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  • 1.
    Carlander, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kenth
    Lasarettet Västervik.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Keita, Åsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordborg, C
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Comparison of experimental nerve injury caused by ultrasonically activated scalpel and electrosurgery2005In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 772-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Iatrogenic nerve injury caused by heat from dissection instruments is a significant problem in many areas of surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the risk of nerve injury for three different dissection instruments: monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery (ES) and an ultrasonically activated (US) instrument. Methods: The biceps femoris muscle was cut in a standard manner just adjacent to the sciatic nerve using monopolar ES, bipolar ES or US shears. A total of 73 functional experiments were conducted in which the nerve was isolated, divided proximally, and stimulated supramaximally in 37 anaesthetized rats. The electromyographic (EMG) potential was recorded distally before and after each experiment. Nerve dysfunction was defined as more than 10 per cent loss of the evoked EMG potential. Fifty-nine nerves were examined histologically after dissection with the different instruments. The extent of heat damage was determined in four nerves that were divided with ES bipolar scissors and five that were divided with US shears. Results: Reduction in the EMG potential was significantly more frequent in the monopolar ES group than in the US group. Morphological examination also showed significantly less nerve damage in the US group. Conclusion: US instruments may be safer than ES for dissection close to nerves. Copyright © 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  • 2. Ebner, A.
    et al.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental analysis of the mechanism of action1992In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 920-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working mechanism of intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) was evaluated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized cats and rats. IVES involved a direct activation of bladder mechanoreceptor afferents of the A delta type and as a consequence a central reflex activation of the detrusor. The detrusor response was abolished by bilateral transection of the S1-S3 dorsal roots and by intravesical instillation of lidocaine. The optimal stimulation frequency was 20 Hz. The results offer a theoretical rationale for the use of IVES as treatment of weak detrusor contractility in man.

  • 3.
    He, Leye
    et al.
    The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.
    Wang, Yong
    The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.
    Long, Zhi
    The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Clinical Significance of IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in Prostatic Secretion of Patients With Chronic Prostatitis2010In: Urology, ISSN 0090-4295, E-ISSN 1527-9995, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 654-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To explore the clinical significance of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) of patients with different types of chronic prostatitis (CP).

    Methods

    Fifty-seven CP patients and 12 healthy males (controls) were investigated. The CP patients were evaluated through routine examination of urine, EPS, 2 glasses urine culture, and the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score and classified by the NIH prostatitis diagnostic criteria. The levels of cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-2 in the EPS were measured by two-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Results

    CP patients fell into 3 groups: type II (n = 10), type IIIa (n = 26), and type IIIb (n = 21). EPS TNF-α and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in type II and type IIIa than in type IIIb and control groups. The levels of IL-2 were lower than control in all CP groups, but only type II was statistically different from the controls. In the CP patients, the level of TNF-α was positively related to the white blood cell counts (r = .77; P <.01), and the level of IL-10 was positively related to the NIH-CPSI scores (r = .55; P <.01).

    Conclusions

    Determination of variety expression of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-2 in the EPS of CP patients may provide a potential indicator for clinical diagnosis classification and an indicator to evaluate the effect of treatment of CP.

  • 4.
    Hu, Minyu
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Li, Yi-Lin
    School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    bMedical College of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Liu, Zhao-Qian
    School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Qu, Shulin
    bMedical College of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Huang, Yiming
    School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Comparison of lycopene and fluvastatin effects on atherosclerosis induced by a      high-fat diet in rabbits2008In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1030-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    Objective

    We evaluated the antiatherogenic effect of lycopene in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Methods

    Forty adult male rabbits were divided into five groups that were fed a standard diet, a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 4 mg/kg of lycopene, a high-fat diet plus 12 mg/kg of lycopene, and a high-fat diet plus 10 mg/kg of fluvastatin, respectively. Lycopene and fluvastatin were administered intragastrically. The level of serum total cholesterol, total triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured before and after 4 and 8 wk of experimental treatment. In addition, plasma levels of lycopene, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, serum nitric oxide, and interleukin-1 were measured after the experiment. The area of atherosclerotic plaque and pathologic changes of the aorta were evaluated.

    Results

    Compared with the control, levels of total cholesterol, total triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and interleukin-1 were increased and total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide were decreased in the animals with a high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Intragastric administration of lycopene counteracted the change in these parameters (P < 0.05). In this case, the data showed that lycopene in the used dose was better than the fluvastatin intervention. Morphologic analysis revealed that lycopene and fluvastatin markedly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta compared with the situation in rabbits on a high-fat diet alone.

    Conclusion

    Lycopene, like fluvastatin, significantly attenuated atherogenesis in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

  • 5.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Modulation of the micturition reflex pathway by intravesical electrical stimulation: An experimental study in the rat1998In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) is used clinically to improve bladder evacuation in patients with inadequate micturition contractions. The procedure involves field stimulation of A bladder mechanoreceptor afferents resulting in a prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex. The aim of the present experimental study in the rat was to identify the site for this neuromodulation, whether it was due to sensitization of bladder mechanoreceptors, to enhancement of transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway, or to improved effectiveness of the peripheral motor system of the bladder. The experiments were performed on female rats, anesthetized by -chloralose. Multi-unit afferent or efferent activity was recorded from bladder pelvic nerve branches during repeated cystometries before and after IVES. The specific antagonist CPPene was used to block central glutaminergic receptors of NMDA type. Micturition threshold volume decreased significantly after IVES. The afferent threshold volume, peak response, and pressure sensitivity were unchanged as were the peak efferent activity and bladder contractility. There was no efferent activity until just before the micturition contraction. The IVES-induced decrease in micturition threshold was blocked by prior administration of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) antagonist CPPene (3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid). The findings indicate that the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex is due to an enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. The observed modulation may account for the clinical beneficial effect of IVES treatment.

