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  • 1. Arner, P
    et al.
    Sjöberg, S
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eriksson, M
    Changes in cerebrospinal fluid signalling substances and appetite scores following 48 h fast in healthy volunteers2003In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 213-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 2. Atlas, Ann
    et al.
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindstrom, Leif
    Schwieler, Lilly
    Acute psychotic symptoms in HIV-1 infected patients are associated with increased levels of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid2007In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with psychiatric complications including cognitive impairment, affective disorders, and psychosis. Previous studies have revealed a disturbed kynurenine metabolism in these patients leading to increased levels of neuroactive compounds acting at glutamatergic neurotransmission. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of these metabolites is a glutamate-receptor antagonist, preferentially blocking the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NNIDA) receptor. Increased levels of brain KYNA have been suggested to induce a NNIDA receptor hypofunction that is associated with psychotic symptoms. In the present study, we analyze the concentration of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from HIV-1 infected patients (n = 22), including HIV-1 infected patients with psychotic symptoms (n = 8) and HIV-1 infected patients without psychiatric symptoms (n = 14). We found that HIV-1 infected patients had significantly higher median concentration of CSF KYNA (3.02 nM) compared to healthy controls (1.17 nM). Furthermore, CSF KYNA levels were significantly elevated in HIV-1 infected patients with psychotic symptoms (4.54 nM) compared to patients with HIV-1 without psychiatric symptoms (2.28 nNI). Present results indicate that increased levels of CSF KYNA may be associated with development of psychotic symptoms in HIV-1 infected patients. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Bjorck, RV
    et al.
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Dept Psychiat, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Div Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eye dominance and perinatal complications in schizophrenia2000In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 41, no 1, p. A309-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bjorck, RV
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Sect Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Left eyedness is associated with a disproportionate birth weight/birth length ratio in schizophrenia2002In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, p. 186S-186SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bång, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Holm, Einar
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Mobile phone computing for in-situ cognitive-behavioral therapy2007In: MedINFO 2007,2007, IOS Press, 2007, p. 1078-1082Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for psychological disorders is becoming increasingly popular on the Internet. However when using this workstation approach, components such as training and learning relaxation skills, problem solving, exposure exercises, and sleep management guidance must be done in the domestic environment. This paper describes design concepts for providing spatially explicit CBT with mobile phones. We reviewed and analyzed a set of treatment manuals to distinguish elements of CBT that can be improved and supported using mobile phone applications. The key advantage of mobile computing support in CBT is that multimedia can be applied to record, scale, and label anxiety-provoking situations where the need arises, which helps the CBT clients formulate and convey their thoughts and feelings to relatives and friends, as well as to therapists at subsequent treatment sessions.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lundmark, Jöns
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Adolescents on chronic oral dosing with racemic citalopram. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and CYP2D6/CYP2C19 genotyping. 5 th Congress of the European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapuetics, Odense, Denmark 12-15 september 20012001In: Pharmacology and Toxicology,2001, 2001, p. 132-132Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Carlsson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lundmark, Jöns
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Scordo, M. G.
    Dahl, M-L.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Enantioselective Analysis of Citalopram and Metabolites in Adolescents2001In: Therapeutic drug monitoring, ISSN 0163-4356, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 658-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the antidepressant effect and pharmacokinetics of citalopram have been performed in adults, but the effects on children and adolescents have only been studied to a minor extent despite its increasing use in these age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate a group of adolescents treated for depression, with respect to the steady-state plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of citalopram and its demethylated metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram. Moreover, the authors studied the genotypes for the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in relation to the different enantiomers. The S/R ratios of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram found in this study of 19 adolescents were similar to studies involving older patients. The concentrations of the R-(-)- and S-(+)-enantiomers of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram were also in agreement with values from earlier studies, the R-(-)-enantiomer (distomer) being the major enantiomer. The results indicate that the use of oral contraceptives may have some influence on the metabolism of citalopram. This might be because of an interaction of the contraceptive hormones with the CYP2C19 enzyme.

  • 8. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Monoamine compounds in cerebrospinal fluid of healthy subjects punctured without preceding strict bed rest: A pilot study2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 43, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of data on compounds in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited by several confounding factors, e.g. motor activity for which strict bed rest prior to lumbar puncture is recommended for standardisation. Now we report data from 14 healthy males employing the standardised procedure except for the requirement of strict bed rest. The levels of serotonin, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol in the second CSF fraction (7-12 ml) were significantly higher than those in the first fraction (0-6 ml), indicating the presence of concentration gradients. 5-HIAA was negatively influenced by age and the neuraxis distance in the lying position and positively by atmospheric pressure. Storage time and atmospheric pressure contributed to the variance in dopamine. Both tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine were linearly correlated with storage time. We also found a significant curvilinear correlation between tapping time and atmospheric pressure. On comparing with previous studies, the results support the notion that the issue of strict bed rest or not prior to lumbar puncture might have to be taken into consideration when interpreting lumbar monoamine CSF data.

