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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Anders H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Akkermans, Louis M.A.
    Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    McKay, Derek M
    Gastrointestinal Research Group, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Probiotics modulate mast cell degranulation and reduce stress-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Stress has well-established deleterious effects on intestinal barrier function and stressful life events are known to contribute to the development and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel diseases. Mast cells play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of stressinduced barrier dysfunction due to the release of barrier-disruptive content. Conversely, they also have recently been suggested to contribute to barrier protective properties of probiotics, through the release of 15d-PGJ2 and enhanced epithelial PPAR-γ activity. However, mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

    AIM: To study if probiotics can modulate mast cell mediator release, resulting in amelioration of stress-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro.

    METHODS: Confluent monolayers of the human colon-derived T84 epithelial cell line were co-cultured with rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and pretreated with probiotics (125x104 CFU/ml, 1hr) before addition of 100nM CRF to activate mast cells. Release of beta hexosaminidase, TNF-α and 15d-PGJ2 from mast cells was determined. Transepithelial resistance (TER), and permeability to microspheres (0.2μm) were measured over a 24h period. To determine dependence of PPAR-γ, monolayers were incubated with the specific PPAR-γ antagonist T0070907 before treatment with probiotics.

    RESULTS: CRF-induced activation of mast cells resulted in decreased TERs and increased permeability to microspheres. Both pretreatment with probiotics and filter-sterilized probiotic supernatant resulted in lower levels of mast cell-released beta hexosaminidase and TNF-α, and increased 15d-PGJ2. Furthermore, probiotics ameliorated epithelial barrier dysfunction in monolayers exposed to CRF-activated mast cells. However, when T84 monolayers were exposed to conditioned medium of CRF-activated mast cells or were incubated with T0070907, probiotics showed little or no effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics modulate mast cell mediator release to a more barrier protective profile, resulting in amelioration of stress-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction, which is putatively mediated by a PPAR-γ dependent pathway.

  • 2.
    Lewis, Kimberley
    et al.
    University of Calgary.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Phan, Van
    University of Calgary.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sherman, Philip M.
    University of Toronto.
    McKay, Derek M.
    University of Calgary.
    Enhanced Translocation of Bacteria Across Metabolically Stressed Epithelia is Reduced by Butyrate2010In: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, ISSN 1078-0998, E-ISSN 1536-4844, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1138-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gut microflora in some patients with Crohns disease can be reduced in numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria and this could result in metabolic stress in the colonocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, is important in the maintenance and regulation of the barrier function of the colonic epithelium. Methods: Confluent monolayers of the human colon-derived T84 or HT-29 epithelial cell lines were exposed to dinitrophenol (DNP (0.1 mM), uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) + Escherichia coil (strain HB101, 10(6) cfu) +/- butyrate (3-50 mM). Transepithelial resistance (TER), and bacterial internalization and translocation were assessed over a 24-hour period. Epithelial ultrastructure was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: Epithelia under metabolic stress display decreased TER and increased numbers of pseudopodia that is consistent with increased internalization and translocation of the E. coli. Butyrate (but not acetate) significantly reduced the bacterial translocation across DNP-treated epithelia but did not ameliorate the drop in TER in the DNP+E. coli exposed monolayers. Inhibition of bacterial transcytosis across metabolically stressed epithelia was associated with reduced I-kappa B phosphorylation and hence NF-kappa B activation. Conclusions: Reduced butyrate-producing bacteria could result in increased epithelial permeability particularly in the context of concomitant exposure to another stimulus that reduces mitochondria function. We speculate that prebiotics, the substrate for butyrate synthesis, is a valuable prophylaxis in the regulation of epithelial permeability and could be of benefit in preventing relapses in IBD.

  • 3.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Akkermans, L. M.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastrointestinal damage2008In: Current molecular medicine, ISSN 1566-5240, E-ISSN 1875-5666, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 282-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has a major impact on gut physiology and may affect the clinical course of gastro-intestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on the interaction between commensal gut microbiota and intestinal mucosa during stress and discuss the possibilities to counteract the deleterious effects of stress with probiotics. Normally, commensal microbes and their hosts benefit from a symbiotic relationship. Stress does, however, reduce the number of Lactobacilli, while on the contrary, an increased growth, epithelial adherence and mucosal uptake of gram-negative pathogens, e.g. E. coli and Pseudomonas, are seen. Moreover, intestinal bacteria have the ability to sense a stressed host and up-regulate their virulence factors when opportunity knocks. Probiotics are "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host", and mainly represented by Lactic Acid Bacteria. Probiotics can counteract stress-induced changes in intestinal barrier function, visceral sensitivity and gut motility. These effects are strain specific and mediated by direct bacterial-host cell interaction and/or via soluble factors. Mechanisms of action include competition with pathogens for essential nutrients, induction of epithelial heat-shock proteins, restoring of tight junction protein structure, up-regulation of mucin genes, secretion of defensins, and regulation of the NFκB signalling pathway. In addition, the reduction of intestinal pain perception was shown to be mediated via cannabinoid receptors. Based on the studies reviewed here there is clearly a rationale for probiotic treatment in patients with stress-related intestinal disorders. We are however far from being able to choose the precise combination of strains or bacterial components for each clinical setting. © 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  • 4.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Carlsson, Anders H.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timmerman, Harro M.
    Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Akkermans, Louis M.A.
    Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Protective Effects of Probiotics on Chronic Stress-Induced Intestinal Permeability in Rats are mediated via Mast Cells and PPARγ2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic stress, which may affect in the clinical course of inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, disrupts intestinal barrier function by routes involving mast cells. Probiotics have been shown to ameliorate the deleterious effects of stress on intestinal function, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ signaling is activated as an endogenous defense mechanism during chronic stress and evidence suggests that probiotics reduce the degradation of PPAR-γ. As a source of the endogenous agonist for PPAR-γ, 15d-PGJ2, and as an important mediator of the stress response, mast cells may have both a beneficial and a deleterious role in the effects on intestinal function by probiotics.

