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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Management Information System Model for Process-Oriented Health Care2003In: Proceedings of Medinfo 2004, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Model for Interpreting Work and Information Management in Process-Oriented Healthcare Organisations2003In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 72, no 1-3, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To increase productivity, management in healthcare organisations have introduced different types of process-oriented organisational configurations. Few studies have addressed clinical practice and information management in these settings. Methods: A case study was performed at a paediatric clinic. Data was collected from archives, through interviews, by participatory observation, and by performing a focus group session. The collected data was analysed using a qualitative and interpretative research strategy. Results: A model was developed of care practitioners’ daily work in process-oriented organisations. The model shows that clinical work was deeply integrated; the care activities were dependent on supply activities and tightly connected to management routines. Conclusion: The resulting model can be used to support development of health information system (HIS) embedded in process-oriented healthcare work.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of Crisis Management Operations using Reconstruction and Exploration2008In: Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference, Washington, DC: May 4-7 / [ed] Frank Fiedrich and Bartel Van de Walle, ISCRAM , 2008, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the Reconstruction and Exploration approach (R&E) and F-REX tool and their applications in a field exercise with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency with the purpose of investigating features needed for a computer supported approach for evaluation of large scale crisis management operations. After the exercise several interviews and one seminar were held to evaluate R&E as a representative for computer supported evaluation approaches for crisis management operations. Initial results indicate that multimedia presentation of key events from an operation can be very valuable not only to stimulate the participants to reflect on their own performance, but also to document and share lessons learned to non-participants.

  • 4. Hallberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Towards second-generation smart card-based authentication in health information systems: the secure server model.2001In: Medinfo, ISSN 1569-6332, Vol. 10, no Pt 2, p. 1257-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional smart card-based authentication systems used in health care alleviate some of the security issues in user and system authentication. Existing models still do not cover all security aspects. To enable new protective measures to be developed, an extended model of the authentication process is presented. This model includes a new entity referred to as secure server. Assuming a secure server, a method where the smart card is aware of the status of the terminal integrity verification becomes feasible. The card can then act upon this knowledge and restrict the exposure of sensitive information to the terminal as required in order to minimize the risks. The secure server model can be used to illuminate the weaknesses of current approaches and the need for extensions which alleviate the resulting risks.

  • 5.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Incorporating user values in the design of information systems and services in the public sector: a methods approach1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is motivated by the aim of public-sector organizations to become more efficient by quality improvement efforts and the introduction of infonnation systems. The main objective is to explore methods for the design of infonnation systems and information-system-supported services in the public sector, which meet the users' needs.

    The thesis is based on six connected studies. The first study was to describe the structure of how the staff at public-service units seek advice. Based on data collected through interviews, a quantitative analysis was performed at primary healthcare centers. In the second study, the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for orientation of public services to a quasi-market situation was investigated. The study displayed how clinical-social-medical services can be orientated to better suit the referral institutions' needs. The third study was performed to adjust a QFD model to a method for the design of information systems in the public sector. The development of the model was performed in a blocked-case study. In the fourth study, the model was extended and applied in a case study where it was used for participatory design of information-system supported services. In the fifth study, the possibility of integrating the QFD model with process graph notations was investigated. The study was performed according to a participatory action research methodology. In the final study, an information system was designed using the QFD model developed and implemented for a public sector profession, occupational therapists.

    The main contribution of the thesis is the QFD model, called Medical Software Quality Deployment (MSQD), for the design of information systems and information-systems-sul)ported services in the public sector. The advantages of MSQD are that it focuses the design work on the users' needs and provides support for active participation of users. Further advantages are that the requirements are traceable and the design features are prioritized.

    As a support for the efforts being made in the public sector to increase efficiency, MSQD can be used to design appropriate information systems. The prototype implementation illustrated several optional ways of how this support can be implemented using low-cost technology. MSQD can further be used to develop services to better match the users' needs. Hence, it can be used for inter-organizational information systems design and, thereby, positive gains can be made in the collaboration between different public service organizations.

