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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive deafness: The deterioration of phonological representations in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss and its implications for speech understanding2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to examine possible cognitive consequences of acquired hearing loss and the possible impact of these cognitive consequences on the ability to process spoken language presented through visual speechreading or through a cochlear implant.

    The main findings of the present thesis can be summarised in the following conclusions: (a) The phonological processing capabilities of individuals who have acquired a severe hearing loss or deafness deteriorate progressively as a function of number of years with a complete or partial auditory deprivation. (b) The observed phonological deterioration is restricted to certain aspects of the phonological system. Specifically, the phonological representations of words in the mental lexicon are of less good quality, whereas the phonological system in verbal working memory is preserved. (c) The deterioration of the phonological representations has a negative effect on the individual's ability to process speech, either presented visually (i.e., speechreading) or through a cochlear implant, as it may impair word recognition processes which involve activation of and discrimination between the phonological representations in the lexicon. (d) Thus, the present research describes an acquired cognitive disability not previously documented in the literature, and contributes to the context of other populations with phonological disabilities by showing that a complete or partial deprivation of auditory speech stimulation in adulthood can give rise to a phonological disability. (e) From a clinical point of view, the results from the present thesis suggest that early cochlear implantation after the onset of an acquired severe hearing loss is an important objective in order to reach a high level of speech understanding with the implant.

    List of papers
    1. Phonological Deterioration in Adults with an Acquired Severe Hearing Impairment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological Deterioration in Adults with an Acquired Severe Hearing Impairment
    1998 (English)In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0107-8593, Vol. 27, no 49, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the phonological processing skills in a group of adults who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life. These severely hearing-impaired individuals performed at a significantly lower level on the rhyme judgement tasks and the letter span task, but on a par with the control group on other cognitive tests. A correlation analysis showed that duration of hearing loss is negatively related to performance on the rhyme judgement tasks and letter span task. The results indicate that the phonological processing skills in individuals who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life deteriorates. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical and clinical implications.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13496 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-08-17
    2. Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss
    2002 (English)In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 335-352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological processing was examined in a group of individuals with an acquired severe hearing loss and compared to a group of matched normal hearing individuals. The hearing-impaired group was significantly slower and less accurate when performing a visual rhyme-judgement task, and produced fewer rhyming word pairs on a rhyme-generation task than the normal hearing group. In contrast, the hearing-impaired group performed on a par with the normal hearing group on verbal working memory tasks. It is concluded that specific aspects of the phonological system deteriorate in this population as a function of auditory deprivation. In particular, the phonological representations are impaired and this impairment also affects the ability to rapidly perform phonological operations (i.e., analyse and compare). In contrast, phonological processing involved in verbal working memory is preserved in this population.

    Keywords
    Hearing loss, phonological processing, working memory, lexicon, phonological representation
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13497 (URN)10.1080/09541440143000096 (DOI)
    Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-04-24
    3. Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults
    Show others...
    1998 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study cognitive performance in 15 deafened adult cochlear implant candidates was examined and related to level of speech understanding after 12 months of experience with the implant. The implant group performed on par with normal hearing controls in all cognitive tasks used in the study with one exception: Performance was significantly lower in cognitive tasks where use of a phonological representation of sound is a key task-demand. Observations of the implanted individuals' level of speech understanding indicate that only those individuals who, pre-operatively, were in possession of phonological representations comparable to that of normal hearing could follow and understand a speaker that was out of sight. The results are discussed with respect to (a) deterioration in the phonological representation of sounds as a function of absence of external auditory stimulation, and (b) the role of cognitive factors in predicting success in speech understanding with the implant.

