysulfonate-Functionalized 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene Gives Water-Soluble Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) of High Conductivity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron-Catalyzed Polymerization of Alkoxysulfonate-Functionalized 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene Gives Water-Soluble Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) of High Conductivity
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1815-1821Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical polymerization of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivative bearing a sulfonate group (EDOTS) is reported. The polymer, PEDOT-S, is fully water-soluble and has been produced by polymerizing EDOT-S in water, using Na2S2O8 and a catalytic amount of FeCl3. Elemental analysis and XPS measurements indicate that PEDOT-S is a material with a substantial degree of self-doping, but also contains free sulfate ions as charge-balancing counterions of the oxidized polymer. Apart from self-doping PEDOT-S, the side chains enable full water solubility of the material; DLS studies show an average cluster size of only 2 nm. Importantly, the solvation properties of the PEDOT-S are reflected in spin-coated films, which show a surface roughness of 1.2 nm and good conductivity (12 S/cm) in ambient conditions. The electro-optical properties of this material are shown with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical experiment reveals an electrochromic contrast (similar to 48% at lambda(max) = 606 nm).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2009
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18398 (URN)10.1021/cm801512r (DOI)000265781000012 ()
    Available from: 2009-05-25 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT
    2008 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1736-1740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins offer an almost infinite number of functions and geometries for building nanostructures. Here we have focused on amyloid fibrillar proteins as a nanowire template and shown that these fibrils can be coated with the highly conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate PEDOT through molecular self-assembly in water. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the coated fibers have a diameter around 15 nm and a length/thickness aspect ratio >1:1000 . We have further shown that networks of the conducting nanowires are electrically and electrochemically active by constructing fully functional electrochemical transistors with nanowire networks, operating at low voltages between 0 and 0.5 V.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17660 (URN)10.1021/nl0808233 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-04-08 Created: 2009-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Electronic control of cell detachment using a self-doped conducting polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic control of cell detachment using a self-doped conducting polymer
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 38, p. 4403-4408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic detachment technology based on thin films of a poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) derivative is evaluated for controlled release of human epithelial cells. When applying a potential of 1 V, the redox-responsive polymer films detach and disintegrate and at the same time release cells cultured on top in the absence of any enzymatic treatment with excellent preservation of membrane proteins and cell viability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
    Keywords
    bioelectronics;cell detachment;conducting polymers;electrochemistry;polymerization
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry Cell Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72170 (URN)10.1002/adma.201101724 (DOI)000297007000009 ()21960476 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    4. Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    2013 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the fully acidic form of PEDOT-S was used for the purpose of self-assembly onto DNA. We have previously shown that PEDOT-S is a short polymer that is self-doped with !1/3 of the sulfonate side groups acting as the self-doping sites (see supporting info.). The remaining sulfonate groups contribute to a net anionic charge, and a water-soluble polymer, with an intrinsic bulk conductivity of around 30 S/cm. It has been shown that PEDOT-S can bind to oppositely charged cationic amyloid protein structures in water and form conducting nano fibrillar networks, and it has also been shown to form hybrid structures with synthetic peptides, and gold nanoparticles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin, 2013
    Keywords
    Organic electronics, conducting polymers, DNA nanotechnology, molecular selfassembly, organic electrochemical transistors
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81344 (URN)10.1002/smll.201201771 (DOI)000314547200005 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Strategic Research Foundation SSF through the program OPEN||

    Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Hydrogels of polypyrrole and self doped PEDOT for porous electrodes and supercapacitors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogels of polypyrrole and self doped PEDOT for porous electrodes and supercapacitors
    Show others...
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to extend the knowledge of the mechanism of electropolymerization of pyrrole and PEDOT-S by means of in situ electrochemical quartz microbalance with dissipation studies (EQCM-D), which allow us to evaluate the chemical and physical processes during electrochemical deposition of these conductive polymer composites. Meanwhile, the relationship between the morphology of the films and the mechanism of the electropolymerization of pyrrole in presence of PEDOT-S will be discussed. The resulting material is electroactive, black and conducting. This material is a polymer composite where doped polypyrrole chains are found in an environment of doped PEDOT-S chains. They can be identified through the cyclic voltammetry studies of the composite, through element composition and through their optical signatures in electrochromism. The composite has properties suitable for a supercapacitor electrode, and capacitance of up to 650 F/g has been obtained.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81346 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2012-09-12Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Gabrielsson, Roger H
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milczarewic, Grzegorz
    Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Nagarajuc, D. H
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogels of polypyrrole and self doped PEDOT for porous electrodes and supercapacitors2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to extend the knowledge of the mechanism of electropolymerization of pyrrole and PEDOT-S by means of in situ electrochemical quartz microbalance with dissipation studies (EQCM-D), which allow us to evaluate the chemical and physical processes during electrochemical deposition of these conductive polymer composites. Meanwhile, the relationship between the morphology of the films and the mechanism of the electropolymerization of pyrrole in presence of PEDOT-S will be discussed. The resulting material is electroactive, black and conducting. This material is a polymer composite where doped polypyrrole chains are found in an environment of doped PEDOT-S chains. They can be identified through the cyclic voltammetry studies of the composite, through element composition and through their optical signatures in electrochromism. The composite has properties suitable for a supercapacitor electrode, and capacitance of up to 650 F/g has been obtained.

  • 3.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

  • 4.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the fully acidic form of PEDOT-S was used for the purpose of self-assembly onto DNA. We have previously shown that PEDOT-S is a short polymer that is self-doped with !1/3 of the sulfonate side groups acting as the self-doping sites (see supporting info.). The remaining sulfonate groups contribute to a net anionic charge, and a water-soluble polymer, with an intrinsic bulk conductivity of around 30 S/cm. It has been shown that PEDOT-S can bind to oppositely charged cationic amyloid protein structures in water and form conducting nano fibrillar networks, and it has also been shown to form hybrid structures with synthetic peptides, and gold nanoparticles.

  • 5.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herland, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1736-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins offer an almost infinite number of functions and geometries for building nanostructures. Here we have focused on amyloid fibrillar proteins as a nanowire template and shown that these fibrils can be coated with the highly conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate PEDOT through molecular self-assembly in water. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the coated fibers have a diameter around 15 nm and a length/thickness aspect ratio >1:1000 . We have further shown that networks of the conducting nanowires are electrically and electrochemically active by constructing fully functional electrochemical transistors with nanowire networks, operating at low voltages between 0 and 0.5 V.

  • 6.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvinstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bridging Dimensions in Organic Electronics: Assembly of Electroactive Polymer Nanodevices from Fluids2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 631-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing and patterning of electroactive materials from solvents is a hallmark of flexible organic electronics,(1) and commercial applications based on these properties are now emerging. Printing and ink-jetting are today preferred technologies for patterning, but these limit the formation of nanodevices, as they give structures way above the micrometer lateral dimension. There is therefore a great need for cheap, large area patterning of nanodevices and methods for top-down registration of these. Here we demonstrate large area patterning of connected micro/nanolines and nanotransistors from the conducting polymer PEDOT, assembled from fluids. We thereby simultaneously solve problems of large area nanopatterning, and nanoregistration.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Roger H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herland, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iron Catalyzed Polymerization of Alkoxysulfonate-Functionalized EDOT gives2007In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Karlsson, Roger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herland, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wigenius, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iron-Catalyzed Polymerization of Alkoxysulfonate-Functionalized 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene Gives Water-Soluble Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) of High Conductivity2009In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1815-1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical polymerization of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivative bearing a sulfonate group (EDOTS) is reported. The polymer, PEDOT-S, is fully water-soluble and has been produced by polymerizing EDOT-S in water, using Na2S2O8 and a catalytic amount of FeCl3. Elemental analysis and XPS measurements indicate that PEDOT-S is a material with a substantial degree of self-doping, but also contains free sulfate ions as charge-balancing counterions of the oxidized polymer. Apart from self-doping PEDOT-S, the side chains enable full water solubility of the material; DLS studies show an average cluster size of only 2 nm. Importantly, the solvation properties of the PEDOT-S are reflected in spin-coated films, which show a surface roughness of 1.2 nm and good conductivity (12 S/cm) in ambient conditions. The electro-optical properties of this material are shown with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical experiment reveals an electrochromic contrast (similar to 48% at lambda(max) = 606 nm).