  • 6.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Johansson, M
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    A prototype computer network service for occupational therapists. 1999In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, E-ISSN 1872-7565, Vol. 59, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency & KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quality Driven Requirements Engineering for Development of Crisis Management Systems2012In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terror attacks and natural disasters of the past decades have dramatically made governments, public health authorities, and communities aware of insufficiencies in crisis management practices. Information technology has the potential to advance these practices, but systems that support handling these courses of events still have low success rates. The authors set out to define a requirements engineering method suitable for the development of crisis management systems (CMS). The resulting method was formatively evaluated in a project aimed at defining functions for systems supporting international engagements in crisis situations. Each step in the method was documented by its objective, output, implementation, and the experiences gained from the case study. The most important features of the method are the Voice of the Customer Table for identification of user needs, Use Cases for determination of requirements from the needs, and scenarios and prototypes for validating the requirements with user representatives.

  • 8.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The medical software quality deployment method1999In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) model for design of information systems in health-care environments. Consecutive blocked-subject case studies were conducted, based on action research methods. RESULTS: Starting with a QFD model for software development, a model for information system design, the Medical Software Quality Deployment (MSQD) model, was developed. The MSQD model was divided into the pre-study phase, in which the customer categories and their power to influence the design are determined; the data collection phase, in which the voice of customers (VoC) is identified by observations and interviews and quantified by Critical. Incident questionnaires; the need specification phase, where the VoC is specified into ranked customer needs; and the design phase where the customer needs are transformed stepwise to technical requirements and design attributes. QFD showed to be useful for integrating the values of different customer categories in software development for health-care settings. In the later design phases, other quality methods should be used for software implementation and testing.

  • 9.
    Ingmarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring development of C2 systems for emergency response2009In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Emergency Response, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ingmarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards integration of different media in a service-oriented architecture for crisis management2009In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Distributed Multimedia Systems, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reconstruction and Exploration of Large-scale Distributed Operations – Multimedia tools for Evaluation of Emergency Management Response2008In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an approach for computer-supported reconstruction and exploration (R&E) of distributed tactical operations. The approach involves several steps for constructing a time-synchronized, event-driven multimedia model of the course of events collected from multiple sources in the operational environment and visualizes this model in the F-REX Studio multimedia suite. In this study, the use of R&E and F-REX is explored in large-scale emergency management exercises. The approach’s possibilities, limitations, and needs for modification are first outlined followed by a comparison to traditional quantitative and qualitative data collection methods applied in the same context. It is found that the R&E approach in combination with F-REX has several advantages in relation to the other methods, in terms of avoiding problems of retrospection and in being able to provide an overview of the entire operation based on multiple perspectives—addressing the question “why” something happened rather than “what happened.” Correctly used, multimedia-supported R&E can thereby be used for more solid evaluations of large-scale emergency management exercises and operations, thus contributing to more effective handling of future crises. Keywords: reconstruction & exploration, distributed tactical operations, emergency management, evaluation, computer technology

  • 12.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    From 'the good work' to 'the good life': a Perspective on Labor Union Visions Regarding Information Technology1998In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 1998, p. 137-145Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    From Utopia to DLK: Management of External Voices in Large Participatory Design Projects2000In: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, 2000, p. 156-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend Participatory design in order to apply it in heterogeneous user groups and large projects of strategic importance for organizations. This study displays an approach to capturing and including relevant external design voices using data from the design of an information system aimed to support the day-to-day tasks of Swedish shop stewards. It was found that shop stewards often use an operative voice, middle level union ombudsmen an organizational voice, and union federation management an ideological one when relating to information technology. An Activity theory analysis showed that the union organization stands at a crossroads, and that the choice of information technology will directly influence the future direction to be taken. It is argued that all parties in a design process must therefore be heard, in order to arrive at system solutions that are actually implemented, used and administrated.

  • 14.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    How do Shop Stewards Perceive their Situation and Tasks?: Preconditions for Support of Union Work2001In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 569-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When unions worldwide confront a decline in density and power,pressure increases on shop stewards. They occupy a positiondesribed s demanding, which involves striking a balance betweenconciliation and tough negotiation, between ordinary work andunion work, and feelings of isolation from members. If shopstewards already experien a demanding work situation, and parallelto this the overall union conditions become aggravated, a nextstep would be to find out in what ways their situation can befacilitated. This article is based on data desribing recentexperiences of Swedish shop stewards, and it compares theirsituation to that desribed in the international research literature.It is found that the basic components of union work remain stable,in spite of rent labour relations changes and national differences.However, lees than half of the reported problems were relatedto direct contact with the employer. Shop stewards generalyexperience a situation characterized by inherent conflict andwide-ranging tasks, resulting in high demands on their skillsand in role overload. On the other hand, the results indicatedifferences with regard to the ulnion affilation, age, experienceand gender. En the eyes of union members the shop stew ardslargely emb ody the ui on organizati on. Therefore, they shouldreeive increased attention when dealing with the problems ofunions. Measures to facilitate their work can include training,supportive networks and access to adequate information technology,and can further be targeted with regard to age/experience andgender.