    Keywords
    Cochlear implants, phonological representation, cognition
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13498 (URN)10.1111/1467-9450.393075 (DOI)
    Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2009-08-19
    4. Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing impaired individuals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing impaired individuals
    2001 (English)In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which different measures ofspeechreading performance correlated with particular cognitiveabilities in a population of hearing-impaired people. Althoughthe three speechreading tasks (isolated word identification,sentence comprehension, and text tracking) were highly intercorrelated,they tapped different cognitive skills. In this population,younger participants were better speechreaders, and, when agewas taken into account, speech tracking correlated primarilywith (written) lexical decision speed. In contrast, speechreadingfor sentence comprehension correlated most strongly with performanceon a phonological processing task (written pseudohomophone detection)but also on a span measure that may have utilized visual, nonverbalmemory for letters. We discuss the implications of this pattern.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13499 (URN)10.1093/deafed/6.2.103 (DOI)
    Available from: 2002-10-01 Created: 2002-10-01 Last updated: 2016-03-14
  • 2.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss2002In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 335-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological processing was examined in a group of individuals with an acquired severe hearing loss and compared to a group of matched normal hearing individuals. The hearing-impaired group was significantly slower and less accurate when performing a visual rhyme-judgement task, and produced fewer rhyming word pairs on a rhyme-generation task than the normal hearing group. In contrast, the hearing-impaired group performed on a par with the normal hearing group on verbal working memory tasks. It is concluded that specific aspects of the phonological system deteriorate in this population as a function of auditory deprivation. In particular, the phonological representations are impaired and this impairment also affects the ability to rapidly perform phonological operations (i.e., analyse and compare). In contrast, phonological processing involved in verbal working memory is preserved in this population.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Mathematical Competencies in Children With Different Types of Learning Difficulties2008In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 48-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematical performance of 182 third and fourth graders in 8 different areas of mathematics was examined. The children belonged to 4 achievement groups: children with mathematic difficulties (MD only), children with both mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), children with reading difficulties (RD only), and normally achieving children (control group). Both MD groups performed worse than the normally achieving children in all but 1 area, place value knowledge. The MD-only and the MD-RD children performed equally in all areas of mathematics. The RD-only group performed at the same level as the control group on all areas of mathematics. The study provides further evidence that fact retrieval deficits are a cardinal characteristic of children with MD. The MD children's substantial difficulties with mathematic word problem solving can be attributed to several processes involved in problem solving. Besides poor skills in multidigit calculation, arithmetic fact retrieval, and poor understanding of calculation principles, children with MD might have deficits related to specific problem-solving processes such as establishing a problem representation and developing a solution plan. © 2008 American Psychological Association.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Phonological processing skills and hearing impairment2000In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 35, no 3-4Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skill Development in Different Components of Arithmetic and Basic Cognitive Functions: Findings From a 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Children With Different Types of Learning Difficulties2010In: JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0022-0663, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 115-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arithmetic and cognitive skills of children with mathematical difficulties (MD-only), with comorbid reading difficulties (MD-RD), with reading difficulties (RD-only), and normally achieving children were examined at 3 points from Grades 3-4 to Grades 5-6 (age range, 9-13 years). Both MD groups displayed severe weaknesses in 4 domain-specific arithmetic components (factual, conceptual, procedural, and problem-solving skills) during all 3 measure points. Telling time and approximate arithmetic were also problematic for children with MD. Both MD groups displayed a small weakness related to visual-spatial working memory, and the MD-RD group also displayed small weaknesses related to verbal short-term memory, processing speed, and executive functions. The 4 groups developed at similar rates within all domain-specific components as well as basic cognitive functions. These findings demonstrate that children identified as having MD when they are 9 years old do not catch up with their normally achieving peers in later school grades, when they are 13 years old. They also continue to lag behind their peers with respect to the domain-general cognitive system.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The contribution of working memory capacity to foreignlanguage comprehension in children2010In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the contribution of working memory processes in children’s foreignlanguage processing of sentences and short stories. A total of 95 children were given measures of workingmemory when 9 10 years old. One to two years later at ages 11 12, tasks tapping foreign language literalcomprehension (English) and native language inferential comprehension (Swedish) were administered.Regression and correlation analyses demonstrated that both central executive and phonological loopprocesses predicted foreign language comprehension, whereas central executive processes but notphonological loop processes predicted native language reading comprehension. These findings show thatchildren’s foreign language processing is supported by their working memory capacity tested in theirnative language. Some of these working memory resources appear to be unique for foreign language. Thestrong association between native language and foreign language processing suggests that an importantfactor in becoming proficient in foreign language is the child’s general language aptitude. Possiblemechanisms for the contribution of working memory to children’s foreign language comprehension arediscussed.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    The contribution of working memory to children's mathematical word problem solving2007In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1201-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explored the contribution of working memory to mathematical word problem solving in children. A total of 69 children in grades 2, 3 and 4 were given measures of mathematical problem solving, reading, arithmetical calculation, fluid IQ and working memory. Multiple regression analyses showed that three measures associated with the central executive and one measure associated with the phonological loop contributed unique variance to mathematical problem solving when the influence of reading, age and IQ were controlled for in the analysis. In addition, the animal dual-task, verbal fluency and digit span task continued to contribute unique variance when the effects of arithmetical calculation in addition to reading, fluid IQ, and age were controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the phonological loop and a number of central executive functions (shifting, co-ordination of concurrent processing and storage of information, accessing information from long-term memory) contribute to mathematical problem solving in children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Working memory as a predictor of written arithmetical skills in children: The importance of central executive functions2008In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 181-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The study was conducted in an attempt to further our understanding of how working memory contributes to written arithmetical skills in children. Aim. The aim was to pinpoint the contribution of different central executive functions and to examine the contribution of the two subcomponents of children's written arithmetical skills. Sample and method. A total of 141 third- and fourth-graders were administered arithmetical tasks and measures of working memory, fluid IQ and reading. