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  • 1.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framtidens energisystem och därmed även klimatet påverkas av många faktorer, såsom energitillgångar, efterfrågan på energi, energipolicy och valet  av energitekniska lösningar. De framtida energisystemen står inför tre viktiga utmaningar: den ständigt växande efterfrågan på energi i världen, problemet med minskande energitillgångar samt den ökande koldioxidhalten i atmosfären och utsläppen av andra växthusgaser och deras påverkan på klimatförändring. Det blir alltmer angeläget att möta de nämnda utmaningarna med hållbarhetsbegreppet i åtanke, att agera för att öka energieffektiviteten och att välja ett energieffektivt energisystem som också är kostnadseffektivt. Fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla baserade på kraftvärme (CHP) kan i hög grad bidra till ökad effektivitet genom användning av energi som annars skulle gå till spillo.

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur CHP-baserad fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla som använder olika energikällor kan bidra till mer kostnadseffektiva energisystem som även ger minskade globala koldioxidutsläpp samt att belysa effekterna av vissa viktiga parametrar för svenska fjärrvärmesystem. Ett viktigt antagande i denna studie är beräkningarna av koldioxidutsläppen från elproduktion som är baserade på marginalelsperspektiv. På kort sikt antas marginalelen komma från koleldade kondenskraftverk, medan den på lång sikt utgörs av el som produceras av naturgas i gaskombi-kondenskraftverk. I beräkningarna antas den lokala elproduktionen ersätta marginalelsproduktionen. Det underliggande antagandet är en ideal, helt avreglerad, europeisk elmarknad där handelshindren är borta och det inte finns några begränsningar i överföringskapaciteten.

    Resultaten visar att elproduktion i kraftvärmeverk, speciellt i högeffektiva kraftvärmeverk med en kombination av ång- och gasturbiner med naturgas, kan minska den globala miljöpåverkan av energianvändningen avsevärt. Resultaten bekräftar också, genom de scenarier som presenteras i denna studie, att avfall utnyttjas fullt ut som bränsle i kraftvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem eftersom det har de lägsta driftskostnaderna. Resultaten visar också hur införande av ett biogasbaserat kraftvärmeverk i ett biogassystem bidrar till ett effektivt system för att minska koldioxidutsläppen och systemkostnaderna. Resultaten visar att det är kostnadseffektivt och klimatvänligt att byta ut eldrivna kompressorkylmaskiner mot värmedrivna absorptionskylmaskiner i ett CHP-system eftersom elanvändningen minskas och elproduktionen samtidigt kommer att öka. Resultaten av studien visar också att det finns potential att bygga ut fjärrvärmesystem till områden med lägre värmetäthet med både miljövinster och ekonomiska fördelar för fjärrvärmeföretagen.

    Resultaten visar att driften av ett studerat CHP-baserat fjärrvärmesystem där olika gränsvärden för utsläpp införs är mycket känsligt för hur koldioxidutsläppen redovisas, d v s som lokala koldioxidutsläpp eller utsläpp från marginalel. Resultatet visar hur elproduktionen ökar i marginalelsfallet jämfört med det lokala fallet för att minska de globala koldioxidutsläppen. Resultaten visade också att inte bara el- och bränslepriserna, utan också styrmedlen är viktiga för att främja kraftvärmebaserad fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla. Elcertifikat har t ex stor inverkan på införandet av biogasbaserad kraftvärme. En annan slutsats från modelleringarna är att de styrmedel som finns i dagens Sverige utgör starka incitament för kraftvärme och har en liknande effekt som att använda externa kostnader.

    Delarbeten
    1. Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 1224-1247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    District heating may help reduce environmental impact and energy costs, but policy instruments and waste management may influence operations. The energy system optimisation model MODEST has been used for 50 towns, regions and a nation. Investments and operation that satisfy energy demand at minimum cost are found through linear programming. This paper describes the application of MODEST to a municipal utility, which uses several fuels and cogeneration plants. The model reflects diurnal and monthly demand fluctuations. Several studies of the Linköping utility are reviewed. These indicate that the marginal heat cost is lower in summer, a new waste or wood fired cogeneration plant is more profitable than a natural-gas-fired combined cycle, material recycling of paper and hard plastics is preferable to waste incineration from an energy-efficiency viewpoint, and considering external costs enhances wood fuel use. Here, an emission limit is used to show how fossil-fuel cogeneration displaces CO2 from coal-condensing plants. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43950 (URN)10.1016/j.ejor.2005.06.026 (DOI)75220 (Lokalt ID)75220 (Arkivnummer)75220 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 5242-5253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

    Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

    The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

    Nyckelord
    External costs, Combined heat and power, Waste incineration
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14206 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.04.026 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-01-04 Skapad: 2007-01-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    3. European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 12, s. 1319-1337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

    Nyckelord
    Absorption cooling, European electricity prices, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Global emissions
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14161 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.09.016 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2006-11-27 Skapad: 2006-11-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    4. Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 496-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

    Nyckelord
    Natural gas, CO2 emissions, Combined heat and power
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16971 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.080 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-03-01 Skapad: 2009-02-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    5. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Nyckelord
    Combined heat and power; Heat sparse areas; CO2 emissions; District heating; Deregulated electricity market
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58385 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 (DOI)000278675100034 ()
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Shahnaz Amiri and Bahram Moshfegh, Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems, 2010, Applied Energy, (87), 7, 2401-2410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.02.002 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-13 Skapad: 2010-08-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12
    6. Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, nr SI, s. 242-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Biogas system, CO2 emissions, Energy systems optimisation, Combined heat and power plant, Marginal electricity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85624 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.022 (DOI)000309902000051 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-11-26 Skapad: 2012-11-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07
  • 2.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, nr SI, s. 242-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 3.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

  • 4.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden2009Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 496-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

  • 5.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analyzing the Performance and Control of a Hydronic Pavement System in a District Heating Network2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikel-id 2078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 °C and −5 °C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources.

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund (Trygg), Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikel-id 2199Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

  • 7.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modelling and optimisation of electricity, steam and district heating production for a local Swedish utility2006Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 1224-1247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating may help reduce environmental impact and energy costs, but policy instruments and waste management may influence operations. The energy system optimisation model MODEST has been used for 50 towns, regions and a nation. Investments and operation that satisfy energy demand at minimum cost are found through linear programming. This paper describes the application of MODEST to a municipal utility, which uses several fuels and cogeneration plants. The model reflects diurnal and monthly demand fluctuations. Several studies of the Linköping utility are reviewed. These indicate that the marginal heat cost is lower in summer, a new waste or wood fired cogeneration plant is more profitable than a natural-gas-fired combined cycle, material recycling of paper and hard plastics is preferable to waste incineration from an energy-efficiency viewpoint, and considering external costs enhances wood fuel use. Here, an emission limit is used to show how fossil-fuel cogeneration displaces CO2 from coal-condensing plants. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system2007Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 5242-5253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

    Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

    The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

  • 9.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 12, s. 1319-1337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

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