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  • 1.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Learner drivers and lay instruction: how socio-economic standing and lifestyle are reflected in driving practice from the age of 161999In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On September 1st 1993, a new law came into effect in Sweden, permitting instructor-supported driving practice from the age of 16 instead of 17 years and 6 months. The intention was to enable young people to gain more experience of driving a car before they acquire a driver's permit and thereby to reduce their accident risk.

    The study was conducted by means of a questionnaire posted to 601 17-year-olds throughout Sweden. The participants were analysed concerning gender, socio-economic standing (blue-collar and white-collar), and lifestyle (friend-oriented, externally-oriented and parent-oriented). The results show that men obtain a learner's permit more often than women (67.4% vs 57.2%) and that youngsters in white-collar families acquire a learner's permit in more cases than those in blue-collar families (67.4% vs 52.4%). One of the reasons for the latter group not acquiring a permit is that they cannot afford it, while children in white-collar families state that they have neither the time nor the desire. No significant difference was found between the three lifestyle groups.

    When it comes to the amount of practice, the men have been out on the road on average 39.9 h during their first 13 months, compared to 19.9 h for the women. In the lifestyle groups, those who belong to the so-called externally-oriented lifestyle have practised most. They have reported 39.2 h compared to the parent-oriented group with the least amount of training, 27.9 h on average. The friend-oriented group has 22.2 h of practice.

    When both lifestyle and socio-economic standing were considered, even greater differences were found. The white-collar group of the externally-oriented lifestyle reported as much as 51.5 h, compared to the blue-collar group of the parent-oriented lifestyle with only 18.4 h of practising.

    The above result is important because it is not in accordance with the intentions of the new driving practice system. The idea behind the new system was that all young people should have the opportunity for a longer period of driving practice in order to reduce the high accident risk during the first year with a driver’s license. If it is impossible for certain groups of youngsters to start their driving practice at the age of 16, the situation will become socially unjust and measures must be taken to remedy this situation.

  • 2.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    et al.
    Swedish National Road Administration, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Typical patterns in road-traffic accidents during driver training: An explorative Swedish national study2004In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new law came into force in Sweden on 1 September 1993, which makes instructor-assisted driving practice possible at the age of 16 years instead of the previous 17 years and 6 months. When the age limit was reduced, the possibility that this would lead to more road-traffic accidents (RTA) during driving practice was discussed. The aim of this study was to highlight typical road-traffic accident patterns and to discuss their potential for improved training and targeted prevention. A total of 11 variables (41 categories) descriptive of the 1081 RTA involving novice drivers and police registered during the period 1994–1999 were analysed simultaneously using in turn, two multivariate analysis techniques: the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC) and the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Four accident classes were identified and quantified, of which the first two were more typical of rural areas: (1) accidents in rural areas on straight stretches and related to speed limit 70 km/h (n=306); (2) accidents in rural areas on straight stretches and high-speed related (n=97); (3) accidents in built-up areas, low-speed related and of the type rear-end (n=298); and (4) accidents in built-up areas, at road junctions and low-speed related (n=380). Together, these classes point to a variety of opportunities to develop ways of working with targeted prevention. Instead of adopting a general attempt to counteract the relationship between individual variables and accidents, it is possible instead to focus on a whole context and its relationship with its typical accidents and any resulting injuries. This, in its turn, allows greater specificity in the build up of the Swedish licence and training regulations and its corresponding course curriculum.

  • 3.
    Engström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The National Society for Road Safety, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Young drivers: Reduced crash risk with passengers in the vehicle2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the effect of passengers on accident propensity among young drivers is ambiguous—in some cases positive and some negative. In Sweden, various kinds of information are compiled in registers, including a national accident database and exposure data collected in a national investigation of the driving habits of license holders. Access to such data offers a good opportunity to study crash risks related to driving with and without passengers. This was done for drivers in three different age groups (18–24, 25–64 and >65 years) accompanied by one, two or three or more passengers. Differences in crash risk were estimated using incidence density ratios (IDRs) and 95% confidence intervals. The results show that passengers had an overall protective effect, that is, the crash risk was higher for those who drove alone, regardless of their age or gender. This protective effect increased with every extra passenger (up to eight), indicating that the more passengers in the vehicle, the safer the driving. The influence of passengers was weakest (albeit still positive) among the youngest drivers (ages 18–24 years), especially the males in that group. The protective impact showed the same pattern on all days of the week, but was most marked from Friday to Sunday for most of the drivers, regardless of age.