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between working memory and written arithmetical skills. Results. Three central executive measures (counting span, trail making and verbal fluency) and one phonological loop measure (Digit Span) were significant and predictors of arithmetical performance when the influence of reading, age and IQ was controlled for in the analysis. Conclusions. The present findings demonstrate that working memory, in general, and the central executive, in particular, contribute to children's arithmetical skills. It was hypothesized that monitoring and coordinating multiple processes, and accessing arithmetical knowledge from long-term memory, are important central executive functions during arithmetical performance. The contribution of the phonological loop and the central executive (concurrent processing and storage of numerical information) indicates that children aged 9-10 years primarily utilize verbal coding strategies during written arithmetical performance. © 2008 The British Psychological Society.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Bottom-up driven speechreading in a speechreading expert: The case of AA (JK023)2005In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This case study tested the threshold hypothesis (Rönnberg et al., 1998), which states that superior speechreading skill is possible only if high-order cognitive functions, such as capacious verbal working memory, enable efficient strategies. Design: In a case study, a speechreading expert (AA) was tested on a number of speechreading and cognitive tasks and compared with control groups (z scores). Sentence-based speechreading tests, a word-decoding test, and a phoneme identification task were used to assess speechreading skill at different analytical levels. The cognitive test battery used included tasks of working memory (e.g., reading span), inference-making, phonological processing (e.g., rhyme-judgment), and central-executive functions (verbal fluency, Stroop task). Results: Contrary to previous cases of extreme speechreading skill, AA excels on both low-order (phoneme identification: z = +2.83) and high-order (sentence-based: z = +8.12 and word-decoding: z = +4.21) speechreading tasks. AA does not display superior verbal inference-making ability (sentence-completion task: z = -0.36). Neither does he possess a superior working memory (reading span: z = +0.80). However, AA outperforms the controls on two measures of executive retrieval functions, the semantic (z = +3.77) and phonological verbal fluency tasks (z = +3.55). Conclusions: The performance profile is inconsistent with the threshold hypothesis. Extreme speechreading accuracy can be obtained in ways other than via well-developed high-order cognitive functions. It is suggested that AA's extreme speechreading skill, which capitalizes on low-order functions in combination with efficient central executive functions, is due to early onset of hearing impairment. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bottom-Up Driven Speechreading in a Speechreading Expert: The Case of AA.2005In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Phonological Deterioration in Adults with an Acquired Severe Hearing Impairment1998In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0107-8593, Vol. 27, no 49, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the phonological processing skills in a group of adults who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life. These severely hearing-impaired individuals performed at a significantly lower level on the rhyme judgement tasks and the letter span task, but on a par with the control group on other cognitive tests. A correlation analysis showed that duration of hearing loss is negatively related to performance on the rhyme judgement tasks and letter span task. The results indicate that the phonological processing skills in individuals who have acquired a severe hearing loss in adult life deteriorates. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical and clinical implications.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Phonological deterioration in adults with an acquired severe hearing impairment: A deterioration in long-term or working memory?1999In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, E-ISSN 1940-2872, Vol. 28, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Working memory deficit in children with mathematical difficulties: A general or specific deficit?2007In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 197-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether children with mathematical difficulties (MDs) or comorbid mathematical and reading difficulties have a working memory deficit and whether the hypothesized working memory deficit includes the whole working memory system or only specific components. In the study, 31 10-year-olds with MDs and 37 10-year-olds with both mathematical and reading difficulties were compared with 47 age-matched and 50 younger controls (9-year-olds) on a number of working memory tasks. Compared with the age-matched controls, both groups of children with MDs performed worse on tasks tapping the central executive (e.g., visual matrix span) and the phonological loop (e.g., word span). More important, the MD group performed worse than the younger controls on the counting span task, whereas the group with comorbid mathematical and reading difficulties performed worse on the counting span task and the visual matrix span task. These findings provide support for the assumption that children with MDs have a working memory deficit. More specifically, children with MDs have a central executive deficit connected to concurrent processing and storage of numerical and visual information. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spens, K-E.
    Cognitive skills and chronological age related to visual tactile supported visual speech understanding2001In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 6, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxnell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spens, Karl-Erik
    Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing impaired individuals2001In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which different measures ofspeechreading performance correlated with particular cognitiveabilities in a population of hearing-impaired people. Althoughthe three speechreading tasks (isolated word identification,sentence comprehension, and text tracking) were highly intercorrelated,they tapped different cognitive skills. In this population,younger participants were better speechreaders, and, when agewas taken into account, speech tracking correlated primarilywith (written) lexical decision speed. In contrast, speechreadingfor sentence comprehension correlated most strongly with performanceon a phonological processing task (written pseudohomophone detection)but also on a span measure that may have utilized visual, nonverbalmemory for letters. We discuss the implications of this pattern.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents2017In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 647-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.