  • 6.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prolonged Modulation of the Micturition Reflex by Electrical Stimulation1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used in treatment of patients with urinary bladder dysfunctions for more than four decades. While some investigators have reported excellent results others have observed less convincing effects or outright failures. The discrepancies may reflect differences in patient selection or stimulation procedure. A better theoretical understanding of the IVES working mechanism might help to improve the success rate of the treatment. The aims of the present study were to provide such information.

    Experiments were performed on adult female cats and rats under /alpha/-chloralose anesthesia. IVES was delivered by a catheter electrode in the bladder. At proper intensity and frequency, IVES evoked reflex detrusor contractions that were abolished by bilateral rhizotomy of sacral dorsal roots. Stimulation parameters and response characteristics revealed that bladder mechanoreceptor A/delta/ afferents were activated by the IVES, the same afferents that drive the normal micturition reflex.

    Five minutes of continues IVES at 20 Hz induced a prolonged, significant decrease in the micturition threshold volume of anesthetized rats. Similarly, selective bladder A/delta/ afferent stimulation induced a long-lasting enhancement of micturition reflex discharges in cats. A comparable prolonged inhibitory effect on the micturition reflex was demonstrated after ano-genital afferent stimulation. Both modulatory effects occurred without changes in response sensitivity of stimulated afferents. The IVES induced modulation was prevented by transient exposure of the bladder to a local anesthetic and by systemic administration of a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist.

    In conclusion, IVES induces a prolonged modulation of the micturition reflex by an LTP like enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. The findings provide an experimental explanation for the neuronal mechanisms underlying the curative effect of IVES in patients with bladder evacuation problems.

    List of papers
    1. Intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental analysis of the mechanism of action
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental analysis of the mechanism of action
    1992 (English)In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 920-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The working mechanism of intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) was evaluated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized cats and rats. IVES involved a direct activation of bladder mechanoreceptor afferents of the A delta type and as a consequence a central reflex activation of the detrusor. The detrusor response was abolished by bilateral transection of the S1-S3 dorsal roots and by intravesical instillation of lidocaine. The optimal stimulation frequency was 20 Hz. The results offer a theoretical rationale for the use of IVES as treatment of weak detrusor contractility in man.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13504 (URN)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25
    2. Intravesical electrical stimulation induces a prolonged decrease in micturition threshold volume in the rat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intravesical electrical stimulation induces a prolonged decrease in micturition threshold volume in the rat
    1996 (English)In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 1477-1481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used clinically to treat patients with voiding disorders. The aim of the present experimental study was to obtain objective evidence of a modulation of the micturition reflex by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES).

    Materials and Methods: Forty-one female rats, anesthetized by alpha-chloralose were used for the experiments. Intravesical electrical stimulation was given by a catheter electrode in the bladder (5 minutes of continuous stimulation at 20 Hz, 7 to 11 mA). The effect was evaluated by the change in cystometric micturition threshold volume.

    Results: The threshold volume of the micturition reflex decreased significantly to 82% of controls after IVES (p<0.001; n=31). The effect was reversible and lasted for about 1 hour. The decrease was prevented by a transient blockade of the bladder nerves during IVES.

    Conclusions: Intravesical electrical stimulation induced a prolonged modulation of the micturition reflex in anesthetized rats. The effect was due to activation of bladder mechanoreceptor afferents and remained long after the period of stimulation. It is proposed that the modulation was due to a prolonged enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. Such a modulation may underlie the curative effect of IVES in certain voiding disorders.

    Keywords
    stimulation
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13505 (URN)10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66310-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25 Last updated: 2018-03-08
    3. Modulation of the micturition reflex pathway by intravesical electrical stimulation: An experimental study in the rat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modulation of the micturition reflex pathway by intravesical electrical stimulation: An experimental study in the rat
    1998 (English)In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) is used clinically to improve bladder evacuation in patients with inadequate micturition contractions. The procedure involves field stimulation of A bladder mechanoreceptor afferents resulting in a prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex. The aim of the present experimental study in the rat was to identify the site for this neuromodulation, whether it was due to sensitization of bladder mechanoreceptors, to enhancement of transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway, or to improved effectiveness of the peripheral motor system of the bladder. The experiments were performed on female rats, anesthetized by -chloralose. Multi-unit afferent or efferent activity was recorded from bladder pelvic nerve branches during repeated cystometries before and after IVES. The specific antagonist CPPene was used to block central glutaminergic receptors of NMDA type. Micturition threshold volume decreased significantly after IVES. The afferent threshold volume, peak response, and pressure sensitivity were unchanged as were the peak efferent activity and bladder contractility. There was no efferent activity until just before the micturition contraction. The IVES-induced decrease in micturition threshold was blocked by prior administration of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) antagonist CPPene (3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid). The findings indicate that the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex is due to an enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. The observed modulation may account for the clinical beneficial effect of IVES treatment.

