The Canada Day Theorem is an identity involving sums of k x k minors of an arbitrary n x n symmetric matrix. It was discovered as a by-product of the work on so-called peakon solutions of an integrable nonlinear partial differential equation proposed by V. Novikov. Here we present another proof of this theorem, which explains the underlying mechanism in terms of the orbits of a certain abelian group action on the set of all k-edge matchings of the complete bipartite graph K-n,K-n.
Recently Vladimir Novikov found a new integrable analogue of the Camassa-Holm equation which has nonlinear terms that are cubic, rather than quadratic, and which admits peaked soliton solutions (peakons). In this paper, the explicit formulas for multipeakon solutions of Novikovs cubically nonlinear equation are calculated, using the matrix Lax pair found by Hone and Wang. By a transformation of Liouville type, the associated spectral problem is related to a cubic string equation, which is dual to the cubic string that was previously found in the work of Lundmark and Szmigielski on the multipeakons of the Degasperis-Procesi equation.
Certain nonlinear partial differential equations admit multisoliton solutions in the form of a superposition of peaked waves, so-called peakons. The Camassa–Holm andDegasperis–Procesi equations are twowellknown examples, and a more recent one is the Novikov equation, which has cubic nonlinear terms instead of quadratic. In this article we investigate multipeakon solutions of theNovikov equation, in particular interactions between peakons with positive amplitude and antipeakons with negative amplitude. The solutions are given by explicit formulas, which makes it possible to analyze them in great detail. As in the Camassa–Holm case, the slope of the wave develops a singularity when a peakon collides with an antipeakon, while the wave itself remains continuous and can be continued past the collision to provide a global weak solution. However, the Novikov equation differs in several interesting ways from other peakon equations, especially regarding asymptotics for large times. For example, peakons and antipeakons both travel to the right, making it possible for several peakons and antipeakons to travel together with the same speed and collide infinitely many times. Such clusters may exhibit very intricate periodic or quasi-periodic interactions. It is also possible for peakons to have the same asymptotic velocity but separate at a logarithmic rate; this phenomenon is associated with coinciding eigenvalues in the spectral problem coming from the Lax pair, and requires nontrivial modifications to the previously known solution formulas which assume that all eigenvalues are simple. To facilitate the reader’s understanding of these multipeakon phenomena, we have included a particularly detailed description of the case with just one peakon and one antipeakon, and also made an effort to provide plenty of graphics for illustration.
Given a measure m on the real line or a finite interval, the cubic string is the third-order ODE - ′′′ ≤ zm where z is a spectral parameter. If equipped with Dirichlet-like boundary conditions this is a non-self-adjoint boundary value problem which has recently been shown to have a connection to the Degasperis-Procesi nonlinear water wave equation. In this paper, we study the spectral and inverse spectral problem for the case of Neumann-like boundary conditions which appear in a high-frequency limit of the Degasperis-Procesi equation. We solve the spectral and inverse spectral problem for the case of m being a finite positive discrete measure. In particular, explicit determinantal formulae for the measure m are given. These formulae generalize Stieltjes' formulae used by Krein in his study of the corresponding second-order ODE -″ ≤ zm. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.
A new class of integrable Newton systems in R-n is presented. They are characterized by the existence of two quadratic integrals of motion of so-called cofactor type, and are therefore called cofactor pair systems. This class includes as special cases conservative systems separable in elliptic or parabolic coordinates, as well as many Newton systems previously derived as reductions of soliton hierarchies.
Solutions of the Degasperis-Procesi nonlinear wave equation may develop discontinuities in finite time. As shown by Coclite and Karlsen, there is a uniquely determined entropy weak solution which provides a natural continuation of the solution past such a point. Here we study this phenomenon in detail for solutions involving interacting peakons and antipeakons. We show that a jump discontinuity forms when a peakon collides with an antipeakon, and that the entropy weak solution in this case is described by a "shockpeakon" ansatz reducing the PDE to a system of ODEs for positions, momenta, and shock strengths.