  • 9.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Family Medicine, Psychiatric Section.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örnhagen, Hans
    Division of Naval Medicine, National Defence Research Establishment, Department of Human Studies, Hårsfjärden, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides after exposure to standardized barometric pressure2000In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 1131-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Connections between mood changes and weather have been described throughout the ages, and in more recent years, there have been reports on a relationship between atmospheric pressure and neurotransmitter levels in cerebrospinal fluid.

    METHODS: To further investigate this issue under strictly standardized conditions, we have lumbar-punctured 8 healthy males under low (963 hPa) and high (1064 hPa) barometric pressure, using a pressure chamber.

    RESULTS: Under high pressure, the tyrosine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were lower, while the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) levels were higher. No differences between low and high pressure were found for tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), and sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S). The serum level of CCK-8S was higher under high pressure. On comparing concentration ratios between the second and the first CSF fraction, we found significantly increased ratios for homovanillic acid (HVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG), but a decreased ratio for tyrosine under high pressure. The difference in the concentration ratios of HVA between low and high pressure correlated negatively with age. Intraspinal pressure correlated negatively with tapping time at low pressure.

    CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with the hypothesis that atmospheric pressure influences CSF levels of monoamine compounds and cholecystokinin peptides.

  • 10. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Intraspinal pressure influences CSF disposition of tryptophan and 5-HIAA2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 84-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine compounds are influenced by factors such as age, gender, height, body weight, tapping time, and atmospheric pressure. We have now examined the role of intraspinal pressure. Thirteen male volunteers underwent lumbar puncture in the right decubitus position without preceding strict bed rest. The intraspinal pressure was recorded, and monoamine precursors, transmitters, and metabolites were analyzed in two consecutively collected CSF fractions. Tryptophan in 12 ml of CSF and the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration ratio [fraction II (7-12 ml CSF)/fraction I (0-6 ml CSF)] correlated with the intraspinal pressure. Hypothetically, the intraspinal pressure may be a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of CSF tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations, and this is an issue that has to be addressed in future CSF studies. Copyright ⌐ 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 11. Erhardt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif
    Engberg, Göran
    Kynurenic acid levels ae elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 96-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor. Mounting evidence indicate that the compound is significantly involved in basal neurophysiological processes in the brain. In the present investigation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of kynurenic acid was analyzed in 28 male schizophrenic patients and 17 male healthy controls by means of high pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Schizophrenic patients showed elevated CSF levels of kynurenic acid (1.67 ▒ 0.27 nM) compared to the control group (0.97 ▒ 0.07 nM). Furthermore, CSF levels of kynurenic acid in schizophrenic patients were also found to correlate with age. The present finding is indicative of a contribution of kynurenic acid in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Family Medicine, Psychiatric Section, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospitel, Sweden.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Family Medicine, Psychiatric Section, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospitel, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospitel, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospitel, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cholecystokinin peptides in cerebrospinal fluid: a study in healthy male subjects lumbar-punctured without preceding strict bed-rest1999In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 106, no 3-4, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent study we analysed the concentrations of two forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), CCK-8S (sulphated) and CCK-4 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 14 healthy male volunteers lumbar-punctured after a minimum of eight hours of strict bed-rest.

    We have now lumbar-punctured another group of 14 healthy males, using the same procedure except for the requirement of strict bed-rest prior to puncture.

    In contrast to our previous study, the concentration of CCK-4 (but not CCK-8S) was significantly higher in the second CSF fraction (7–12 ml) than in the first one (0–6 ml). On using the concentration ratio between the second and first fraction, CCK-8S (but not CCK-4) correlated positively with the atmospheric pressure, which is in contrast to our previous study in which a significant negative correlation was found.

    When the lumbar CSF concentrations were expressed as the concentration per minute of tapping-time (an estimate of the mass flow), atmospheric pressure, age and the neuraxis distance in the lying position made significant contributions to the variance in CCK-8S. A significant positive correlation with atmospheric pressure was found for CCK-4.

    In conclusion, the results indicate that the question of strict bed-rest or not prior to lumbar puncture may have to be considered when interpreting data on lumbar CSF concentrations of CCK. A controlled study is warranted.