  • 9.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

  • 10.
    Müller, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    Biomed Centre, SLU.
    Marcilla, Rebeca
    CIDETEC Centre Electrochem Technology.
    Hedhammar, My
    Biomed Centre, SLU.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Woven Electrochemical Transistors on Silk Fibers2011In: ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 898-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woven electrochemical transistors on silk fibers from the silkworm Bombyx mori are demonstrated. This is achieved with carefully chosen electrolyte chemistry: electrically conducting silk fibers are produced by dyeing silk fibers with a conjugated polyelectrolyte and gating is accomplished by use of an electrolyte mixture composed of imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

  • 11.
    Müller, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, SLU, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Askarieh, Glareh
    Department of Molecular Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, SLU, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rising, Anna
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, SLU, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Johansson, Jan
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, SLU, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hedhammar, My
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, SLU, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Functionalisation of recombinant spider silk with conjugated polyelectrolytes2011In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 2909-2915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes are demonstrated to permit facile staining of recombinant spider silk fibres. We find that the polyelectrolyte concentration and pH of the staining solution as well as the incubation temperature strongly influence the efficiency of this self-assembly process, which appears to be principally mediated through favourable electrostatic interactions. Thus, depending on the choice of staining conditions as well as the polyelectrolyte, electrically conductive or photoluminescent recombinant silk fibres could be produced. In addition, staining of natural Bombyx mori silk is established, which emphasises the versatility of the here advanced approach to functionalise silk-based materials.

  • 12.
    Persson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ETH, Switzerland.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting2015In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 25, no 45, p. 7056-7063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial control of cell detachment is potentially of great interest when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes. Here, selective detachment and cell sorting of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts is achieved using thin films of a conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the polymer film swells, cracks, and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography to fabricate a cross-point matrix with polymer pixels that can be individually addressed and thus detached. Detachment occurs above a well-defined threshold of +0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing the use of a relatively simple and easily manufactured passive matrix-addressing configuration, based on a resistor network, to control the cell-sorting device.

  • 13.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control over detachment of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 21, p. 6257-6266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-soluble conducting polymers are of interest to enable more versatile processing in aqueous media as well as to facilitate interactions with biomolecules. Here, we report a substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivative (PEDOT-S:H) that is fully water-soluble and selfdoped. When electrochemically oxidizing a PEDOT-S:H thin film, the film detaches from the under-laying electrode. The oxidation of PEDOT-S:H starts with an initial phase of swelling followed by cracking before it finally disrupts and detaches from the electrode. We investigated the detachment mechanism and found that parameters such as the size, charge and concentration of ions in the electrolyte, the temperature and also the pH influence the characteristics of detachment. When oxidizing PEDOT-S:H, the positively charged polymer backbone is balanced by anions from the electrolyte solution and also by the sulphonate groups on the side chains (more self-doping). From our experiments, we conclude that detachment of the PEDOT-S:H film upon oxidation occurs in part due to swelling caused by an inflow of solvated anions and associated water, and in part due to rearrangements and strain within the film, caused by more self-doping. We believe that PEDOT-S:H detachment can be of interest in a number of different applications, including addressed and active control of the release of materials such as biomolecules and cell cultures.

  • 14.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Löffler, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control of cell detachment using a self-doped conducting polymer2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 38, p. 4403-4408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic detachment technology based on thin films of a poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) derivative is evaluated for controlled release of human epithelial cells. When applying a potential of 1 V, the redox-responsive polymer films detach and disintegrate and at the same time release cells cultured on top in the absence of any enzymatic treatment with excellent preservation of membrane proteins and cell viability.