    Aims

    The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. The pathways model states that the three pathways should provide independent support to symbolic-number skill. Each pathway's unique contribution to formal mathematics varies depending on the complexity and demand of the tasks.

    Sample

    The study used a sample of 114 adolescents (71 girls). Their mean age was 14.60 years (SD = 1.00).

    Methods

    The adolescents were assessed on tests tapping the three pathways and general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory). A structural equation path analysis was computed.

    Results

    Symbolic-number comparison was predicted by the linguistic pathway, the quantitative pathway, and processing speed. The linguistic pathway, quantitative pathways, and symbolic-number comparison predicted arithmetic fact retrieval. The linguistic pathway, working memory, visual analogies, and symbolic-number comparison predicted percentage calculation.

    Conclusions

    There are both similarities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. Adolescents’ symbolic-number processing, arithmetic fact retrieval, and percentage calculation continue to rely on the linguistic pathways, whereas the reliance upon the spatial pathway has ceased. The reliance upon the quantitative pathway varies depending on the task.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Number magnitude processing and basic cognitive functions in children with mathematical learning disabilities2012In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 701-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study sought out to extend our knowledge regarding the origin ofmathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in children by testing different hypotheses in the same samples of children. Different aspects of cognitive functions and number processing were assessed in fifth- and sixth-graders (1113 years old) withMLD and compared to controls. The MLD group displayed weaknesses withmost aspects of number processing (e.g., subitizing, symbolic number comparison, number-line estimation) and two cognitive functions (e.g., visualspatial working memory). These findings favor the defective approximate number system (ANS) hypothesis, but do not fit well with the access deficit hypothesis. Support is also provided for the defective object-tracking system (OTS) hypothesis, the domain general cognitive deficit hypothesis and to some extent the defective numerosity-coding hypothesis. The study suggests that MLD might be caused by multiple deficits and not a single core deficit.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of playing number games on 6-year-old children’s number knowledge and skills2017In: Linköping studies in Behavioral Science, ISSN 1654-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investigating children’s number line estimation patterns using Latent class regression analysis2017In: Linköping studies in Behavioral ScienceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Elofsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Playing number board games supports 5-year-old children's early mathematical development2016In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 43, p. 134-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined effects of playing number games (linear number board game, circular number board game, and nonlinear numerical activities) on the development of number knowledge and early arithmetic. A passive control group was also included in the design. 114 5-year-old preschool children participated. Four tasks (number line estimation, counting, naming Arabic numbers, and arithmetic calculation) were used as dependent measures. Children assigned to an intervention participated in six 10-min sessions during a period of three weeks. Children playing the linear number board game improved their performance on the number line estimation task, while children playing the other games did not. Furthermore, children playing the linear number board game showed a substantial enhancement of their calculation performance. The positive effects of playing linear number board games support the representational mapping hypothesis. The finding concerning calculation provides support to the assumption that a linear representation is important for early arithmetical learning.