  • 13.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cholecystokinin peptides in cerebrospinal fluid: a pilot study in hypothyroid patients1999In: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0885-6222, E-ISSN 1099-1077, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) and the sulphated octapeptide (CCK-8) were measured in cerebrospinal fluid obtained from nine hypothyroid patients before and during L-thyroxine treatment. Before treatment, CCK-4 and CCK-8S correlated negatively with S-TSH, whereas CCK-8S also showed a positive correlation with S-T3. During treatment, S-T4 correlated negatively with CCK-8S. CSF collection time was significantly shorter during treatment than prior to treatment for the first (0–6 ml) CSF fraction. On taking CSF collection time into account, the levels of both CCK-4 and CCK-8S in the first CSF fraction were significantly increased during medication. Our results are consistent with an impact of the hypothyroid disorder and L-thyroxine treatment on the disposition of CCK compounds in CSF. This might be due to an altered CSF circulation, but other mechanisms (e.g. metabolism or elimination) cannot be ruled out.

  • 14.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Depressive Symptoms in Hypothyroid Disorder with some Observations on Biochemical Correlates2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 70-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lumbar punctures and ratings of depressive symptoms were done in hypothyroid patients before and during L-thyroxine therapy. Before treatment, the most prominent symptoms were concentration difficulties, lassitude, and reduced sexual interest. All patients suffered from sleep disturbances. Suicidal thoughts did not occur at all. Inner tension was negatively correlated with the anxiogenic cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while reduced sexual interest was negatively correlated with CSF tryptophan. Furthermore, failing memory correlated negatively with T3 as well as T4 in serum. A positive correlation was found between failing memory and serum TSH. All patients improved significantly during treatment. No biochemical correlates were found. In conclusion, hypothyroidism is associated with major depressive symptoms. CSF CCK-4 and tryptophan, as well as serum thyroid hormones, may constitute biochemical correlates for some of these symptoms.

  • 15. Hashimoto, Kenji
    et al.
    Engberg, Göran
    Shimizu, Eiji
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif H
    Iyo, Masaomi
    Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients2005In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies report that glutamine is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. There were also conflicting findings on glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of schizophrenic patients, and absent for glutamine. This study aims to clarify the question of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients. Method: Levels of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of 25 first episode and drug-naive male schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy controls were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The ratio (126.1 (median), 117.7 ± 27.4 (mean ± S.D.)) of glutamine to glutamate in the CSF of patients was significantly (z = -3.29, p = 0.001) higher than that (81.01 (median), 89.1 ± 22.5 (mean ± S.D.)) of normal controls although each level of glutamine and glutamate in patients was not different from that of normal controls. Conclusion: Our data suggests that a disfunction in glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. © 2005 Hashimoto et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 16. Hashimoto, Kenji
    et al.
    Engberg, Göran
    Shimizu, Eiji
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif H
    Iyo, Masaomi
    Reduced D-serine to total serine ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug naive schizophrenic patients2005In: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0278-5846, E-ISSN 1878-4216, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 767-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence suggest that d-serine, an endogenous agonist of the glycine site on the NMDA receptors, might play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether levels of d- and l-serine or d-serine ratio (d-serine/total serine) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were altered in first episode and drug-naive schizophrenic patients. The CSF levels of d- and l-serine in 25 male first episode and drug-naive schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy subjects were measured using a column-switching high performance liquid chromatography system. The percentage of d-serine in the total serine of patients was significantly (z = - 2.01, p = 0.044) lower than that of controls. This study suggests that synthetic or metabolic pathways of d-serine may be abnormal in the brain of drug-naive schizophrenic patients, supporting the NMDA receptor dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Angelsiöö, L.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ekström, CM.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Obstetric, somatic, and demographic risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms2002In: Obstetrics and gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and test the predictive power of potential independent risk factors of postpartum depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the perinatal period.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study where 132 women with postpartum depressive symptoms were selected as an index group and 264 women without depressive symptoms as a control group. Data related to sociodemographic status, medical, gynecologic, and obstetric history, pregnancy, and perinatal events were collected from standardized medical records.

    RESULTS: The strongest risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms were sick leave during pregnancy and a high number of visits to the antenatal care clinic. Complications during pregnancy, such as hyperemesis, premature contractions, and psychiatric disorder were more common in the postpartum depressed group of women. No association was found between parity, sociodemographic data, or mode of delivery and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Women at risk for postpartum depression can be identified during pregnancy. The strongest risk factors, sick leave during pregnancy and many visits to the antenatal care clinic, are not etiologic and might be of either behavioral or biologic origin. The possibilities of genetic vulnerability and hormonal changes warrant further investigation to reach a more thorough understanding.

  • 18.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum2001In: Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 251-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression refers to a non-psychotic depressive episode that begins in or extends into the postpartum period. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a pregnant and later postnatal population, to determine the natural course of these symptoms and whether there is an association between antenatal and postnatal depressive symptomatology.