  • 15.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna Lönnqvist
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been used in several applications for electronic control of cell cultures over the last years. We have shown detachment of human endothelial cells using a thin film of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the film swells, cracks and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography. The detachment only occurs above a threshold potential of +0.7 V and this fact has been used to create a simple actively addressed matrix, based on a resistor network placed in an encapsulated back plane. The matrix has individually detachable pixels. In this paper we have evaluated detachment of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts using PEDOT-S:H. In addition, we have studied effects of serum proteins, added as nutrients to the cell culture medium, on the detachment properties. It was found that at prolonged incubation times protein adhesion effectively stopped the detachment. Using shorter incubation times before detachment, both keratinocytes and fibroblasts can be detached using a regular planar device as well as the matrix device for selective detachment. Spatial control of detachment could be of use when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes.

  • 16.
    Sobkowiak, Marek
    et al.
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland .
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milczarek, Grzegorz
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Amperometric detection of iron (III) on electroconductive hydrogel based on polypyrrole and alkoxysulfonated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S)2014In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 194, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polymeric conducting hydrogel of autopolymerized polypyrrole (PPY) and poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S) cast-deposited on a glassy carbon electrode is demonstrated to be an efficient electrocatalyst for the fairly irreversible, and often irreproducible, reduction of Fe(Ill) at the bare substrate. Sensitive amperometric monitoring of Fe(III) is then possible without the need for oxygen removal at the fairly positive polarization potential of 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl in acidic electrolyte (0.1 M HClO4). The sensor shows a linear current response over a concentration range exceeding two orders of magnitude (2.5-500 mu M, R-2 = 0.9998). The detection limit (3 sigma) was estimated to be 0.8 mu M, and the sensitivity factor was 0.28 mu A mu M cm(-2), which is approximately 23 times higher than for the unmodified electrode under the same experimental conditions.

  • 17.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gomez, Eliot
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Ove
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden..
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic plants2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 1-8, article id e1501136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directlymerged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  • 18.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bubnova, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Australia.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, p. 10616-10623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

  • 19.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Max Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 4556-4562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

  • 20.
    Wang, Hui
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionic Seebeck Effect in Conducting Polymers2015In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 5, no 11, article id 1500044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers display an ionic thermoelectric effect in addition to the known electronic thermoelectric effect. Their Seebeck coefficient is as large as ≈200 μV K−1. This finding discloses a new possible approach to improve the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers by combining various types of charge carriers of the same sign.

  • 21.
    Zeglio, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trinh, Xuan thang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blends for Electrochromic and Electrochemical Transistor Devices2015In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 18, p. 6385-6393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two self-doped conjugated polyelectrolytes, having semiconducting and metallic behaviors, respectively, have been blended from aqueous solutions in order to produce materials with enhanced optical and electrical properties. The intimate blend of two anionic conjugated polyelectrolytes combine the electrical and optical properties of these, and can be tuned by blend stoichiometry. In situ conductance measurements have been done during doping of the blends, while UV vis and EPR spectroelectrochemistry allowed the study of the nature of the involved redox species. We have constructed an accumulation/depletion mode organic electrochemical transistor whose characteristics can be tuned by balancing the stoichiometry of the active material.

  • 22.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, J. C.
    Xiamen University, Peoples R China.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors2016In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1450-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature gradients are generated by the sun and a vast array of technologies and can induce molecular concentration gradients in solutions via thermodiffusion (Soret effect). For ions, this leads to a thermovoltage that is determined by the thermal gradient Delta T across the electrolyte, together with the ionic Seebeck coefficient alpha(i). So far, redox-free electrolytes have been poorly explored in thermoelectric applications due to a lack of strategies to harvest the energy from the Soret effect. Here, we report the conversion of heat into stored charge via a remarkably strong ionic Soret effect in a polymeric electrolyte (Seebeck coefficients as high as alpha(i) = 10 mV K-1). The ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC) is charged under a temperature gradient. After the temperature gradient is removed, the stored electrical energy can be delivered to an external circuit. This new means to harvest energy is particularly suitable for intermittent heat sources like the sun. We show that the stored electrical energy of the ITESC is proportional to (Delta T alpha(i))(2). The resulting ITESC can convert and store several thousand times more energy compared with a traditional thermoelectric generator connected in series with a supercapacitor.

1 - 22 of 22
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