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  • 1.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Methodology for Modeling the Influence of Construction Machinery Operators on Productivity and Fuel Consumption2009In: Proceedings from the Human-Computer Interaction HCI International 2009, San Diego (CA), USA: Digital Human Modeling, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 614-623Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with modeling the actions of a human operator of construction machinery and integrating this operator model into a large, complex simulation model of the complete machine and its environment. Because human operators to a large degree affect how the machine is run, adaptive operator models are a necessity when the simulation goal is quantification and optimization of productivity and energy efficiency.

    Interview studies and test series have been performed to determine how professionals operate wheel loaders. Two models using different approaches were realized and integrated into a multi-domain model for dynamic simulation. The results are satisfactory and the methodology is easily usable for other, similar situations.

  • 2.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alternative system solutions for wheel loaders and other construction equipment2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Volvo Group there exist long-ranging experiences regarding hybrid propulsions systems for heavy commercial vehicles of the brands Volvo Trucks, Renalt Trucks, Mack Trucks, Nissan Diesel and Volvo Bus. For commercial vehicles like these, hybrid technology is to be regarded seriously and a business case is often given. The search for energy efficient solutions goes on also for construction equipment, and hybrids are everyone's topic. Within Volvo Construction Equipment there is a tradition of researching and developing energy efficient solutions, an example of which was the presentation of a first prototype of a hybrid wheel loader in the beginning of 2008. In this paper the wheel loader will be used as an example for other types of construction machinery. Using a systematic design approach, several more principle design solutions can be found. Reduced fuel consumption by 50% while keeping the performance and productivity at the same level is only possible by considering the complete machine as one system using a holistic approach. 

  • 3.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Event-driven Operator Model for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery2005In: Proceedings form the Ninth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction and optimisation of a wheel loader's dynamic behaviour is a challenge due to tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different technical domains. Furthermore, a simulation regarding performance, efficiency, and operability cannot be limited to the machine itself, but has to include operator, environment, and work task. This paper presents some results of our approach to an event-driven simulation model of a human operator. Describing the task and the operator model independently of the machine's technical parameters, gives the possibility to change whole sub-system characteristics without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation.

  • 4.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anläggningsmaskiner: Hydrauliksystem i multidomäna miljöer2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I hjullastare och liknande maskiner konkurrerar arbetshydrauliken och drivlinan om dieselmotorns vridmoment. Balansen mellan dessa tre  system präglas av en hög dynamik, vilket är en avgörande skillnad mot vad som är fallet i person- och lastbilar. Bedömning av hur väl denna balans kan upprätthållas och kontrolleras är huvudpunkten i förarens subjektiva bedömning av en maskins körbarhet.

    I artikeln diskuteras möjligheter till en objektiv kvantifiering av körbarhet. En mätmetod presenteras samt nya sätt att visualisera denna så viktiga balans mellan maskinens delsystem.

  • 5.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
    Effektivare hjullastare: Hybrider?2007In: Hydraulikdagar 07,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med allt högre bränslepriser och den tilltagande samhällsdebatten om växthusgaser och klimatförändringar förvånar det inte att även företag utanför personbilsbranschen undersöker alternativa systemlösningar för att minska avgasutsläppen och oljeberoendet. Detta föredrag presenterar Volvo CEs satsning på elhybrider med fokus på hjullastare.

  • 6.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Eskilstuna.
    Hybrid Power Systems for Construction Machinery: Aspects of System Design and Operability of Wheel Loaders2009In: ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition: Volume 13: New Developments in Simulation Methods and Software for Engineering Applications; Safety Engineering, Risk Analysis and Reliability Methods; Transportation Systems, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2009, Vol. 13, p. 611-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the wheel loader as a system with two parallel energy conversion systems that show a complex interaction with each other and with the power source. Using a systematic design approach, several principle design solutions for hybridization can be found.