    METHODS: A longitudinal study with a total population of 1,558 consecutively registered pregnant women in the southeast region of Sweden. Presence of depressive symptoms was measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on four occasions namely in gestational week 35-36, in the maternity ward, 6-8 weeks and 6 months postpartum.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms during late pregnancy was 17%; in the maternity ward 18%; 6-8 weeks postnatally 13%; and 6 months postnatally, 13%. A correlation between antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms was found (r=0.50, p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: Detection of women at risk for developing postnatal depressive symptoms can be done during late pregnancy. Antenatal care clinics constitute a natural and useful environment for recognition of women with depressive symptoms.

  • 19.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dahl, Marja-Liisa
    Wadelius, Mia
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    CYP2D6 genotypes and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and postpartum2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 61-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this exploratory was to investigate the theory of a relation between cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype and depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and/or postpartum. We studied 145 women with depressive symptoms. CYP2D6 genotype was analysed in leukocyte DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences in CYP2D6 genotypes between the groups of women being depressed during and/or after pregnancy. The frequencies of CYP2D6 genotypes did not differ from other European studies. This study cannot confirm that depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum are connected with CYP2D6 genotype. It is, however, noteworthy that the frequency of ultrarapid metabolizers was higher than in a general Caucasian population. This warrants further exploration in a greater study sample, but should also be investigated in a general population with major depression.

  • 20.
    Kvist, EE
    et al.
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Lab Sci & Technol, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot, Div Psychiat, Linkoping, Sweden Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Al-Shurbaji, A
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Lab Sci & Technol, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot, Div Psychiat, Linkoping, Sweden Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dahl, ML
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Lab Sci & Technol, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot, Div Psychiat, Linkoping, Sweden Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Alvan, G
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Lab Sci & Technol, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot, Div Psychiat, Linkoping, Sweden Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stahle, L
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Lab Sci & Technol, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Dept Med Sci Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot, Div Psychiat, Linkoping, Sweden Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quantitative pharmacogenetics of nortriptyline - A novel approach2001In: Clinical Pharmacokinetics, ISSN 0312-5963, E-ISSN 1179-1926, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 869-877Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To quantitatively model nortriptyline clearance as a function of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype and to estimate the contribution of genotype to the interindividual variability in steady-state plasma concentration and metabolic clearance. Design: Modelling study using data from two previously published studies. Participants: 20 healthy volunteers receiving single oral doses of nortriptyline and 20 patients with depression on steady-state oral treatment. Methods: A total of 275 nortriptyline plasma concentrations were analysed by standard nonlinear regression and nonlinear mixed effect models. The pharmacokinetic model was a 1-compartment model with first order absorption and elimination. All participants had previously been genotyped with respect to the CYP2D6 polymorphism. Results: A model in which the intrinsic clearance is a linear function of the number of functional CYP2D6 genes and hepatic blood flow is fixed to 60 L/h gave the closest fit of the pharmacokinetic model to the data. Stable estimates were obtained for population pharmacokinetic parameters and interindividual variances. Assuming 100% absorption, the model allows systemic clearance and bioavailability to be estimated. Bioavailability was found to vary between 0.17 and 0.71, depending on the genotype. Using the frequency distribution of CYP2D6 genotype with the above results we estimate that, in compliant Swedish individuals on nortriptyline monotherapy, the number of functional CYP2D6 genes could explain 21% of the total interindividual variance in oral clearance of nortriptyline and 34% of that in steady-state plasma concentrations. Conclusion: Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling can be used to quantify the influence of the number of functional CYP2D6 genes on the metabolic clearance and plasma concentration of drugs metabolised by this enzyme. Gene dose has a significant impact on drug pharmacokinetics and prior knowledge of it may aid in predicting plasma concentration of the drug and thus tailoring patient-specific dosage regimens.

  • 21.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Diurnal and seasonal variation of cholecystokinin peptides in humans2007In: Neuropeptides, ISSN 0143-4179, E-ISSN 1532-2785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 59-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) was determined in plasma obtained from 10 female (aged 23.4 ± SD 2.3 years) and nine male (aged 22.0 ± SD 1.4 years) healthy volunteers. Blood samples were drawn three times (8.00 a.m., 12 noon and 8.00 a.m.) on each of two sessions, one in the winter (November-December) and one in the summer (April-July). The participants had fasted (and were nicotine-free) since midnight preceding the sampling. A standardized breakfast was served after the first sampling. CCK was determined by radioimmunoassay. The area under the curve 0-24 h (AUC)CCK Winter was lower than AUCCCK Summer (F1:17 = 4.73, P = 0.0440) in the whole group of volunteers. On comparing the CCK concentrations within each session, there was an overall difference in winter (F2:36 = 14.81, P < 0.0001) as well in summer (F2:36 = 18.39, P < 0.0001). Post hoc comparisons yielded a difference between the 8.00 a.m. and 12 noon concentrations on the first day in winter (t = -3.96, P = 0.0009) as well as in summer (t = -4.64, P = 0.0002). The difference between the summer and winter AUCsCCK correlated with the difference between AUCs for temperatures in summer and winter (r = 0.58, P = 0.0089). The correlation was accounted for by the females (r = 0.73, P = 0.0171). The results are in accord with a diurnal and a seasonal variation of CCK in human plasma. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Lundmark, Jöns
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors influences clinical dosing strategies and reduces drug costs in depressed elderly patients2000In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 354-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study was initiated in order to describe and evaluate the effects of a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) routine of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on treatment strategies and drug costs in depressed elderly patients.