    Keywords
    urinary bladder, electric stimulation, neuromodulation, bladder afferent, bladder efferent, micturition reflex, NMDA antagonist, rat
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13506 (URN)10.1002/(SICI)1520-6777(1998)17:5<543::AID-NAU11>3.0.CO;2-G (DOI)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Optimal conditions for the long-term modulation of the micturition reflex by intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental study in the rat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal conditions for the long-term modulation of the micturition reflex by intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental study in the rat
    1999 (English)In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether induced bladder contractions influence the modulation by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) of the micturition reflex in anaesthetized rats, and to identify the optimal IVES frequency and duration.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six adult female rats, anaesthetized by alpha-chloralose. were divided into four groups to study the effect of: (i) IVES in combination with bladder contractions; (ii) bladder contractions alone; (iii) IVES frequency; and (iv) IVES duration. IVES was administered using a catheter electrode in the bladder. The effect of various IVES procedures was evaluated by determining the micturition threshold volume obtained from repeated cystometries before and after stimulation.

    RESULTS: Administering IVES with standard parameters induced a significant decrease in the micturition threshold volume for about an hour. There was no difference in outcome between IVES with the bladder filled and contracting during the stimulation or empty and not contracting. Imposed bladder contractions per se had no effect on the micturition threshold volume. IVES at low frequencies (< or = 20 Hz) had a better modulatory effect than higher frequencies and the optimum duration of IVES was 5 min.

    CONCLUSIONS: Evoked bladder contractions did not improve the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex. These findings might help to improve the clinical application of the IVES procedure.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13507 (URN)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25 Last updated: 2009-05-20
    5. Prolonged increase in micturition threshold volume by anogenital afferent stimulation in the rat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prolonged increase in micturition threshold volume by anogenital afferent stimulation in the rat
    1998 (English)In: British Journal of Urology International, ISSN 1464-4096, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To determine whether induced bladder contractions influence the modulation by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) of the micturition reflex in anaesthetized rats, and to identify the optimal IVES frequency and duration.

    Materials and methods

    Seventy-six adult female rats, anaesthetized by α-chloralose, were divided into four groups to study the effect of: (i) IVES in combination with bladder contractions; (ii) bladder contractions alone; (iii) IVES frequency; and (iv) IVES duration. IVES was administered using a catheter electrode in the bladder. The effect of various IVES procedures was evaluated by determining the micturition threshold volume obtained from repeated cystometries before and after stimulation.

    Results

    Administering IVES with standard parameters induced a significant decrease in the micturition threshold volume for about an hour. There was no difference in outcome between IVES with the bladder filled and contracting during the stimulation or empty and not contracting. Imposed bladder contractions per se had no effect on the micturition threshold volume. IVES at low frequencies (≤20 Hz) had a better modulatory effect than higher frequencies and the optimum duration of IVES was 5 min.

    Conclusions

    Evoked bladder contractions did not improve the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex. These findings might help to improve the clinical application of the IVES procedure.

    Keywords
    bladder, electric stimulation, contraction, micturition reflex, rats
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13508 (URN)10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.00947.x (DOI)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25 Last updated: 2009-05-20
    6. Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents
    1999 (English)In: The Journal of General Physiology, ISSN 0022-1295, E-ISSN 1540-7748, Vol. 517, no 2, p. 599-605Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]
    1. Prolonged modulation of the parasympathetic micturition reflex was studied in cats anaesthetized by -chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the remaining ipsilateral bladder pelvic nerves or urethral branches of the pudendal nerve.

       

    2. Stimulation of bladder or urethral afferents at A intensity evoked micturition reflexes with a latency of 90-120 ms. Such reflexes were much enhanced following repetitive conditioning stimulation of the same afferents at 20 Hz for 5 min.

       

    3. The reflex enhancement lasted more than 1 h after the conditioning stimulation. The effect was not prevented by a preceding complete transection of the sympathetic supply to the bladder. A prolonged suppression of the reflex was obtained after conditioning stimulation of afferents in the dorsal clitoris nerves.

       

    4. It is proposed that the prolonged modulations of the micturition reflex represent physiological adaptive processes, which preserve a flawless function of the bladder during life. The observations provide a theoretical explanation for the beneficial effect of electric nerve stimulation in patients with voiding disorders.
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13509 (URN)
    Available from: 1999-02-25 Created: 1999-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Department of Cell andMolecular Biology Karolinska Institute.
    Cooling of the urinary bladder activates neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord2004In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 351-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although visceral innocuous cold receptors have been documented, the central termination of their afferents is unknown. We used menthol solution (0. 6 m M) to obtain selective activation of cold receptors in the urinary bladder of rats. Innocuous cold stimulation induced Fos expression in a population of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of L6-SI segments of the spinal cord. Neurons in other regions of the spinal cord, e.g. the lumbar parasympathetic nucleus or the dorsal commissure region, were activated to a similar degree by menthol and control infusions, indicating a response to bladder filling. Our results are consistent with the proposal that subsets of modality-specific dorsal horn neurons convey specific information regarding the exteroceptive and interoceptive state of the animal. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 8.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Intravesical electrical stimulation induces a prolonged decrease in micturition threshold volume in the rat1996In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 1477-1481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) has been used clinically to treat patients with voiding disorders. The aim of the present experimental study was to obtain objective evidence of a modulation of the micturition reflex by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES).