  • 4.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 82, no 8, p. 732-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The importance of the visual system as the input channel for sensory information necessary when driving is often stated. There are several reports on differences in visual search strategies between experienced and inexperienced drivers, as well as in relation to the roadway. However, the results are ambiguous and are not sampled by similar procedures. Based on previous findings, the aim of the present study was to gain further knowledge on these differences by testing the hypotheses that inexperienced drivers, in comparison to experienced drivers, fixate closer to the vehicle, fixate more often on in-vehicle objects, spread their fixations less along the horizontal meridian, fixate more often on relevant traffic cues, and fixate more often on objects classified as potential hazards. Methods. Data from eye-tracker recordings of visual search strategies of the driver in real-world traffic were used for the analyses. Results. The results confirmed all stated hypotheses regarding differences between inexperienced and experienced drivers, with the exception of fixations closer to the vehicle, in which ambiguous results were found. Conclusions. The present study provides normative data for the understanding of the development of visual search strategies among drivers. The methodology used in the present study, i.e., to combine a quantitative analysis with a qualitative analysis proved, to be useful to compare visual search strategies among inexperienced and experienced drivers. Copyright © 2005 American Academy of Optometry.

  • 5.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Perceived Risk Among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, p. 553-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gregersen, Nils. P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers1994In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 297-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc.

  • 7.
    Gregersen, Nils. P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engström, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nolén, Sixten
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society.
    Rimmö, Per-Arne
    Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden: an evaluation of safety effects2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a reform implemented in Sweden, September 1993, the age limit for practising car driving was lowered from 17½ to 16 years while the licensing age remained 18. The purpose of lowering the age limit was to give the learner drivers an opportunity to acquire more experience as drivers before being allowed to drive on their own. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reform in terms of accident involvement and data were therefore obtained from the national register of police reported accidents. The results show that after the reform there was a general reduction in the accident risk (accidents per 10 million km) of novice drivers with approximately 15%. Additional analyses show that the reduction of accident risk in the group who utilised the new age limit was approximately 40%, whereas those who did not utilise the prolonged training period did not benefit at all. Between 45 and 50% of the age population were found to utilise the reform. The accident reduction does not seem to be just an initial first year effect since the results were similar over 3 years of novice drivers during their first 2 years with a licence. These results suggest that the reform has been beneficial for the safety of novice drivers in Sweden. The results also suggest a potential for additional safety improvements if more young learner drivers can be brought to utilise the low age limit.

  • 8.
    Gregersen, Nils. P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Accident involvement among learner drivers: an analysis of the consequences of supervised practice2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 725-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that experience is important for safe driving. Previously, this presented a problem since experience was mostly gained during the most dangerous period of driving—the first years with a licence. In many countries, this “experience paradox” has been addressed by providing increased opportunities to gain experience through supervised practice. One question, however, which still needs to be answered is what has been lost and what has been gained through supervised practice. Does this method lead to fewer accidents after licensing and/or has the number of accidents in driving practice increased? There were three aims in the study. The first was to calculate the size of the accident problem in terms of the number of accidents, health risk and accident risk during practising. The second aim was to evaluate the solution of the “experience paradox” that supervised practice suggests by calculating the costs in terms of accidents during driving practice and the benefits in terms of reduced accident involvement after obtaining a licence. The third aim was to analyse conflict types that occur during driving practice. National register data on licence holders and police-reported injury accidents and self-reported exposure were used. The results show that during the period 1994–2000, 444 driving practice injury accidents were registered, compared to 13,657 accidents during the first 2 years with a licence. The health risk during the period after licensing was 33 times higher and the accident risk 10 times higher than the corresponding risk during practice. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits in terms of accident reduction after licensing were 30 times higher than the costs in terms of driving practice accidents. It is recommended that measures to reduce such accidents should focus on better education of the lay instructor, but not on introducing measures to reduce the amount of lay-instructed practice.

  • 9.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nolén, Sixten
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Children's road safety and the strategy of voluntary traffic safety clubs1994In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the problem of traffic safety among children and the effectiveness of voluntary traffic clubs. General doubts are growing in regard to this traditional strategy of teaching and training children how to act in specific traffic situations. It has been shown that their knowledge and behavior improve, but the effect on accident risk is not clear. In this study, one model for traditional teaching of this type, a voluntary traffic safety club for children, is evaluated in terms of accident risk. The data have been collected through questionnaires to members and nonmembers of the club. Approximately 20% of Swedish children are members of the club. The results show that members do not have a lower accident risk than nonmembers. On the contrary, the risk in this nonexperimental study is found to be higher among members. The use of safety equipment is, however, higher among members. The results are discussed in terms of systematic differences between the groups, i.e. socioeconomics, and in terms of the possibility that the general strategy of the club leads to overestimation of the safety effect.