    AIM: Our aim was to study if mast cells contribute to the positive effects of probiotic therapy on intestinal function in a rat model of chronic stress.

    METHODS: 32 Mast cell deficient (Ws/Ws) and 32 wild-type (+/+) rats were subjected to water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress (SS) 1hr/day for 10 days. Seven days prior to the onset of stress, probiotics (PB, multispecies combination of 10 different lactic acid bacteria) were added to the standard diet (St) in half of the animals. To determine dependence of PPAR-γ, 8 probiotic-fed wild-type rats subjected to WAS were injected daily with the specific PPAR-γ antagonist T0070907. The colonic mucosa was exposed to E. coli HB101 incorporated with green fluorescent protein and permeability was assessed in Ussing chambers. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were cultured to determine bacterial translocation.

    RESULTS: Chronic stress induced a marked increase in ileal permeability to E.coli HB101 in +/+ rats (0.17±0.1 x106CFU/hr in SS/St/++ vs. 2.13±0.4 in WAS/St/++; P<0.001). This breach in barrier integrity was less pronounced in Ws/Ws rats (2.13±0.4 in WAS/St/++ vs. 1.19±0.3 in WAS/St/WsWs; P<0.01). Probiotics prevented stress-induced effects in E.coli HB101 passage only in wild-type rats (82% decrease in +/+ vs. 0% in Ws/Ws rats). Furthermore, only in the presence of mast cells did probiotics reduce the enhanced bacterial translocation to MLNs during chronic stress. In wild-type rats treated with a PPAR-γ antagonist, the barrier protective effects of probiotics were diminished.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mast cells acting via a PPAR-γ dependent pathway contribute to the beneficial effects of probiotics on chronic stress-induced mucosal dysfunction in rats.

  • 5.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nijmeijer, Rian M
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Sandström, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trulsson, Lena M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timmerman, Harro M
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    van Minnen, L Paul
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Rijkers, Ger T
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Gooszen, Hein G
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Akkermans, Louis M A
    Utrecht University Medical Center.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Probiotics prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction in acute pancreatitis in rats via induction of ileal mucosal glutathione biosynthesis.2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 2, p. e4512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and (51)Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4+/-33.5 vs. placebo 223.7+/-93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), (51)Cr-EDTA flux (16.7+/-10.1 vs. 32.1+/-10.0 cm/s10(-6); P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42+/-0.13 vs. 1.62+/-0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33+/-1.47 vs. 8.82+/-1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33+/-1.47 vs. 10.70+/-1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88+/-1.21 vs. placebo 1.94+/-0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0.05) coinciding with an increase in mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine-ligase catalytic (GCLc) and modifier (GCLm) subunits. CONCLUSIONS: Probiotic pre-treatment diminished AP-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and prevented oxidative stress via mechanisms mainly involving mucosal glutathione biosynthesis.

  • 6.
    Lutgendorff, Femke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Trulsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery .
    van Minnen, L. Paul
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Rijkers, Ger T.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Timmerman, Harro M.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Franzén, Lennart E.
    3Department of Pathology and Cytology Aleris Medilab, Täby.
    Gooszen, Hein G.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Akkermans, Louis M. A.
    Department of Surgery University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis2008In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, ISSN 0193-1857, E-ISSN 1522-1547, Vol. 295, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress, inflammation, and acinar cell injury during the early phase of AP. Fifty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into groups: 1) control, 2) sham procedure, 3) AP with no treatment, 4) AP with probiotics, and 5) AP with placebo. AP was induced under general anesthesia by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion (15 mM) and intravenous cerulein (5 μg·kg-1·h-1, for 6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting 5 days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, pancreas samples were collected for analysis including lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, histological grading of pancreatic injury, and NF-κB activation. The severity of pancreatic injury correlated to oxidative damage (r = 0.9) and was ameliorated by probiotics (1.5 vs. placebo 5.5, P = 0.014). AP-induced NF-κB activation was reduced by probiotics (0.20 vs. placebo 0.53 OD 450nm/mg nuclear protein, P < 0.001). Probiotics attenuated AP-induced lipid peroxidation (0.25 vs. placebo 0.51 pmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, P < 0.001). Not only was AP-induced glutathione depletion prevented (8.81 vs. placebo 4.1 μmol/mg protein, P < 0.001), probiotic pretreatment even increased glutathione compared with sham rats (8.81 vs. sham 6.18 μmol/mg protein, P < 0.001). Biosynthesis of glutathione (glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity) was enhanced in probiotic-pretreated animals. Probiotics enhanced the biosynthesis of glutathione, which may have reduced activation of inflammation and acinar cell injury and ameliorated experimental AP, via a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.

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