  • 21.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Self-efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics, Native Language Literacy and Foreign Language Amongst Boys and Girls with and without Mathematic Difficulties2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine achievement and self-efficacy in mathematics and native and foreign language literacy in children with specific mathematic LD (MD-only), children with comorbid mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), and compare them with children without LD (controls), as well as to explore gender differences. Participants were 143 fifth-graders in Sweden who completed National Tests and measures of self-efficacy in mathematics and literacy. The MD-RD children displayed lower self-efficacy in all subjects compared to the controls, even when controlling for achievement. The MD-only children displayed lower self-efficacy in mathematics, completely accounted for by their lower mathematic achievement. The lower self-efficacy for children with learning disabilities may primarily be explained by their history of low achievement interpreted as failures and their emphasis on negative appraisals.

  • 22.
    Jungert, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy - domain-specific versus cross-domain - in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 440-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the childrens skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children.

  • 23.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, J
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults.1997In: Eurospeech,1997, 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Andersson, Jan
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bredberg, G.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants in deafened adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study cognitive performance in 15 deafened adult cochlear implant candidates was examined and related to level of speech understanding after 12 months of experience with the implant. The implant group performed on par with normal hearing controls in all cognitive tasks used in the study with one exception: Performance was significantly lower in cognitive tasks where use of a phonological representation of sound is a key task-demand. Observations of the implanted individuals' level of speech understanding indicate that only those individuals who, pre-operatively, were in possession of phonological representations comparable to that of normal hearing could follow and understand a speaker that was out of sight. The results are discussed with respect to (a) deterioration in the phonological representation of sounds as a function of absence of external auditory stimulation, and (b) the role of cognitive factors in predicting success in speech understanding with the implant.

  • 25.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Phonological capabilities in deafened adults: Functional consequences1999In: Deafness and access to written language, Paris: ACFOSconference , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Phonological deterioration in deafened adults: Functional consequences1998In: Audio-visual speech processing, Sydney: Casual Publisher , 1998, p. 47-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Bredberg, G
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Phonological representation and speech understanding with cochlear implants.1997In: Audio-visual speech processing: cognitive and computational approaches., 1997, p. 45-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Borg, E.
    Ohlsson, I-S
    Background noise and speech understanding: The effect of cognitive skills2003In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Borg, E.
    Ohlsson, I-S
    Working memory capacity and phonological skills in speech understanding in severe hearing-impaired individuals2003In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Borg, E
    Ohlsson, IS
    Working-memory capacity and phonological processing in deafened adults and individuals with a severe hearing impairment2003In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 42, p. S86-S89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present article is to review a number of studies conducted in our own laboratory with respect to working memory capacity and phonological processing in deafened adults and individuals with a severe hearing impairment, and how these two cognitive components relate to speech processing. The results demonstrate that one specific component in the phonological processing system (i.e., the phonological representation system) is deteriorating, whereas other parts are preserved intact. The characteristic of the individual's phonological representation is further correlated with success in speech reading and speech understanding with some cochlear implant systems. Working memory capacity is a capacity that remains intact despite a long duration of deafness/severe hearing loss. The size of the working memory is related to skill in speech reading and level of speech understanding with cochlear implants and perceived effort in a noisy environment.

  • 31.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Working memory and speech understanding.1998In: Audio-visual speech processing., Sydney: Casual Publisher , 1998, p. 133-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Working memory and speech understanding1998In: Conference on Audio-visual speech processing,1998, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Försvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Johansson, Karina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Cognition as a bridge between signal and dialogue: Communication in the hearing impaired and deaf1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Audiology, Supple, Vol. 49, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Spens, K
    Vibrotactile speechreading support: cognitive prerequisites for training.1998In: Journal of deaf studies and deaf education., ISSN 1081-4159, Vol. 39, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnitude processing in the brain: an fMRI study of time, space, and numerosity as a shared cortical system2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, no 500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions has yet to be established, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system. The current functional resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the potential neurocognitive overlap across three dimensions. A sample of adults (N = 24) performed three different magnitude processing tasks: a temporal discrimination task, a number discrimination task, and a line length discrimination task. A conjunction analysis revealed several overlapping neural substrates across multiple magnitude dimensions, and we argue that these cortical nodes comprise a distributed magnitude processing system. Key components of this predominantly right-lateralized system include the intraparietal sulcus, insula, premotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus and frontal eye-fields. Together with previous research highlighting IPS, our results suggest that the insula also is a core component of the magnitude processing system. We discuss the functional role of each of these components in the magnitude processing system and suggest that further research of this system may provide insight into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive deficits in magnitude processing are manifest.