    Materials and Methods: Forty-one female rats, anesthetized by alpha-chloralose were used for the experiments. Intravesical electrical stimulation was given by a catheter electrode in the bladder (5 minutes of continuous stimulation at 20 Hz, 7 to 11 mA). The effect was evaluated by the change in cystometric micturition threshold volume.

    Results: The threshold volume of the micturition reflex decreased significantly to 82% of controls after IVES (p<0.001; n=31). The effect was reversible and lasted for about 1 hour. The decrease was prevented by a transient blockade of the bladder nerves during IVES.

    Conclusions: Intravesical electrical stimulation induced a prolonged modulation of the micturition reflex in anesthetized rats. The effect was due to activation of bladder mechanoreceptor afferents and remained long after the period of stimulation. It is proposed that the modulation was due to a prolonged enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. Such a modulation may underlie the curative effect of IVES in certain voiding disorders.

  • 9.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Optimal conditions for the long-term modulation of the micturition reflex by intravesical electrical stimulation: an experimental study in the rat1999In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether induced bladder contractions influence the modulation by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) of the micturition reflex in anaesthetized rats, and to identify the optimal IVES frequency and duration.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six adult female rats, anaesthetized by alpha-chloralose. were divided into four groups to study the effect of: (i) IVES in combination with bladder contractions; (ii) bladder contractions alone; (iii) IVES frequency; and (iv) IVES duration. IVES was administered using a catheter electrode in the bladder. The effect of various IVES procedures was evaluated by determining the micturition threshold volume obtained from repeated cystometries before and after stimulation.

    RESULTS: Administering IVES with standard parameters induced a significant decrease in the micturition threshold volume for about an hour. There was no difference in outcome between IVES with the bladder filled and contracting during the stimulation or empty and not contracting. Imposed bladder contractions per se had no effect on the micturition threshold volume. IVES at low frequencies (< or = 20 Hz) had a better modulatory effect than higher frequencies and the optimum duration of IVES was 5 min.

    CONCLUSIONS: Evoked bladder contractions did not improve the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex. These findings might help to improve the clinical application of the IVES procedure.

  • 10.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex in the cat by repetitive stimulation of bladder afferents1999In: The Journal of General Physiology, ISSN 0022-1295, E-ISSN 1540-7748, Vol. 517, no 2, p. 599-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Prolonged modulation of the parasympathetic micturition reflex was studied in cats anaesthetized by -chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the remaining ipsilateral bladder pelvic nerves or urethral branches of the pudendal nerve.

       

    2. Stimulation of bladder or urethral afferents at A intensity evoked micturition reflexes with a latency of 90-120 ms. Such reflexes were much enhanced following repetitive conditioning stimulation of the same afferents at 20 Hz for 5 min.

       

    3. The reflex enhancement lasted more than 1 h after the conditioning stimulation. The effect was not prevented by a preceding complete transection of the sympathetic supply to the bladder. A prolonged suppression of the reflex was obtained after conditioning stimulation of afferents in the dorsal clitoris nerves.

       

    4. It is proposed that the prolonged modulations of the micturition reflex represent physiological adaptive processes, which preserve a flawless function of the bladder during life. The observations provide a theoretical explanation for the beneficial effect of electric nerve stimulation in patients with voiding disorders.
  • 11.
    Jiang, Chong-He
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prolonged increase in micturition threshold volume by anogenital afferent stimulation in the rat1998In: British Journal of Urology International, ISSN 1464-4096, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 483-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To determine whether induced bladder contractions influence the modulation by intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) of the micturition reflex in anaesthetized rats, and to identify the optimal IVES frequency and duration.

    Materials and methods

    Seventy-six adult female rats, anaesthetized by α-chloralose, were divided into four groups to study the effect of: (i) IVES in combination with bladder contractions; (ii) bladder contractions alone; (iii) IVES frequency; and (iv) IVES duration. IVES was administered using a catheter electrode in the bladder. The effect of various IVES procedures was evaluated by determining the micturition threshold volume obtained from repeated cystometries before and after stimulation.

    Results

    Administering IVES with standard parameters induced a significant decrease in the micturition threshold volume for about an hour. There was no difference in outcome between IVES with the bladder filled and contracting during the stimulation or empty and not contracting. Imposed bladder contractions per se had no effect on the micturition threshold volume. IVES at low frequencies (≤20 Hz) had a better modulatory effect than higher frequencies and the optimum duration of IVES was 5 min.

    Conclusions

    Evoked bladder contractions did not improve the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex. These findings might help to improve the clinical application of the IVES procedure.

  • 12.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mazieres, Leonor
    University of Paris.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gating of the Micturition Reflex by Tonic Activation of Bladder Cold Receptors in the Cat2009In: NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, ISSN 0733-2467, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 555-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To determine whether C afferents can modify the gating of the A delta micturition reflex in order to identify the neuronal site of interaction of the two afferent systems. Methods: Adult female cats, anaesthetized with a.-chloralose, had their bladder and urethra catherized through a slit in the proximal urethra. Micturition threshold volume was assessed by cystometry and bladder efferent activity recorded simultaneously. The bladder was filled at a slow rate (1.2-3.5 ml/min) with either body-warm saline (control) or menthol solution (0.06 mM) or by cold saline (4 degrees C). Results: Of 14 trial sessions in 5 animals, the threshold volume of the A delta micturition reflex was consistently reduced by menthol infusions from a control median (md) value of 16.8 to 10.2 ml (P andlt; 0.01). The threshold pressure was also somewhat decreased from and 0.7 to 0.5 kPa (P andlt; 0.05), while the peak pressure or pressure slope did no differ in two situations. Similar results were obtained with slow cold infusions into the bladder (nine sessions in three animals). The threshold volume decreased from and 19.8 to 17.4 ml (P andlt; 0.05). The bladder reflex response to slow menthol or cold infusions had the typical features of an A delta micturition reflex in that the efferent activity was largely abolished by the bladder A delta mechanoreceptor unloading. Conclusions: Gradual tonic activation of bladder cold receptors lowers the threshold volume of the ordinary A delta micturition, pointing to a segmental spinal mechanism for the gating of the micturition reflex. Neurourol. Urodyrzam. 28:555-560, 2009.