    Furthermore, the human operator with his/her control actions needs to be considered as part of the total system. This paper will therefore also connect to results from ongoing and previous research into operator workload and operability.

  • 7.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Operator and Machine Models for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING has been generally adopted in product development in order to minimise the traditional reliance on testing of physical prototypes. It thus constitutes a major step towards solving the conflict of actual increasing development cost and time due to increasing customer demands on one side, and the need to decrease development cost and time due to increasing competition on the other. Particularly challenging for the off-road equipment industry is that its products, working machines, are complex in architecture. Tightly coupled, non-linear sub-systems of different technical domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system’s dynamic behaviour difficult.

    Furthermore, in working machines the human operator is essential for the performance of the total system. Properties such as productivity, fuel efficiency, and operability are all not only dependent on inherent machine properties and working place conditions, but also on how the operator uses the machine. This is an aspect that is traditionally neglected in dynamic simulations, because the modelling needs to be extended beyond the technical system.

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on wheel loaders, which are representative for working machines. The technical system and the influence of the human operator is analysed, and so-called short loading cycles are described in depth. Two approaches to rule-based simulation models of a wheel loader operator are presented and used in simulations. Both operator models control the machine model by means of engine throttle, lift and tilt lever, steering wheel, and brake only – just as a human operator does. Also, only signals that a human operator can sense are used in the models. It is demonstrated that both operator models are able to adapt to basic variations in workplace setup and machine capability. Thus, a “human element” can be introduced into dynamic simulation of working machines, giving more relevant answers with respect to operator-influenced complete-machine properties such as productivity, fuel efficiency, and operability already in the concept phase of the product development process.

    List of papers
    1. Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings from the Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Vol. 1, May 7–9, 2003, p. 651-667Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in the car industry for quite some time, dynamic simulation of complete vehicles is being practiced more and more in the development of off-road machinery. However, specific questions arise due not only to company structure and size, but especially to the type of product. Tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system's dynamic behaviour a challenge. Furthermore, the demand for versatile machines leads to sometimes contradictory target requirements and can turn the design process into a hunt for the least painful compromise. This can be avoided by profound system knowledge, assisted by simulation-driven product development. This paper gives an overview of joint research into this issue by Volvo Wheel Loaders and Linkoping University on that matter, lists the results of a related literature review and introduces the term "operateability". Rather than giving detailed answers, the problem space for ongoing and future research is examined and possible solutions are sketched.

    Keywords
    simulation, complex systems, integrated product development
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13368 (URN)
    Conference
    The Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, May 7-9, Tampere, Finland
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings from the IFPE 2005 Technical Conference, 2005, p. 429-438Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic simulation of complete wheel loaders, one interesting aspect, specific for the working task, is the momentary power distribution between drive train and hydraulics, which is balanced by the operator. This paper presents the initial results to a simulation model of a human operator. Rather than letting the operator model follow a predefined path with control inputs at given points, it follows a collection of general rules that together describe the machine's working cycle in a generic way. The advantage of this is that the working task description and the operator model itself are independent of the machine's technical parameters. Complete sub-system characteristics can thus be changed without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation. Ultimately, this can be used to assess a machine's total performance, fuel efficiency and operability already in the concept phase of the product development process.

    Keywords
    Simulation, construction machinery
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13369 (URN)
    Conference
    International Fluid Power Exhibition 2005 Technical Conference, March 16-18, Las Vegas, USA
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    3. An Event-driven Operator Model for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Event-driven Operator Model for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings form the Ninth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping, Sweden, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction and optimisation of a wheel loader's dynamic behaviour is a challenge due to tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different technical domains. Furthermore, a simulation regarding performance, efficiency, and operability cannot be limited to the machine itself, but has to include operator, environment, and work task. This paper presents some results of our approach to an event-driven simulation model of a human operator. Describing the task and the operator model independently of the machine's technical parameters, gives the possibility to change whole sub-system characteristics without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation.