  • 36.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  • 37.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Number Processing and Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Subtypes With Different Cognitive Profiles and Deficits2016In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 0022-2194, E-ISSN 1538-4780, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with arithmetic fact dyscalculia (AFD) and a group with general dyscalculia (GD). Several different aspects of number magnitude processing were assessed in these two groups and compared with age-matched typically achieving children. The GD group displayed weaknesses with both symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing, whereas the AFD group displayed problems only with symbolic number processing. These findings provide evidence that the origins of DD in children with different profiles of mathematical problems diverge. Children with GD have impairment in the innate approximate number system, whereas children with AFD suffer from an access deficit. These findings have implications for researchers selection procedures when studying dyscalculia, and also for practitioners in the educational setting.

  • 38.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities2016In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 143, p. 85-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N = 133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Helsingor, Denmark.
    Ng, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yumba, Wycliffe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Classon, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess aided speech-in-noise outcomes and relate those measures to auditory sensitivity and processing, different types of cognitive processing abilities, and signal processing in hearing aids.

    Material and method: Participants were 200 hearing-aid wearers, with a mean age of 60.8 years, 43% females, with average hearing thresholds in the better ear of 37.4 dB HL. Tests of auditory functions were hearing thresholds, DPOAEs, tests of fine structure processing, IHC dead regions, spectro-temporal modulation, and speech recognition in quiet (PB words). Tests of cognitive processing function were tests of phonological skills, working memory, executive functions and inference making abilities, and general cognitive tests (e.g., tests of cognitive decline and IQ). The outcome test variables were the Hagerman sentences with 50 and 80% speech recognition levels, using two different noises (stationary speech weighted noise and 4-talker babble), and three types of signal processing (linear gain, fast acting compression, and linear gain plus a non-ideal binary mask). Another sentence test included typical and atypical sentences with contextual cues that were tested both audio-visually and in an auditory mode only. Moreover, HINT and SSQ were administrated.

    Analysis: Factor analyses were performed separate for the auditory, cognitive, and outcome tests.

    Results: The auditory tests resulted in two factors labeled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE, the cognitive tests in one factor (COGNITION), and the outcome tests in the two factors termed NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT that relates to the level of context in the different outcome tests. When age was partialled out, COGNITION was moderately correlated with the TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and NO CONTEXT factors but only weakly correlated with the CONTEXT factor. SENSITIVITY correlated weakly with TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and CONTEXT, and moderately with NO CONTEXT, while TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE showed weak correlation with CONTEXT and moderate correlation with NO CONTEXT. CONTEXT and NO CONTEXT had a  moderate correlation. Moreover, the overall results of the Hagerman sentences showed 0.9 dB worse SNR with fast acting compression compared with linear gain and 5.5 dB better SNR with linear  gain and noise reduction compared with only linear gain.

    Conclusions: For hearing aid wearers, the ability to recognize speech in noise is associated with both sensory and cognitive processing abilities when the speech materials have low internal context. These associations are less prominent when the speech material has contextual cues.

  • 40.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children2013In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 139-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.

  • 41.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chiara Passolunghi, Maria
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mathematical skills in children with dyslexia2015In: Learning and individual differences, ISSN 1041-6080, E-ISSN 1873-3425, Vol. 40, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematical performance of 17 children with developmental dyslexia (DD) was assessed and compared to a control group to examine whether difficulties related to reading and phonological processing affect the development of mathematical skills. The DD group performed worse than the controls on number fact retrieval, multi-step arithmetic problem solving, and multi-digit calculation, whereas their scores on tasks tapping approximate arithmetic and conceptual understanding (i.e., place value, calculation principles) were equal to the controls. In view of the Triple-code model, the findings demonstrate that children with DD have problems with tasks depending on verbal phonological number codes but have no problems with tasks depending on analogue magnitude representations or visual-Arabic number codes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model.2018In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 167, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified pathways to mathematics model was used to examine the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic skills in third graders. A total of 269 children were assessed on tasks tapping the four pathways and arithmetic skills. A path analysis showed that symbolic number processing was directly supported by the linguistic and approximate quantitative pathways. The direct contribution from the four pathways to arithmetic proficiency varied; the linguistic pathway supported single-digit arithmetic and word problem solving, whereas the approximate quantitative pathway supported only multi-digit calculation. The spatial processing and verbal working memory pathways supported only arithmetic word problem solving. The notion of hierarchical levels of arithmetic was supported by the results, and the different levels were supported by different constellations of pathways. However, the strongest support to the hierarchical levels of arithmetic were provided by the proximal arithmetic skills.