  • 15.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Organisational Policy and Shop-floor Requests in Design: Visualisation of the Argumentation Behind an Information System for the Swedish Trade Union Movement2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 13, p. 115-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Rationale is an approach to the design of information systems which highlights the underlying argumentative reasoning and documentation of design decisions. The Argumentative Design (ArD) method extends Design Rationale to address organisational problem identification and the formulation of needs to be supported by the system. In this study, ArD was further modified and then applied in the early phase of the design of an information system for shop stewards in the Swedish trade union movement. The application of ArD revealed that both similarities and significant discrepancies existed between top-management information technology strategies and shop-floor needs, and that the strategies involve fundamental power-relation issues in terms of centralisation versus decentralisation and individualism versus collectivism. It is suggested that ArD can be of general benefit in early design phases by eliciting fundamental organisational issues and by illustrating what impact chosen information technology solutions may have on organisations. The study is of value for other unions wishing to learn from the Swedish experience and the modified ArD approach can also be used in other contexts where several interest groups are to be satisfied by a system.

  • 16.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Lindell, Per-Ola
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Integrating the rational unified process and participatory design for development of socio-technical systems: A user participative approach2007In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 263-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the MOPT-Systems Development Process, aimed at bridging the gap between ideality and reality. The process is based on an approach to systems development involving a formalised process for developing socio-technical systems. In specific, it integrates a modified Rational Unified Process (RUP) framework with a socio-technical system view and an extended participatory design (PD) perspective using PD techniques and social research methods. It is argued that the integrated approach, by combining the RUP formalisation, modeling tools and coverage of the entire development process, together with the parallel development of methodology, organisation, and personnel, will greatly enhance the chance of solid systems, grounded in the organisation and appreciated by its users. In this respect, the close cooperation with the end-users throughout the development process is supposed to contribute.

  • 17.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ölvander, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Information system needs in health promotion: Case study of Safe Community program using requirements engineering  methods2008In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the need for information system support in health promotion programs.

    Methods: The international Safe Community program was used as the setting for a case study. The 14 Safe Communities active in Sweden during 2002 were invited to participate. 13 of them accepted. A questionnaire containing questions about computer usage and a critical incident technique instrument was distributed to all practitioners involved in the programs either at a municipality office or a county council (n=202). The Voice of the Customer Table method was used to transform the critical incident data into needs for information system support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data on computer usage.

    Results: Sharing of management information, creating social capital for safety promotion, and injury data recording were found to be key areas that need to be further supported by computer-based information systems in safety promotion practice. 90% (111/123) of the respondents reported having access to a personal computer workstation with standard office software. The interest in using more advanced computer applications was low among the practitioners, and there was considerable need for technical user support.

    Conclusions: Areas where information systems can be used to make health promotion practice more efficient were identified, and patterns of computers usage were described. These results can be used to guide future information systems development projects in health and safety promotion.

  • 18.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Healthcare professional's demand for knowledge in informatics. 1999In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 53, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of information systems for Public Health Programs: the case of Motala WHO safe communityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In public health only a fraction of the potential that information systems (ISs) and geographical information systems (GISs) provides has been used. Public-health programs are executed in complex environments, and are characterized by being multi-professional and inter-organizational. Hence, there is a need for extensive studies of how ISs should be con figured to truly support public health practitioners. The objective of this study is to explore how information technology, including GIS functionality, should be configured to support practitioners in community-based public health programs.

    Measurements: The critical incident technique, interviews, the voice of the customer table, and use case maps were used for data collection.

    Results: Communication and a clearinghouse with contact persons were identified as key features and support for creating both official and unofficial contact networks is provided. The design has a module-based architecture, including an extendable easy-to-use module with GIS functionality.