  • 10.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prevention of road accidents among young novice car drivers1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis presents five different studies with the overall purpose of developing better preconditions for preventing accidents among young novice drivers. Too many young drivers are killed or injured in road accidents all over the world and we have still not succeeded in reducing their overrisk and fully understanding the interaction between the processes behind their accident involvement. The focus of the thesis is on the development of a model of the behaviour of young drivers in which different factors contributing to their accident involvement are explained. In the first study, new strategies in driver training have been developed and experimentally tested, the aim being to reduce the problems of overestimation, poor visual search patterns and unstructured teaching and training by laymen (I). In the second study, different safety measures were developed and experimentally tested with the purpose of finding the best method for reducing accidents among professional drivers (II). These two studies, combined with literature surveys, have contributed to the design of the model of young drivers' accident involvement. The suggested model is presented in paper m. The last two studies aim at deeper understanding of two specific relations in the model, the relation between training strategy and young drivers' subjective skill (N) and the relation between lifestyle and accidents (V).

    The results of these studies, including the literature surveys of paper Ill, underline the complexity of the young driver problem. A structure with three main factors influencing accident involvement is suggested: the learning process, social influence and individual preconditions. Through different processes such as training and subjective skill, feedback and motives for driving, skill acquisition and automation, subjective norms or lifestyle, these factorsinfluence driving behaviour and thereby accident involvement. In the two first studies, it was shown that improved driver training, in spite of poor results from many other evaluations of driver training, may contribute to the prevention of young drivers' accident involvement. It was also found that the strategy that is chosen for driver training is important for the driver's own estimation of his skill. The wrong type of training may produce over-confident drivers.

    Even if we have considerable knowledge about the factors contributing to accident involvement, we cannot yet with certainty identify the best countermeasures. We need to know more about these processes. Since there are still many unsolved problems and many processes in young driver behaviour that are not understood well enough, there is probably still a large potential for improving safety among young drivers.

  • 11.
    Hatakka, Mika
    et al.
    Åbo.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Åbo.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Glad, Alf
    Oslo.
    From control of the vehicle to personal self-control, broadening the perspectives to driver education2002In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 201-215Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to formulate guidelines and goals for future development in the area of driver training and education. The content of this paper is not empirical, but merely an analytical summary or review. A four-level descriptive model is presented in which driver behaviour is conceptualised as a hierarchy, in which the goals and motives of the driver play an essential role. The recent constructivist ideas in mainstream pedagogy and psychology of learning are combined with a hierarchical approach to driver behaviour. A comprehensive framework for goals and contents of driver education (GDE framework) is presented. Two main conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the conceptual analysis points towards a need to emphasise the motivational aspects in driver education more than it is done at present. Secondly, in order to reach the goals, pedagogical methods should be re-evaluated. For example, active learning methods and use of self-reflection should be promoted in driver education.

  • 12.
    Moller, M.
    et al.
    Møller, M., Danish Transport Research Institute (DTF), Knuth-Winterfeldts Allé, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Psychosocial function of driving as predictor of risk-taking behaviour2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between risk-taking behaviour while driving, the psychosocial function of driving, leisure time activities, car oriented peer group interaction and educational attainment. Two thousand four hundred seventeen drivers aged 18-25, randomly selected from the Danish Driving Licence Register, participated in the study. Data was collected through a mail survey. The response rate was 60.4%. A positive significant effect on risk-taking behaviour based on the score on the psychosocial function of driving was found (p < 0.001). A positive significant effect on risk-taking behaviour was also found based on driving related interaction with friends. Low structure/high impulsivity leisure time activities such as playing PC-games, doing body building and partying with friends were found to be related to increased risk-taking behaviour (p < 0.01). Although risk-taking behaviour is generally condemned by society results show that risk-taking behaviour while driving can also be functional in the lives of the young drivers. Consequently, other motives than safety motives are at stake when engaging in risk-taking behaviour. Implications for preventive efforts are discussed. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Nalmpantis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Grekland.
    Naniopoulos, Aristotelis
    Grekland.
    Bekiaris, Evangelos
    Grekland.
    Panou, Maria
    Grekland.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Baten, Guido
    Belgien.
    Dols, Juan F
    Spanien.
    "Trainer" project: Pilot applications for the evaluation of new driver training technologies2005In: Traffic & Transport Psychology -: Theory and application: proceedings of the ICTTP 2004 / [ed] Geoffrey Underwood, Oxford: Elsevier , 2005, p. 141-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Just as our transport systems become more and more important to our economic and social well-being, so they become more and more crowded and more at risk from congestion, disruption, and collapse. Technology and engineering can provide part of the solution, but the complete solution will need to take account of the behaviour of the users of the transport networks.