    Keywords
    Discrete simulation, continuous simulation, complex systems, operator model, driver model
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13370 (URN)
    Conference
    The Ninth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping, Sweden, June 1–3
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Anläggningsmaskiner: Hydrauliksystem i multidomäna miljöer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anläggningsmaskiner: Hydrauliksystem i multidomäna miljöer
    2003 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I hjullastare och liknande maskiner konkurrerar arbetshydrauliken och drivlinan om dieselmotorns vridmoment. Balansen mellan dessa tre  system präglas av en hög dynamik, vilket är en avgörande skillnad mot vad som är fallet i person- och lastbilar. Bedömning av hur väl denna balans kan upprätthållas och kontrolleras är huvudpunkten i förarens subjektiva bedömning av en maskins körbarhet.

    I artikeln diskuteras möjligheter till en objektiv kvantifiering av körbarhet. En mätmetod presenteras samt nya sätt att visualisera denna så viktiga balans mellan maskinens delsystem.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2003
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13371 (URN)
    Conference
    Hydraulikdagar 2003, Linköping, Sweden, June 3–4
    Available from: 2009-12-10 Created: 2009-02-11 Last updated: 2011-08-31Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantifying Operability of Working Machines2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In working machines the human operator is essential for the performance of the total system. Productivity and energy efficiency are both dependent not only on inherent machine properties and working place conditions, but also on how the operator manoeuvres the machine. In order to operate energy-efficient the operator has to experience the machine as harmonic. This is important to consider during the development of such working machines.

    It is necessary to quantify operability and to include this interaction between the human operator and the machine in both the later stages of a development project (where physical prototypes are evaluated by professional test operators) as well as in the earlier stages like concept design (where only virtual prototypes are available).

    The influence of the human operator is an aspect that is traditionally neglected in dynamic simulations conducted in concept design, because the modelling needs to be extended beyond the technical system. The research presented in this thesis shows two approaches to rule-based simulation models of a wheel loader operator. Both operator models interact with the machine model just as a human operator does with the actual machine. It is demonstrated that both operator models are able to adapt to basic variations in workplace setup and machine capability. A “human element” can thus be introduced into dynamic simulations of working machines, providing more relevant answers with respect to operator-influenced complete-machine properties such as productivity and energy efficiency.

    While the influence of the human operator is traditionally ignored when evaluating machine properties in the early stages of the product development process, later stages are very reliant on professional test operators using physical prototypes. The presented research demonstrates how the traditional subjective evaluation of a machine’s operability can be complemented by a calculated measure for the operator’s control effort, derived from the recorded control commands of the machine operator. This control effort measure can also be calculated from the control commands of an operator model in a simulation, such as those presented in this thesis. It thus also allows for an assessment of operability already in the concept design phase.

    In addition, the results of a study of quantifying operator workload by means of measuring psycho-physiological data such as heart rate variability and respiration rate are presented as the first step towards realising workload-adaptive operator assistance functions. Once fully developed, the method itself can also be used as another complement to the traditional subjective evaluations of operability. This approach can then be applied not only in testing of physical prototypes, but also earlier in the product development process in studies on human-in-the-loop simulators.

    List of papers
    1. Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings from the Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Vol. 1, May 7–9, 2003, p. 651-667Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in the car industry for quite some time, dynamic simulation of complete vehicles is being practiced more and more in the development of off-road machinery. However, specific questions arise due not only to company structure and size, but especially to the type of product. Tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system's dynamic behaviour a challenge. Furthermore, the demand for versatile machines leads to sometimes contradictory target requirements and can turn the design process into a hunt for the least painful compromise. This can be avoided by profound system knowledge, assisted by simulation-driven product development. This paper gives an overview of joint research into this issue by Volvo Wheel Loaders and Linkoping University on that matter, lists the results of a related literature review and introduces the term "operateability". Rather than giving detailed answers, the problem space for ongoing and future research is examined and possible solutions are sketched.