    Conclusions: To support both individuals and heterogonous teams in complex public health programs, a module-based architecture is proposed. Hence, the system can be tailor-made to support individuals in their specific tasks and at their specific skill level.

  • 20.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prerequisites to use information system as support in Public Health Programs: an initial requirements elicitation and analysis for WHO safe sommunitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The public health context constitutes a heterogeneous environment and presents a complex task for system developers. In this study, the requirements elicitation and analysis of prerequisites for using information systems (ISs) in public health programs is investigated. Special interest is also paid to geographical information system (GIS) functionality. The specific objective of this study is to explore the need for support of ISs and GISs that exists in WHO Safe Communities in Sweden. To elicit the requirements, a questionnaire based on the critical incident technique (CIT) was used. By using CIT, it is possible to focus the development on the problems experienced by the users. Moreover, it covers both technical and social requirements. Thereafter a voice of the customer table is used to transform the needs to technical requirements. The study results in recommendations for ISs development with GIS functionality for public health practitioners.

  • 21.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Greenes, RA
    Adaptation of the critical incident technique to requirements engineering in public health2001In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 1180-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of modern information systems in public health provides new possibilities for improvements in public health services and hence also of population's health. However, development of information systems that truly supports public health practices requires that technical, cognitive, and social issues be taken into consideration. In requirements engineering for public health, a notable problem is that of capturing all aspects of the future user's voices, i.e., the viewpoints of different public health practitioners. Failing to capture these voices will result in inefficient or even useless systems. The aim of this paper is to report a requirements-engineering instrument to describe problems in the daily work of public health professionals. The issues of concern thus captured can be used as the basis for formulating the requirements of information systems for public health professionals.

  • 22.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greenes, Robert A.
    Decision Systems Group, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Using the critical incident technique to define a minimal data set for requirements elicitation in public health2002In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 68, no 1-3, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of computer-based information systems (ISs) in public health provides enhanced possibilities for service improvements and hence also for improvement of the population's health. Not least, new communication systems can help in the socialization and integration process needed between the different professions and geographical regions. Therefore, development of ISs that truly support public health practices require that technical, cognitive, and social issues be taken into consideration. A notable problem is to capture ‘voices’ of all potential users, i.e., the viewpoints of different public health practitioners. Failing to capture these voices will result in inefficient or even useless systems. The aim of this study is to develop a minimal data set for capturing users' voices on problems experienced by public health professionals in their daily work and opinions about how these problems can be solved. The issues of concern thus captured can be used both as the basis for formulating the requirements of ISs for public health professionals and to create an understanding of the use context. Further, the data can help in directing the design to the features most important for the users.

  • 23.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ethical issues in public health projects: Implications of geographic information resolution2002In: Alvarez I:, Ward Bynum T., Àlvaro de Assis Lopes J., and Rogerson S. Proceedings of the sixth international conference: The transformation of organisations in the information Age: Social and ethical implications. ETHICOMP 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ölvingson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements Engineering for inter-organizational health information systems with functions for spatial analyses: modeling a WHO safe community applying Use Case Maps2002In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate Use Case Maps (UCMs) as a technique for Requirements Engineering (RE) in the development of information systems with functions for spatial analyses in inter-organizational public health settings.

    Methods: In this study, Participatory Action Research (PAR) is used to explore the UCM notation for requirements elicitation and to gather the opinions of the users. The Delphi technique is used to reach consensus in the construction of UCMs.

    Results: The results show that UCMs can provide a visualization of the system's functionality and in combination with PAR provide a sound basis for gathering requirements in inter-organizational settings. UCMs were found to represent a suitable level for describing the organization and the dynamic flux of information including spatial resolution to all stakeholders. Moreover, by using PAR, the voices of the users and their tacit knowledge is intercepted. Further, UCMs are found useful in generating intuitive requirements by the creation of use cases.

    Conclusions: With UCMs and PAR it is possible to study the effects of design changes in the general information display and the spatial resolution in the same context. Both requirements on the information system in general and the functions for spatial analyses are possible to elicit when identifying the different responsibilities and the demands on spatial resolution associated to the actions of each administrative unit. However, the development process of UCM is not well documented and needs further investigation and formulation of guidelines.

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