    Method: Blood samples were drawn from elderly depressed patients and analysed for steady-state trough serum concentrations of citalopram (n=48), paroxetine (n=48) or sertraline (n=39). A global efficacy evaluation was made at baseline and after 6–9 months. Antidepressant drug costs before and after TDM were estimated.

    Results: Eight samples were excluded due to technical problems or non-compliance. In 65 of the 127 (51.2%) remaining cases, the treatment strategy was changed according to the TDM outcome, in most a reduction of the prescribed dose. Bioanalytical TDM costs included the antidepressant drug costs after TDM were reduced by 10.2%.

    Conclusion: The results support the utility of TDM in the search for the individual minimum effective SSRI dose in the elderly.

  • 23. Nilsson, Linda K
    et al.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Jönsson, Erik G
    Engberg, Göran
    Linderholm, Klas R
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid in male and female controls - Correlation with monoamine metabolites and influences of confounding factors2007In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 41, no 1-2, p. 144-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) and the monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG) were determined in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 43 healthy volunteers (30 males and 13 females). Healthy female controls displayed higher CSF concentration of KYNA (1.91 nM ± 0.20) compared to healthy male controls (1.06 nM ± 0.07) and lower CSF levels of HMPG (39.2 nM ± 2.0 and 43.4 ± 1.2, respectively). CSF levels of HVA and 5-HIAA did not differ between females (181.3 nM ± 21.9 and 93.7 nM ± 11.4, respectively) and males (138.9 nM ± 12.6 and 74.8 nM ± 5.9, respectively). Positive intercorrelations were found between CSF KYNA, HVA and 5-HIAA while CSF content of HMPG did not correlate with KYNA or the other monoamine metabolites in CSF. A negative correlation was found between back length and CSF concentrations of KYNA, HVA and 5-HIAA and also between CSF KYNA levels and body height. The results of the present study suggest that concentrations of KYNA and the monoamine metabolites in CSF from healthy controls are dependent on gender and back length, which must be taken in consideration when analysing mixed groups of men and women. The higher KYNA concentration found in female controls compared to male might be attributed to a shorter back in women compared to men. Furthermore, these findings suggest that increased KYNA formation is associated with an increased dopamine and serotonin turnover. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24. Nilsson, LK
    et al.
    Linderholm, KR
    Engberg, G
    Paulson, L
    Blennow, K
    Lindstrom, LH
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Karanti, A
    Persson, P
    Erhardt, S
    Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of male patients with schizophrenia2005In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 80, no 02-Mar, p. 315-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a glutamate receptor antagonist, are elevated in patients with schizophrenia. Here we analyse KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a large cohort, including male healthy controls (n = 49) and male patients with schizophrenia (n = 90). We found that male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of CSF KYNA compared to healthy male controls (1.45 nM +/- 0.10 vs. 1.06 nM +/- 0.06 in the control group). Furthermore, when the patients with schizophrenia were divided into subgroups we found that CSF KYNA levels were significantly elevated in drug-naive, first episode patients (1.53 nM +/- 0.19, n = 37) and in patients undergoing treatment with antipsychotic drugs (1.53 nM +/- 0.17, n = 34) compared to healthy male controls. No elevated CSF KYNA levels were detected in drug-free patients with schizophrenia, i.e. patients previously undergoing antipsychotic medications but drug-free at time of sampling (1.16 nM +/- 0.10, n = 19). Present results confirm that CSF KYNA concentration is elevated in patients with schizophrenia and are consistent with the hypothesis that KYNA contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25. Nilsson-Todd, Linda K
    et al.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Jönsson, Erik G
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid in male patients with schizophrenia - Correlation with monoamine metabolites2007In: Acta Neuropsychiatrica, ISSN 0924-2708, E-ISSN 1601-5215, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous glutamate/nicotinic receptor antagonist. Previous studies have shown that the concentration of the compound is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, it has been found that the CSF concentration of KYNA is positively correlated to CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in healthy control subjects. Objectives: To study the correlations between KYNA and the monoamine metabolites HVA, 5-HIAA and 4-hydroxy-3- methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG) in CSF of male patients (n = 53, ranging from 20 to 48 years of age) with verified schizophrenia. Methods: CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture, and KYNA analysis was performed with an isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography system connected to a fluorescence detector. HVA, 5-HIAA and HMPG concentrations were measured by mass fragmentography with deuterium-labelled internal standards. Results: Positive intercorrelations were found between CSF KYNA, HVA and 5-HIAA, while CSF content of HMPG did not correlate to KYNA or any of the monoamine metabolites in CSF. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that increased KYNA formation is associated with an increased dopamine and serotonin turnover in male patients with schizophrenia. © 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  • 26.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    De psykiatriska tvångslagarna: Olustigt med livstestamenten vid återinsjuknande i psykos.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, p. 3295-3295Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Drug metabolism of nortriptyline and consequences of metabolic drug effects2002In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, p. 13S-14SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kapitel 14 - Psykiska störningar.2001In: Trafikmedicin / [ed] Mariann Almgren; Lars Englund; Sarah Kers, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2001, 1, p. 156-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kommentar till Torbjörn Tännsjös artikel om "allvarlig psykisk störning". Ett nödvändigt om än ej tillräckligt bidrag till debatten.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, p. 2994-2994Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Dahl, Marja-Liisa