    Keywords
    simulation, complex systems, integrated product development
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13368 (URN)
    Conference
    The Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, May 7-9, Tampere, Finland
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings from the IFPE 2005 Technical Conference, 2005, p. 429-438Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic simulation of complete wheel loaders, one interesting aspect, specific for the working task, is the momentary power distribution between drive train and hydraulics, which is balanced by the operator. This paper presents the initial results to a simulation model of a human operator. Rather than letting the operator model follow a predefined path with control inputs at given points, it follows a collection of general rules that together describe the machine's working cycle in a generic way. The advantage of this is that the working task description and the operator model itself are independent of the machine's technical parameters. Complete sub-system characteristics can thus be changed without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation. Ultimately, this can be used to assess a machine's total performance, fuel efficiency and operability already in the concept phase of the product development process.

    Keywords
    Simulation, construction machinery
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13369 (URN)
    Conference
    International Fluid Power Exhibition 2005 Technical Conference, March 16-18, Las Vegas, USA
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    3. An Event-driven Operator Model for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Event-driven Operator Model for Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings form the Ninth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping, Sweden, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction and optimisation of a wheel loader's dynamic behaviour is a challenge due to tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different technical domains. Furthermore, a simulation regarding performance, efficiency, and operability cannot be limited to the machine itself, but has to include operator, environment, and work task. This paper presents some results of our approach to an event-driven simulation model of a human operator. Describing the task and the operator model independently of the machine's technical parameters, gives the possibility to change whole sub-system characteristics without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation.

    Keywords
    Discrete simulation, continuous simulation, complex systems, operator model, driver model
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13370 (URN)
    Conference
    The Ninth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Linköping, Sweden, June 1–3
    Available from: 2005-09-26 Created: 2005-09-26 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
    4. A Methodology for Modeling the Influence of Construction Machinery Operators on Productivity and Fuel Consumption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Methodology for Modeling the Influence of Construction Machinery Operators on Productivity and Fuel Consumption
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings from the Human-Computer Interaction HCI International 2009, San Diego (CA), USA: Digital Human Modeling, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 614-623Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with modeling the actions of a human operator of construction machinery and integrating this operator model into a large, complex simulation model of the complete machine and its environment. Because human operators to a large degree affect how the machine is run, adaptive operator models are a necessity when the simulation goal is quantification and optimization of productivity and energy efficiency.

    Interview studies and test series have been performed to determine how professionals operate wheel loaders. Two models using different approaches were realized and integrated into a multi-domain model for dynamic simulation. The results are satisfactory and the methodology is easily usable for other, similar situations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer, 2009
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 5620
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51998 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-02809-0_65 (DOI)978-3-642-02808-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Human-Computer Interaction HCI International 2009, San Diego (CA), USA, July 19-24
    Available from: 2009-11-27 Created: 2009-11-27 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
    5. Hybrid Power Systems for Construction Machinery: Aspects of System Design and Operability of Wheel Loaders
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Power Systems for Construction Machinery: Aspects of System Design and Operability of Wheel Loaders
    2009 (English)In: ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition: Volume 13: New Developments in Simulation Methods and Software for Engineering Applications; Safety Engineering, Risk Analysis and Reliability Methods; Transportation Systems, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2009, Vol. 13, p. 611-620Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the wheel loader as a system with two parallel energy conversion systems that show a complex interaction with each other and with the power source. Using a systematic design approach, several principle design solutions for hybridization can be found.

    Furthermore, the human operator with his/her control actions needs to be considered as part of the total system. This paper will therefore also connect to results from ongoing and previous research into operator workload and operability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2009
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51999 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2009-10458 (DOI)000282197600069 ()978-0-7918-4386-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2009), Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, 13-19 November,
    Available from: 2009-11-27 Created: 2009-11-27 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Study of a method for assessing operability of working machines in physical and virtual testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of a method for assessing operability of working machines in physical and virtual testing
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 209-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of eighteen wheel loader operators, test-driving a machine in three different traction force settings, we found strong support for the hypothesis that the operator’s control commands can be used to assess the machine’s operability, at least in form of ease of bucket filling.