  • 43.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of  developmental dyscalculia (DD). Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) performance was contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD.

    Case report: Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account, and the general magnitude-processing deficit account. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One cases suffered from general cognitive deficits only.

    Conclusions: The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  • 44.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    An analysis of errors in multi-digit arithmetic and arithmetic word problem solving in children with mathematical learning difficulties2013In: Specialusis ugdymas, ISSN 1392-5369, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arithmetic is a complex skill that draws upon conceptual and procedural knowledge and skills. Without sufficient conceptual and procedural knowledge and skills the child is at risk of encountering difficulties with developing age-adequate skills in arithmetic. The aim was to explore whether children with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) display different patterns of errors, compared to children with no learning difficulties (No LD), when performing arithmetic, which would provide important information regarding these children's conceptual and procedural problems. The participants were 142 third and fourth graders with MLD and 112 children with No LD. The children performed multi-digit calculation and arithmetic problem solving tasks. The errors committed during the performance of the arithmetic tasks were categorised into different types (minor miscalculation error, wrong operation, subtracting smaller from larger, regrouping error, failure to regroup, poor reasoning). The Z-test for proportion was used as the statistical method. A higher proportion of children with MLD committed errors when subtracting the smaller from the larger number, in re-grouping errors, showed a failure to regroup errors and had poor reasoning errors when solving multi-digit calculation problems compared to No LD children. The higher occurrence of these errors related to the type of calculation strategy that the MLD children used. A larger proportion of children with MLD committed poor reasoning errors when performing arithmetic problem solving tasks compared to the No LD children.Consistent with Geary's framework and prior research, the present findings suggest that the MLD children's poor calculation performance is due to deficits related to both conceptual and procedural knowledge and skills, whereas their poor arithmetic problem-solving performance is mainly due to their poor reasoning skills.

  • 45.
    Träff, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Do number games improve six-year-old childrens number skills and arithmetical skills?2012In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY: vol 47, Special Issue: XXX International Congress of Psychology   Supplement: 1, Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press): STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles / Taylor and Francis (Psychology Press) , 2012, Vol. 47, no SI, p. 317-317Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Östergren, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive conditions of children at risk of developing mathematical learning disabilities2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various hypotheses have been advanced regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). The present study set out to test a number of hypotheses regarding the underlying condition for the development of MLD, namely: the domain general hypothesis, number sense deficit, numerosity coding deficit, access deficit and multiple deficits. These hypotheses were tested on a sample of eight-year-old children that was divided into three groups: MLD (N = 13), typical achievers (TA, N = 57) and high achievers (HA, N = 25) based on a longitudinal approach of stability in performance on arithmetic tests. The development of the three groups was also assessed using data from preschool to grade two. The results revealed support for the hypothesis of multiple deficits that are primarily located in intraparietal sulci (IPS) and manifest themselves as both number sense deficits and deficits in spatial processing. This type of deficit is supported by less developed general abilities in the domains of both phonological ability and nonverbal intelligence, resulting in poorer number knowledge for those children at risk of MLD. The HA group displayed a superior early number knowledge in combination with superior domain general abilities, which support the development of number knowledge.

  • 47.
    Östergren, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability2013In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 405-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that early number knowledge is important for the development of arithmetic calculation ability. The domain-general ability of verbal working memory also has an impact on arithmetic ability. This longitudinal study tested the impact of early number knowledge and verbal working memory on the arithmetic calculation ability of children in preschool (N = 315) and then later in Grade 1 using structural equation modeling. Three models were used to test hypotheses drawn from previous literature. The current study demonstrates that both early number knowledge and the domain-general ability of verbal working memory affect preschool and Grade 1 arithmetic ability. Early number knowledge had a direct impact on the growth of arithmetic ability, whereas verbal working memory had only an indirect effect via number knowledge and preschool arithmetic ability. These results fit well with von Aster and Shalevs developmental model of numerical cognition (Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2007, Vol. 49, pp. 868-873) and highlight the importance of considering arithmetic ability as independent from early number knowledge. Results also emphasize the importance of training early number knowledge before school entry to promote the development of arithmetic ability.

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