    Uppsala.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    KI .
    Eriksson, Mats
    KI .
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    KI .
    CSF taurine level is influenced by plasma cholesterol and the CYP2D6 phenotype2003In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 333-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight healthy male volunteers, lumbar-punctured before and during simvastatin treatment, were phenotyped for CYP2D6 analysis of the debrisoquine metabolic ratio (the ratio between the urinary recovery of debrisoquine and its 4-hydroxy metabolite) after a single oral dose of debrisoquine. The mean cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of cholesterol and taurine did not differ before and during treatment. During (but not before) treatment taurine in the CSF correlated with the debrisoquine metabolic ratio (r=-0.93, P=0.0007) Our results might indicate an influence of CYP2D6 on the level of taurine in the CSF that was secondary to the change in plasma cholesterol. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier B.V./ECNP. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Dahl, ML
    Med Metab & Endocrinol, Huddinge, Sweden St Gorans Univ Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden Med Sci, Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Div Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Eklundh, T
    Med Metab & Endocrinol, Huddinge, Sweden St Gorans Univ Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden Med Sci, Clin Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Div Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, M
    Sjoberg, S
    CSF taurine level is influenced by plasma cholesterol and the CYP2D6 phenotype2002In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 12, p. S410-S411Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    Altered CSF 5-HIAA disposition in pathologic male gamblers.1999In: CNS Spectrums, ISSN 1092-8529, E-ISSN 2165-6509, Vol. 4, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    Eriksson, Mats
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    CSF collection time at lumbar puncture is influenced by plasma cholesterol and triglycerides2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 19-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a fairly well-known fact that the CSF collection time (tapping time) at lumbar puncture may influence CSF levels of monoamine compounds (e.g. the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA) and some neuropeptides. Since serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and low CSF levels of 5-HIAA have been linked to violent behaviour and impulsivity, we investigated retrospectively whether serum cholesterol and triglycerides affect CSF collection time. The series consists of 14 healthy males lumbar punctured at the L4-5 level. We found that both serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides influenced the CSF collection time for 12 ml of CSF (R = 0.77, p = 0.0067). There was no correlation between cholesterol in serum and CSF, nor between cholesterol in the CSF and collection time. However, we accidentally found a correlation between cholesterol in the CSF and age. The proposed hypothesis tries to explain why cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles modify the CSF collection time and influence endothelial function with a subsequent effect on CSF production and/or intraspinal pressure. Thus, it may be of interest to pay attention to serum cholesterol and triglycerides, their effect on CSF collection time and, in the next step, their putative impact on levels of various compounds in the CSF. Copyright ⌐ 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 34.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Gupta, Ramesh
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in pathological gamblers and healthy controls2007In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 56, no 2-3, p. 152-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amino acids, such as valine, isoleucine and leucine compete with tyrosine and tryptophan for transport into the brain and might thus affect the central serotonin and catecholamine patterns. Furthermore, the excitatory amino acids glutamic acid, aspartic acid and glycine are known to act on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, which is part of the reward system. Based on these facts, we have explored the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acids in pathological gambling. Concentrations of amino acids were determined in CSF obtained from one female and 11 pathological male gamblers and 11 healthy male controls. In an ANCOVA with best subset regression, pathological male gamblers had higher CSF levels of the excitatory glutamic and aspartic acids, as well as of phenylalanine, isoleucine, citrulline and glycine. A negative contribution of glycine in interaction with the neuraxis distance might mirror a reduced spinal supply or an altered elimination of glycine in pathological gamblers. A decreasing CSF gradient from the first (0-6 ml) to the third (13-18 ml) CSF fraction was found for glutamic acid, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine and glutamine in both pathological gamblers and healthy controls. A decreasing gradient was found, however, for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in pathological male gamblers. The altered pattern of CSF amino acids in pathological gamblers might exert an influence on central monoamines as well as on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG.