    The methods chosen to derive the control effort worked well and were computationally efficient.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2012
    Keywords
    Mental workload, machine operability, human–machine interaction, operator modelling, vehicle simulation, virtual testing, working machines, wheel loaders, operators, control commands, control effort, vehicle testin
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70392 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2012.048939 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2012-09-20Bibliographically approved
    7. A Case Study on Quantifying the Workload of Working Machine Operators by Means of Psychophysiological Measurements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study on Quantifying the Workload of Working Machine Operators by Means of Psychophysiological Measurements
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of eighteen wheel loader operators, test-driving a machine in three different traction force settings, we examine if a workload index derived from psychophysiological measurements of heart rate, finger temperature, skin conductance, respiration rate and end-tidal CO2-concentration in exhaled air can be used to assess operator workload in sufficient detail to use it as a complement to traditional subjective evaluations, and also to use such measurements in a workload-adaptive operator assistance system in a longer perspective.

    Keywords
    Operator, working machines, mental workload, physical workload, operability, human-machine interaction
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70393 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2011-09-06Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Filla, Reno
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of a method for assessing operability of working machines in physical and virtual testing2012In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 209-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of eighteen wheel loader operators, test-driving a machine in three different traction force settings, we found strong support for the hypothesis that the operator’s control commands can be used to assess the machine’s operability, at least in form of ease of bucket filling.

    The methods chosen to derive the control effort worked well and were computationally efficient.

  • 10.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ericsson, Allan
    Volvo Wheel Loaders AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model2005In: Proceedings from the IFPE 2005 Technical Conference, 2005, p. 429-438Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic simulation of complete wheel loaders, one interesting aspect, specific for the working task, is the momentary power distribution between drive train and hydraulics, which is balanced by the operator. This paper presents the initial results to a simulation model of a human operator. Rather than letting the operator model follow a predefined path with control inputs at given points, it follows a collection of general rules that together describe the machine's working cycle in a generic way. The advantage of this is that the working task description and the operator model itself are independent of the machine's technical parameters. Complete sub-system characteristics can thus be changed without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation. Ultimately, this can be used to assess a machine's total performance, fuel efficiency and operability already in the concept phase of the product development process.

  • 11.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Dept. of Public Health and caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schéele, Bo H. C. von
    Stress Medicien AB, Bergvik, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Case Study on Quantifying the Workload of Working Machine Operators by Means of Psychophysiological MeasurementsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of eighteen wheel loader operators, test-driving a machine in three different traction force settings, we examine if a workload index derived from psychophysiological measurements of heart rate, finger temperature, skin conductance, respiration rate and end-tidal CO2-concentration in exhaled air can be used to assess operator workload in sufficient detail to use it as a complement to traditional subjective evaluations, and also to use such measurements in a workload-adaptive operator assistance system in a longer perspective.

  • 12.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery2003In: Proceedings from the Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Vol. 1, May 7–9, 2003, p. 651-667Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in the car industry for quite some time, dynamic simulation of complete vehicles is being practiced more and more in the development of off-road machinery. However, specific questions arise due not only to company structure and size, but especially to the type of product. Tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system's dynamic behaviour a challenge. Furthermore, the demand for versatile machines leads to sometimes contradictory target requirements and can turn the design process into a hunt for the least painful compromise. This can be avoided by profound system knowledge, assisted by simulation-driven product development. This paper gives an overview of joint research into this issue by Volvo Wheel Loaders and Linkoping University on that matter, lists the results of a related literature review and introduces the term "operateability". Rather than giving detailed answers, the problem space for ongoing and future research is examined and possible solutions are sketched.

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