  • 13.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Maziéres, L
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Cold- and menthol-sensitive C afferents of cat urinary bladder2002In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 543, no 1, p. 211-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold-sensitive C afferents of the urinary bladder were studied in adult anaesthetised with a-chloralose. The bladder was catheterised for fluid instillations and bladder pressure recordings. Pelvic nerve branches were stimulated electrically close to the bladder. Evoked afferent activity was recorded from dissected filaments of the ipsilateral S1-S2 dorsal roots. Responsive afferents were identified using the 'marking technique', based on activity-dependent decrease in C fibre conduction velocity. Of 108 examined bladder C afferents, 14 were activated by innocuous cooling of the bladder wall. Their conduction velocities ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 ms-1 and their activity dependent decrease in conduction velocity was <10%. All nine cold-sensitive afferents tested responded to methol exposure. Cold-sensitive C afferents failed to bladder filling with body-warm saline and to active bladder contractions. These characteristic indicate that the cold-sensitive C afferents of the bladder resemble cutaneous cold receptors rather than cold-sensitive mechanoreceptors or nociceptors. It is concluded that the bladder wall is endowed with cold receptors with unmyelinated C afferents in the pelvic nerves and that these afferents are responsible for bladder cooling reflex.

  • 14.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Yang, H.
    Medical College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410006, China.
    Fu, X.
    Medical College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410006, China.
    Qu, S.
    Medical College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410006, China.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Bladder cooling reflex and external urethral sphincter activity in the anesthetized and awake guinea pig2008In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 457, no 1, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spinal bladder cooling reflex, triggered by cold receptors of transient receptor potential melastatin type in the bladder wall, has been identified in several mammals, including man. This reflex and its influence on the external urethral sphincter were further characterized in the urethane anesthetized and awake guinea pigs. A total of 214 bladder infusions were performed in the 12 animals. Compared to controls, cold fluid induced a significant decrease in the threshold volume for reflex bladder contractions (median 82%, p<0.01). Menthol induced a further decrease (median 50%), signifying a bladder cooling reflex. Detrusor-sphincter activities were dyssynergic during voidings triggered by cold or menthol infusions but were coordinated during control infusions. The bladder cooling reflex was suppressed and the sphincter activity synergic following cold infusions in the awake state. Thus, the bladder cooling reflex is under the active descending inhibitory control in intact, awake animals. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 15.
    Li, Longkun
    et al.
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Medical College of Hunan Normal University.
    Hao, Ping
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Li, Weibing
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Fan, Lixin
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Zhou, Zhansong
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Song, Bo
    Third Military Medical University, Chongqing.
    Changes in T-type calcium channel and its subtypes in overactive detrusor of the rats with partial bladder outflow obstruction2007In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 870-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       AimsTo investigate the activity of the T-type calcium channel (TCC) and the expression of its subtypes in overactive detrusor (OD) myocytes in rats after partial bladder outflow obstruction (PBOO).MethodsThirteen male Wistar rats with OD after PBOO (OD group) and eight sham-operated rats (control group) were studied. The two groups were compared regarding the expression of TCC subtype genes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the TCC kinetics and cell action potential by whole-cell patch-clamp.ResultsThe time course and density of the current were significantly higher in the OD cells than those in the control detrusor. Whole-cell patch-clamp analysis showed that the activation of TCCs in detrusor myocytes in the OD group was faster than the control group, but inactivation was almost the same in both groups, suggesting a significant enhancement of the Ca2+ window current in the OD group. Patch-clamp recording of action potentials in the OD cells indicated an increase in excitability and a decrease in the repolarization interval. RT-PCR assay showed an abnormal expression of 1G subtype in the OD cells.ConclusionsTCCs could be one of the crucial factors for the abnormal excitation in OD cells. The development of OD after PBOO presumably relates to the increase in TCC current in the bladder cells, the enhancement of the Ca2+ window current for Ca2+ inflow, the prolongation of the intracellular calcium oscillations, and the acceleration of the cell depolarization.

  • 16.
    Li, Longkun
    et al.
    Center of Urology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hao, Ping
    3Center of Oncology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Li, Weibing
    Center of Urology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Song, Caiping
    Center of Urology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Song, Bo
    Center of Urology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Changes of gap junctional cell-cell communication in overactive detrusor in rats2007In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, ISSN 0363-6143, Vol. 293, no 5, p. c1627-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the changes in intercellular communication through gap junctions in detrusor overactivity (DO), we studied 23 adult female Wistar rats with DO after partial outflow obstruction (DO group) and 13 sham-operated rats (control group). The two groups were compared by means of urodynamics, light and electron microscopy, expression of Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 mRNA genes with RT-PCR, Cx43 protein with Western blot analysis, and functional intercellular communication with scrape loading dye transfer (SLDT) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The number of gap junctions and the expression of connexin mRNA and Cx43 protein were increased in DO rats, and intercellular communication through gap junctions increased after 6 wk of partial outflow obstruction as assessed with SLDT and FRAP techniques. The findings provide a theoretical rationale for using Cx43 antagonists and gap junction inhibitors in the treatment of patients with overactive detrusor secondary to partial bladder outflow obstruction.