  • 35.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Temperament and character in pathological gambling2007In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We have studied temperament and character in pathological gambling (PG). Methods: Thirty-eight DSM-IV verified pathological gamblers (31 males and 7 females, mean age 35.4 ± 10.4 years) were tested with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Matched controls were chosen from the normal population. Results: Pathological gamblers scored higher on the temperament factors novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA). The most pronounced difference was found in the character factor self-directedness (SD). The pathological gamblers differed from controls in cooperativeness and self-transcendence. A personality disorder was found in 29% of the pathological gamblers 84% of whom scored either low on SD and high on impulsivity or had a more dishonest behaviour. Two-thirds of pathological gamblers showed immature character with or without high HA in temperament. The other third showed normal-character extravagant behaviour (86%), high impulsivity (36%) and less responsibility (50%) being the most common personality traits. Conclusion: HA and NS might be trait-like characteristics in PG. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  • 36.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    CSF cholecystokinin, γ-aminobutyric acid and neuropeptide Y in pathological gamblers and healthy controls2007In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 499-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sulphated cholecystokinin (CCK) octapeptide (CCK-8S), the CCK tetrapeptide (CCK-4), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11 pathological male gamblers and 11 healthy male controls. Compared with healthy controls, pathological male gamblers displayed higher concentrations of CCK-8S, CCK-4 and GABA (but not NPY). A gradient with decreasing concentrations from the first to the third 6-ml CSF fraction was found for CCK-8S, CCK-4 and NPY, but only in pathological gamblers. Disrupted gradients were found for GABA and for NPY in healthy controls. Given that CCK is a modulator of dopamine in the reward process, the increase in CCK-8S and CCK-4 is not unexpected. The high level of GABA in pathological gamblers is in conformity with a compensatory inhibitory action on noradrenergic neurons. The CSF gradient of CCK-8S and CCK-4 in pathological male gamblers (but not healthy controls) might indicate a difference in diurnal variation. The results obtained are in line with an altered CCK and GABA function in pathological gambling. © 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  • 37.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    CSF monoamine patterns in pathological gamblers and healthy controls2006In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 454-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous reports on compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pathological gamblers have focused on disturbed NA, DA and 5-HT function in the central nervous system. We have analysed precursors, transmitters and transmitter metabolites in 3 × 6 ml of CSF obtained from one female and 11 male pathological gamblers and 11 healthy male controls lumbar punctured at the L4-5 level after 8 h of fasting without preceding strict bedrest. Pathological gamblers displayed lower CSF levels of tryptophan and 5-HT while the opposite was the case for 5-HIAA, tyrosine, DA, HVA, DOPAC and HMPG. In contrast to previous studies, the NA level did not differ between pathological gamblers and healthy controls. A disrupted CSF gradient was noted for tryptophan, 5-HT, DA, HVA, DOPAC, NA and HMPG, but only in pathological gamblers. A disrupted gradient was found for 5-HIAA in both pathological gamblers and healthy controls. The results are in line with the presence of altered indoleamine and cathecholamine function in pathological gamblers as well as an altered CSF transport from the brain to the lumbar compartment in such gamblers. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Increased CSF homocysteine in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls2009In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11 pathological male gamblers and 11 healthy male controls. Compared with healthy controls, pathological gamblers displayed higher CSF levels of homocysteine while the opposite was the case with CSF cobalamine. Smoking decreased the levels of homocysteine while the concentrations of cobalamine were increased. Homocysteine is a sulphur-containing amino acid exerting cytotoxic effects in living cells. The metabolism of homocysteine to methionine is mediated by cobalamine and folate. Human studies suggest that homocysteine plays a role in brain damage and cognitive and memory decline. The relationship between pathological gambling, homocysteine, cobalamine, folate (not determined in the study) and cognitive processing warrants further investigation.

  • 39.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Letter: Altered CSF taurine function in pathological gambling2006In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 473-474Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 40.
    Nordin, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Letter: Reduced free tri-iodothyronine serum levels are lower in pathological male gamblers than in healthy male controls2005In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 449-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 41.
    Phol, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Clinical and biochemical observations during treatment of depression with electroacupuncture: A pilot study2002In: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0885-6222, E-ISSN 1099-1077, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 345-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six patients suffering from major depression were treated with electroacupuncture. During 4 weeks of treatment, the total CPRS-S-A score decreased from 23.8 to 13.4 (p = 0.0095). A decrease of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in plasma during the first 2 weeks of treatment was noted in five of the patients, all being women (p = 0.0431). The decrease was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.29, p = 0.046). The results are in line with a putative antidepressive effect of electroacupuncture, along with an influence on NPY in plasma. Copyright ⌐ 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 42.
    Pohl, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Body mass index influences plasma concentration of neuropeptide Y in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study2003In: Gynecological Endocrinology, ISSN 0951-3590, E-ISSN 1473-0766, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 409-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was measured in plasma obtained from healthy female volunteers twice in the natural menstrual cycle or the hormonal cycle caused by oral contraceptives about 2 weeks apart. The ratio between the NPY plasma concentration in the second sample and the first sample was influenced negatively by body mass index (BMI). There were no differences in NPY plasma concentrations on comparing the first and second samples. Age and the use or non-use of oral contraceptives did not exert any influence. BMI might be a confounding factor when determining NPY in the plasma of healthy women.