We derive explicit formulas for the characteristic curves associated with the multipeakon solutions of the Camassa-Holm, Degasperis-Procesi and Novikov equations. Such a curve traces the path of a fluid particle whose instantaneous velocity equals the elevation of the wave at that point (or the square of the elevation, in the Novikov case). The peakons themselves follow characteristic curves, and the remaining characteristic curves can be viewed as paths of "ghostpeakons" with zero amplitude; hence, they can be obtained as solutions of the ODEs governing the dynamics of multipeakon solutions. The previously known solution formulas for multipeakons only cover the case when all amplitudes are nonzero, since they are based upon inverse spectral methods unable to detect the ghostpeakons. We show how to overcome this problem by taking a suitable limit in terms of spectral data, in order to force a selected peakon amplitude to become zero. Moreover, we use direct integration to compute the characteristic curves for the solution of the Degasperis-Procesi equation where a shockpeakon forms at a peakon-antipeakon collision. In addition to the theoretical interest in knowing the characteristic curves, they are also useful for plotting multipeakon solutions, as we illustrate in several examples.
We solve a spectral and an inverse spectral problem arising in the computation of peakon solutions to the two-component PDE derived by Geng and Xue as a generalization of the Novikov and Degasperis-Procesi equations. Like the spectral problems for those equations, this one is of a ‘discrete cubic string’ type – a nonselfadjoint generalization of a classical inhomogeneous string – but presents some interesting novel features: there are two Lax pairs, both of which contribute to the correct complete spectral data, and the solution to the inverse problem can be expressed using quantities related to Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials with two different spectral measures. The latter extends the range of previous applications of Cauchy biorthogonal polynomials to peakons, which featured either two identical, or two closely related, measures. The method used to solve the spectral problem hinges on the hidden presence of oscillatory kernels of Gantmacher-Krein type implying that the spectrum of the boundary value problem is positive and simple. The inverse spectral problem is solved by a method which generalizes, to a nonselfadjoint case, M. G. Krein’s solution of the inverse problem for the Stieltjes string.
We study a class of piecewise linear solutions to the inviscid Burgers equation driven by a linear forcing term. Inspired by the analogy with peakons, we think of these solutions as being made up of solitons situated at the breakpoints. We derive and solve ODEs governing the soliton dynamics, first for continuous solutions, and then for more general shock wave solutions with discontinuities. We show that triple collisions of solitons cannot take place for continuous solutions, but give an example of a triple collision in the presence of a shock.
[No abstract available]
We consider multipeakon solutions, and to some extent also multishockpeakon solutions, of a coupled two- component integrable PDE found by Geng and Xue as a generalization of Novikov’s cubically nonlinear Camassa–Holm type equation. In order to make sense of such solutions, we find it necessary to assume that there are no overlaps, meaning that a peakon or shockpeakon in one component is not allowed to occupy the same position as a peakon or shockpeakon in the other component. Therefore one can distinguish many inequivalent configurations, depending on the order in which the peakons or shockpeakons in the two components appear relative to each other. Here we are particularly interested in the case of interlacing peakon solutions, where the peakons alternatingly occur in one component and in the other. Based on explicit expressions for these solutions in terms of elementary functions, we describe the general features of the dynamics, and in particular the asymptotic large-time behaviour (assuming that there are no antipeakons, so that the solutions are globally defined). As far as the positions are concerned, interlacing Geng–Xue peakons display the usual scattering phenomenon where the peakons asymptotically travel with constant velocities, which are all distinct, except that the two fastest peakons (the fastest one in each component) will have the same velocity. However, in contrast to many other peakon equations, the amplitudes of the peakons will not in general tend to constant values; instead they grow or decay exponentially. Thus the logarithms of the amplitudes (as functions of time) will asymptotically behave like straight lines, and comparing these lines for large positive and negative times, one observes phase shifts similar to those seen for the positions of the peakons (and also for the positions of solitons in many other contexts). In addition to these K+K interlacing pure peakon solutions, we also investigate 1+1 shockpeakon solutions, and collisions leading to shock formation in a 2+2 peakon–antipeakon solution.
We present an inverse scattering approach for computing n-peakon solutions of the Degasperis-Procesi equation (a modification of the Camassa-Holm (CH) shallow water equation). The associated non-self-adjoint spectral problem is shown to be amenable to analysis using the isospectral deformations induced from the n-peakon solution, and the inverse problem is solved by a method generalizing the continued fraction solution of the peakon sector of the CH equation.