  • 17.
    Li, Longkun
    et al.
    Urologic Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Medical College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.
    Song, Bo
    Urologic Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Yan, Junan
    Urologic Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Pan, Jinhong
    Urologic Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Altered expression of calcium-activated K and Cl channels in detrusor overactivity of rats with partial bladder outflow obstruction2008In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, ISSN 1464-4096, Vol. 101, no 12, p. 1588-1594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the activity of large- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa, SKCa) and calcium-activated chloride channels (ClCa) in detrusor overactivity (DO) cells after partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Thirteen female Wistar rats with DO caused by PBOO were studied simultaneously with eight sham-operated rats. The expression of KCa and ClCa channels was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the function of the two groups compared.

    RESULTS

    In the DO cells the expression of BKCa, SKCa2 and SKCa3 was lower, and that of ClCa channels higher, than in the control group cells. Using confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis, the function of BKCa and SKCa channels was suppressed, and that of ClCa channels was enhanced in DO group cells. KCa and ClCa effectors altered the cell membrane potentials more significantly in the DO cells than in the control cells, indicating a decrease in KCa and an increase in ClCa in DO group in either iso- or hypo-osmolar medium. Moreover, the change in BKCa, SKCa and ClCa channel activators in DO cells showed a more excitable state in hypo-osmolar medium than in iso-osmolar medium.

    CONCLUSION

    In DO myocytes after PBOO, the expression and function of KCa channels were decreased, and those of ClCa channels increased. These changes all provoke greater cell excitability, and could partly account for the DO.

  • 18.
    Li, longkun
    et al.
    Urological Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Medical College of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Song, Caiping
    Urological Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Zhou, Zhansong
    Urological Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Song, Bo
    Urological Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Li, Webing
    Urological Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Transurethral endoscopy technique with a ureteroscope for diagnosis and      management of seminal tracts disorders: a new approach2008In: Journal of endourology, ISSN 0892-7790, E-ISSN 1557-900X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 719-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To apply a transurethral endoscopic technique for examining and managing suspicious distal seminal tracts disorders with a ureteroscope.

    Patients and Methods: Sixteen patients with distal seminal tracts disorders underwent transurethral endoscopy through the distal seminal tracts using a semirigid ureteroscope. Of the 16 patients, 6 had suspected hemospermia, 4 spermatocele, and 6 male infertility.

    Results: The ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, and ampulla of the vas deferens were observed under direct vision with the ureteroscope. The vas deferens was investigated by cannulation with a guidewire or an epidural anesthesia catheter. Four patients received a diagnosis of spermatocele, four seminal vesiculitis, and three vas deferens obstruction. All patients received appropriate treatment. The remaining five patients had no anatomic disorders. All patients received careful postoperative observation and treatment, and were monitored for at least 3 months. Three patients had postoperative discomfort in the perineal region. There were no further complications.

    Conclusions: This new technique with the ureteroscope enables diagnosis and management of distal seminal tracts disorders through the normal anatomic tract. This endoscopic technique can be performed easily with minimal complications.

  • 19.
    Lin, X
    et al.
    Hunan Normal University.
    Qu, S
    Hunan Normal University.
    Hu, M
    Cent S University, Hunan, Peoples R China .
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Protective Effect of Erythropoietin on Renal Injury Induced by Acute Exhaustive Exercise in the Rat2010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, ISSN 0172-4622, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 847-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the protective effect of Erythropoietin (EPO) analogue rHuEPO on renal injury induced by acute exhaustive exercise in the rat. Rats were randomly allocated to one of 3 groups: normal control (C), exhaustive exercise test (ET) and EPO pre-treatment (rHuEPO 2 000 U/kg) plus ET (EPO + ET). Compared with controls, animals in the ET group had increased serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine protein, and renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased renal tissue nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. There was severe damage in renal tubular epithelial cells with a lot of cell apoptosis, and TUNEL assay revealed a remarkably high apoptotic index (p andlt; 0.01). Changes in renal function and kidney tissue were much less in the EPO + ET group (p andlt; 0.05) and the apoptotic index was much lower than in the ET group (18.45 +/- 0.32 vs. 27.55 +/- 0.49, p andlt; 0.05). EPO pretreatment thus significantly prevented renal cell apoptosis, and counteracted high MDA and low NO and NOS renal contents induced by exhaustive exercise. The data point to a potential value of EPO in preventing the acute renal injury after exhaustive exercise.