  • 43. Rousseau, A.
    et al.
    Petrén, S.
    Plannthin, J.
    Eklundh, Thomas
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of melatonin: a pilot study in healthy male volunteers.1999In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 106, p. 883-888Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Samuelsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Dahl, M-L
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Gupta, Ramesh
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Taurine in plasma and CSF: a study in healthy male volunteers2009In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 529-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to explore the interrelationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid taurine concentrations, three consecutive 6-ml fractions of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn from 30 healthy male volunteers in the early morning after 8 h in the fasting condition. Repeated plasma samples were drawn over 24 h the day before lumbar puncture. Taurine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The subjects were categorized as extensive or poor metabolizers with respect to the cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype. The taurine cerebrospinal fluid/plasma ratio at 8 a.m. was negatively influenced by the plasma taurine concentration at 4 p.m. the previous day. It was also negatively influenced by body mass index and positively by the intraspinal pressure. Three poor metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2D6 had higher plasma taurine areas under the curve than 27 extensive metabolizers. Hypothetically, cytochrome P450 2D6 influences the transport of taurine across the blood-brain barrier.

  • 45.
    Shlik, J
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Maron, E
    Univ Tartu, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Toru, I
    Univ Tartu, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cholecystokinin-serotonin interactions2002In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, p. 50S-51SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sjoberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Werner, Sigbritt
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Bjellerup, Per
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    L-thyroxine treatment in primary hypothyroidism does not increase the content of free triiodothyronine in cerebrospinal fluid: A pilot study2011In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL and LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, ISSN 0036-5513, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum concentration of thyroid hormones and pituitary thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in nine hypothyroid patients (HT) before and in seven after L-thyroxine treatment. With L-thyroxine, median free T4 increased 4-fold in serum (3.5 pmol/L vs 17.5 pmol/L) and 3-fold in CSF, (3.9pmol/L vs 11.5 pmol/L). Correspondingly, total T3 in serum increased two-fold (0.9 nmol/L vs 2.2 nmol/L). Unexpectedly, free T3 concentration in CSF was similar (1.5 pmol/L vs.1.5 pmol/L) before and during treatment. In HT, TSH in serum correlated with TSH in CSF as did free T4 in serum and in CSF. During L-thyroxine, the correlation with TSH in serum and CSF remained. Likewise, the free T4 concentration in serum correlated with that in CSF. However, no correlation was found between T3 in serum and free T3 in CSF. It seems evident that free T4 in serum equilibrates with that in the CSF both in the HT and during L-thyroxine. Despite a two-fold increase in total serum T3, free T3 in CSF remained unchanged, which agrees with previous results in rats showing that T3 is less exchangeable between serum and CSF. Alternatively, an accelerated conversion of T4 to T3 might have maintained the concentration of T3, due to strongly increased levels of TSH found in the hypothyroid state. The notion that free T4 in serum reflects the CSF concentration of free T4 is consistent with previous reports from studies in animals.

  • 47.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Could discontinuing smoking be hazardous for patients administered clozapine medication? A case report.1999In: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, ISSN 0163-4356, E-ISSN 1536-3694, Vol. 21, p. 580-582Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Strömberg, L
    et al.
    Ohlen, G.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindgren, U.
    Svensson, O.
    Postoperative mental impairment in hip fracture patients: A randomized study of reorientation measures in 223 patients.1999In: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6470, Vol. 70, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Valigi Björck, R
    et al.
    Själin, M.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients: Influence of age, age at onset, sex, and family history of schizophrenia.2000In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 54, p. 437-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Wikström, Sverre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Tactile stimulus and neurohormonal response: A pilot study2003In: International Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0020-7454, E-ISSN 1563-5279, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 787-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of tactile stimuli on plasma oxytocin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were investigated in 21 volunteers exposed to massage. Blood samples for basal values were drawn immediately before and immediately after finishing the massage. A third sample was drawn after 60 min of restricted rest. On focusing on the difference between oxytocin concentrations before and immediately after massage, we found a sex difference. An opposite sex difference was found for NPY. The results imply that there might be sex-related difference in neurohormonal response to tactile stimuli such as in massage, and the results contradict those of previously reported animal experiments.

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