    The role of psychologists in this is to understand how people make decisions about the alternative modes of transport and about the alternative routes to their destinations, to understand how novice and other vulnerable users can develop safe and effective behaviours, how competent users can operate within the transport system optimally and within their perceptual and cognitive limitations.

    The contributions to this volume address these issues of how the use of our transport systems can be improved by taking into account knowledge of the behaviour of the people who use the systems. Topics discussed include driver training and licensing, driver impairment, road user attitudes and behaviour, enforcement and behaviour change, driver support systems, and the psychology of mobility and transport mode choice.

    This work will be of value not only to psychologists but to all transport professionals interested in the application of psychology to traffic

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Practicing for and performance on driver’s license tests in relation to gender differences in crash involvement among novice drivers2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young male novice drivers are overrepresented in injury motor-vehicle crashes compared to females in the same category. This difference in crash involvement is often assumed to include factors such as overestimation, risk acceptance, and sensation seeking, but it can also be related to acquisition of knowledge, skills, insight, and driving experience. Therefore, this study explored possible gender differences among 18–24-year-olds in Sweden regarding practicing as learners, outcome of the driver's tests, and crash involvement during the first year after licensure.

    Method: Data for 2005 from different sources (e.g., questionnaires, license test, and crash statistics) were examined. It was not possible to follow individual subjects through all stages or in all analyses. Nevertheless, the study design did enable scrutinization and discussion of gender differences between younger inexperienced drivers with respect to education and training, license test results, and initial period of licensure.

    Results: Males and females assimilated tuition in different ways. Females studied more theory, pursued training in a more structured manner, practiced more elements of driving in several different environments, and participated more extensively in driving school instruction. National statistics showed that females did better on the written test but not on the driving test. Males were involved in 1.9 more injury crashes per 1,000 drivers than females during their first year of licensed driving. The proportional distribution of crash types was the same for both sexes during the first period as novice drivers, but the circumstances surrounding the accidents varied (e.g., males were involved in more night crashes).

    Impact on traffic safety: More structured training while learning appears to be one of the reasons why females initially do better than males as novice drivers. Therefore, in the future, driver education should focus not only on matters such as the amount of time spent on training and preconditioning, but also on the importance of the organization and content of the learning process.

  • 15.
    Nyberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nolén, Sixten
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Safety halls: an evaluation2005In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    In most countries, drivers licensing systems usually include teaching some aspects of using safety equipment (e.g., airbags and seat belts). However, there is now evidence worldwide that such education is inadequate, as indicated by, for example, the overrepresentation of young drivers who do not use seat belts.

    Method

    A randomized controlled study was conducted in Sweden to evaluate the effects of visiting a facility known as a “safety hall” in combination with the mandatory skid training. The results were assessed to determine the effects of the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers in the following subjects: airbags, securing loads, seat belts, sitting posture, speed, and tires. An experimental group and a control group comprising 658 and 668 learners, respectively, answered identical questionnaires on three different occasions (pretest, posttest 1, and posttest 2).

    Results

    The results show that, for most of the topics considered, knowledge and attitudes in both groups were better at posttest 2 than at the pretest, and in general, the best knowledge and attitudes were found in the experimental group. The combined safety/skid training seems to have had the greatest effect on seat belts and loads. The findings also indicate that the safety halls can be further improved to achieve an even better effect.

    Impact on Traffic Safety

    The use of safety halls has improved the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers concerning several important areas related to traffic safety. Since knowledge and attitudes are important predictors of behavior, implementing safety halls can be expected to lead to improvements, especially regarding the use of safety belts and securing loads.

  • 16.
    Nyberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Practicing in relation to the outcome of the driving test2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a written and a driving test must be passed for licensure, and these two examinations are the only means of verifying that learner drivers have acquired the competencies stipulated in the national curriculum. The present study investigated 18–24-year olds regarding the effects of personal background and mode of driver education instruction on the outcome of the driving test. This was done by analysing the following for individual subjects: data on practicing obtained using a questionnaire, and test results of license tests. The results suggest that among the candidates under study, there are equal opportunities in the context of obtaining a driver's license independent of a person's background. The rate of passing was higher for those who started behind-the-wheel training at 16 and applied to take the driving test via a driving school, than for those who started the training at an older age and applied to take the test in person. It was also found that the probability of passing the test was greater if there is successful cooperation between learner and driving school instructor, and if a large proportion of the training been devoted to the task speed adaptation.

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