  • 20.
    Lindström, Sivert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Mazières, Leonor
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Inhibition of the bladder cooling reflex in the awake state: An experimental study in the cat2004In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 172, no 5 I, p. 2051-2053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We assessed the bladder cooling reflex in the awake cat. The bladder cooling reflex is consistently observed in anesthetized adult cats but not in awake, neurologically normal humans. This discrepancy could indicate a state dependant control of the reflex or a species difference. This study was designed to differentiate between these alternatives. Materials and Methods: Under ketamine-xylazine 5 animals had an indwelling catheter inserted into the bladder. The cooling reflex was tested by injections of cold saline into the bladder (4C to 8C), lowering its wall temperature to about 30C to 32C. The volume used (5 ml) was subthreshold for the Aδ micturition reflex, as confirmed by control injections of body warm saline. The procedure was repeated with the animals fully awake and it was well tolerated by all of them. Reflex responses were assessed by induced bladder pressures. Results: Typical bladder cooling reflexes with peak pressures greater than 3 kPa were evoked in all cats when in narcotic sleep (group mean ± CI 7.4 ± 3.1 kPa). No such reflexes were elicited when the animals were awake (2.0 ± 1.0 kPa). The difference was significant at the level of individual animals. Conclusions: The bladder cooling reflex is suppressed in adult cats during wakefulness, as in humans. This state dependent control of the bladder cooling reflex adds to its resemblance to the extensor plantar response (Babinski's sign).

  • 21. Mazières, L
    et al.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Recurrent inhibition of the bladder C fibre reflex in the cat and its response to naloxone2006In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 575, no 2, p. 603-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent inhibition of the bladder C fibre reflex was studied in adult female cats anaesthetized with α-chloralose. Test reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of bladder Aδ and C afferents in the right pelvic nerve and were recorded from the proximal end of a small ipsilateral pelvic nerve branch, transected close to the bladder. Such test reflexes were consistently depressed by repetitive electrical stimulation of the contralateral bladder pelvic nerve (20 Hz, 20 s) at intensities sufficient to recruit axons of bladder preganglionic neurones. The inhibition could be evoked after transection of the left dorsal roots S1-S4 and the sympathetic supply to the bladder but was abolished by transection of the pelvic nerve central to the site of stimulation. Hence, it most likely involved central recurrent collaterals of antidromically activated bladder preganglionic neurones. The reflex suppression was quite considerable -maximal C fibre reflexes were reduced to a group mean of 25% (± 9% confidence interval) of their control size. The effect had a slow onset, requiring a few seconds of conditioning stimulation to be revealed, and was very long lasting (minutes). Naloxone (0.01-0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) abolished the recurrent inhibition of both the C fibre and Aδ bladder reflexes, while inhibition from afferents in the dorsal clitoris nerve remained unchanged. It is concluded that the segmental bladder C fibre reflex and the spino-ponto-spinal Aδ micturition reflex are both targets of recurrent inhibition from bladder parasympathetic preganglionic neurones and that the effect involves an enkephalinergic mechanism. 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2006 The Physiological Society.

  • 22.
    Mazières, Leonor
    et al.
    Service de Rééducation Neurologique, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 47-83 boulevard de lHôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13 France.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    The C-fibre reflex of the cat's urinary bladder1998In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 513, no 2, p. 531-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     1. Reflexes evoked in bladder parasympathetic neurones by electrical stimulation of bladder C afferent fibres were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The responses were compared with the ordinary micturition reflex evoked by low-threshold Adelta afferents from bladder mechanoreceptors and mediated by a spino-ponto-spinal reflex pathway. 2. The bladder was catheterized for fluid instillations and pressure recordings. Efferent reflex discharges were recorded from the cut central end of a small distal bladder branch of the pelvic nerve. The remaining bladder pelvic nerve branches were stimulated electrically close to the bladder. 3. Stimulation at C afferent intensity evoked a late reflex discharge in bladder pelvic efferents in all animals. The response was centrally mediated, had a latency of 150-250 ms, and was much weaker after stimulation on the contralateral nerve. 4. The bladder C fibre reflex differed in several functional aspects from the ordinary Adelta micturition reflex. It could be evoked at a low rate of stimulation, with an empty bladder and no background activity from bladder mechanoreceptors. In this situation, the normal Adelta micturition reflex is not elicited. The C fibre reflex also survived an acute spinalization at a low thoracic level. 5. The C fibre reflex was strongly inhibited by dorsal clitoris or dorsal penis nerve stimulation, an effect that was maintained after spinalization. It was facilitated by bladder or urethra exposure to cold and menthol, stimuli that activate specific cold-sensitive receptors associated with unmyelinated C afferents. 6. It is concluded that the central pathway of the C fibre reflex is spinal and partly separate from that of the ordinary micturition reflex. These observations are in keeping with the clinical finding that a bladder cooling reflex can be elicited in patients with disturbed descending control of the bladder. 

  • 23.
    Schultz-Lampel, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Adult Pediatric Urology University of Witten.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Joachim W, Thüroff
    Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Mainz Germany.
    Experimental results on mechanisms of action of electrical neuromodulation in chronical urinary retention1998In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 16, no 5, World J Urol, p. 301-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for initiation of micturition in chronic urinary retention. In ten female cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the clinical situation of sacral foramen stimulation was experimentally reproduced by isolated S2 nerve stimulation after L6-S3 laminectomy. Stimulation responses were recorded from the bladder, peripheral nerves, and striated muscles of the foot and pelvic floor. The effect of sudden cessation of prolonged S2 stimulation, during which the bladder was completely inhibited, was evaluated in 70 stimulation sequences in 5 cats. Sacral nerve stimulation induced excitatory and inhibitory effects on the bladder, depending on the frequency and intensity of stimulation. With unilateral S2 stimulation, bladder excitation was best at frequencies of 2-5 Hz and at intensities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 times the threshold for the M-response of the foot muscle. Inhibition was the dominating effect at frequencies of 7-10 Hz and at intensities exceeding 1.4 times the threshold. Prolonged S2 stimulation above the threshold produced complete bladder inhibition during stimulation but induced strong bladder contractions after sudden interruption of stimulation, with amplitudes being significantly higher than that of spontaneous contractions preceding the stimulation. These results confirm the hypothesis of a "rebound" phenomenon as the mechanism of action for induction of spontaneous voiding in patients with chronic urinary retention.

  • 24.
    Song, Bo
    et al.
    Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Hunan Normal University Medical College.
    Wang, Yongquan
    Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Lu, Yang
    Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Li, Longkun
    Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University.
    Newly found prostate-bladder neural reflex in rats--possible mechanism for      voiding dysfunction associated with prostatitis/pelvic pain2009In: Urology, ISSN 0090-4295, E-ISSN 1527-9995, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1365-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    Objectives

    To demonstrate the existence of a prostate-bladder neural reflex that might help clarify a neurologic mechanism for voiding dysfunction associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Methods

    Experiments were performed on anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. Repeated cystometry was used to study the changes in urinary bladder behavior induced by injecting formalin into the prostate. The pathway of a prostate-bladder reflex was identified by recording the electromyographic (EMG) response of the detrusor to electrical stimulation of the prostate, after saline or lidocaine injections into the prostate, and transection of the prostate nerves.

    Results

    Intraprostatic formalin injection induced significant changes in the parameters of cystometry. Electrical stimulation of the prostate consistently evoked a bladder EMG response. Intraprostatic lidocaine injection increased the delay and reduced the amplitude of this EMG response. The bladder EMG response was not affected by transection of the cervical spinal cord nor by just cutting the sympathetic chain; however, it was suppressed by resection of the sympathetic chain and by transection of the ipsilateral L6-S3 nerve roots.

    Conclusions

    A prostate-bladder reflex is proposed, and the lumbosacral spinal cord is assumed to be the primary center of the reflex. These findings might help determine the therapeutic approach to voiding dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

  • 25.
    Zeng, Jianwen
    et al.
    Jinan University, Peoples R China .
    Pan, Chuzao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China .
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cause of Residual Urine in Bladder Outlet Obstruction: An Experimental Study in the Rat2012In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 1027-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We explored the role of bladder mechanoreceptors in post-void residual urine in rats with bladder outlet obstruction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterials and Methods: Partial bladder outlet obstruction was induced by a urethral ligature in 11 adult female Sprague-Dawley (R) rats. Nine sham operated rats served as controls. The outcome was evaluated in acute experiments using alpha-chloralose anesthesia 6 weeks later. Bladders were catheterized for infusion, pressure recording and intravesical electrical stimulation. Bladder efferent activity was recorded from a thin pelvic nerve branch close to the bladder. Micturition contractions were triggered at different bladder volumes by a brief train of electrical stimulation of bladder afferents while monitoring post-stimulus efferent activity and reflex bladder contractions. The degree of obstruction was assessed by bladder wet weight at the end of the experiment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Bladder weight, micturition threshold volume, anatomical bladder capacity and peak contraction force were significantly increased in obstructed rats. In sham operated controls a triggered micturition reflex was sustained by afferent feedback from the bladder until the bladder was empty. In contrast, reflex discharges failed with substantial volume remaining in the bladder in obstructed rats. The minimal micturition reflex volume correlated positively with bladder weight, micturition threshold volume and maximal bladder capacity (r andgt;= 0.74). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: In rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction the micturition reflex failed before the bladder was empty due to a decreased afferent drive from bladder mechanoreceptors. Similar changes may contribute to post-void residual urine in humans with bladder outlet obstruction.

  • 26.
    Zeng, Jianwen
    et al.
    Jinan University.
    Xie, Keji
    Guangzhou City Peoples Hospital 1.
    Jiang, Chonghe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mo, Jianfeng
    Jinan University.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat2012In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Experimental animal models of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) have reproduced several features of BOO in man, i.e., detrusor hypertrophy, instability, frequency, and residual urine. This study was focused on the mechanisms underlying the development of residual urine in patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by examining changes in tension sensitivity of bladder mechanoreceptors in rat model. Methods: Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats including 12 BOO and 17 sham operated rats were used in this study. Cystometrograms together with the bladder afferent activity were recorded. Tension sensitivity of the afferents was determined by plotting the normalized afferent response against the contraction evoked bladder pressure at different volumes. Degree of obstruction was assessed by the wet weight of the bladder at the end of the experiment. Results: The bladder weight, maximal bladder capacity, micturition threshold volume, peak contraction force, and volume at peak contraction force were all significantly increased in obstructed animals. The threshold volume for afferent activation was increased ( mean 0.60 ml compared to 0.15 ml in controls; P andlt; 0.001), positively correlated with the bladder weight ( r 0.74). The tension sensitivity of the bladder mechanoreceptors and the slope of their normalized pressure-response functions were significantly lower at the comparable volumes in the obstructed animals. Conclusions: Rats with BOO had bladder mechanoreceptors with higher threshold volumes and lower tension sensitivity. Such changes would result in a weaker afferent drive of the micturition reflex. Similar changes may contribute to the development of residual urine and retention in patients with BOO. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31: 178-184, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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