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  • 1.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Granlund, Rego
    SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dynamisk planering innebär bland annat att brandmännen delar in sig i mindre grupper än traditionellt. Dessa kan då arbeta förebyggande med utbildning eller placeras strategiskt till exempel i närheten av olycksdrabbade vägsträckor, för att snabbare kunna nå fram till en olycksplats. Då en olycka inträffar larmas de brandmän som snabbast kan nå fram, och det kan vara nödvändigt att larma flera olika grupper.

    En utmaning vid dynamisk planering är att planeringssituationen blir svårare. Det är inte längre självklart vilka brandmän som ska larmas till en viss olycka. Det kan också vara svårt att hitta de bästa placeringarna för brandmän som snabbt ska kunna göra en insats.

    I projektet har vi utvecklat och utvärderat datorbaserade verktyg som kan stödja dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst.

    Bland verktygen finns en beredskapskalkylator med tillhörande visualisering, vilken beräknar beredskapen som en funktion av tiden det tar för de nödvändiga resurserna att nå fram till en viss typ av olycka och sannolikheten för att olyckan ska inträffa i närområdet. Ett annat verktyg kan ge förslag på vilka resurser som bör skickas till en olycksplats för att de ska komma fram så fort som möjligt. Ett tredje verktyg kan ge förslag på hur fordon och personal dynamiskt bör placeras för att beredskapen ska förbättras, dvs. de ska kunna nå fram så fort som möjligt till de platser där det är störst sannolikhet att en olycka kommer att inträffa.

    Verktygen har utvärderats genom två experimentserier. I experimenten testades mänskligt beslutsfattande i en simulerad räddningstjänstmiljö. I den första serien fick personal från olika räddningstjänster prova på dynamisk planering utan hjälp av de datorbaserade verktygen. I den andra serien fick andra räddningstjänster köra samma scenarier, men då ta hjälp av de i projektet utvecklade verktygen.

    Resultaten visar att verktygen kan hjälpa räddningstjänsten med planeringen av beredskapen, men också att det finns risk att detta sker på bekostnad av att planeringen tar något längre tid. En tydlig majoritet av de deltagande räddningstjänstbefälen var positivt inställda till de utvecklade verktygen och tyckte verktyg av detta slag skulle kunna hjälpa dem i det dagliga arbetet.

    Resultaten tydliggör också att olika personer – till och med nära kollegor inom samma räddningstjänst – uppfattar begreppet beredskap på olika sätt. Det visade sig dock att beredskapsvisualiseringen kan bidra till att denna skillnad i uppfattning minskar; i den andra experimentserien, där de hade tillgång till detta verktyg, minskade variationerna i bedömningarna och deltagarnas uppfattningar stämde bättre överens med den beräknade beredskapen.

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  • 2.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rego, Granlund
    SICS Swedish ICT, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2562-2567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support tools for efficient dispatching of fire and rescue resources are developed and evaluated. The tools can give suggestions about which resources to dispatch to new accidents, and help the decision makers in evaluating the current preparedness for handling future accidents. The tools are evaluated using simulation game based experiments, with players from the fire and rescue services. The results indicate that the tools can help the fire and rescue services in identifying the closest resources to new accidents, and to select resources that preserve the preparedness in the area. However, the results also indicate that there is a risk that the tools increase the decision time. 

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  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ihlström, Carina
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visions of Future News - Consensus or Conflict?2002In: Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The move from print to multimedia will cause changes not only to the form of the news service but also the involved processes in the news organizations. The cooperative scenario building technique is used on a number of groups; end-users, management and media professionals to envisioning the news services of the future. We take the perspective of consensus and conflict to illustrate the identified visions. Firstly, we illuminate conflicts and consensus between the groups, regarding their visions and future use scenarios. Secondly, we show the implications of using the cooperative scenariobuilding technique in relation the consensus and conflict perspectives in cooperative design. We conclude that both consensus and conflicts could be found in the scenarios described in the paper and that the cooperative technique was suitable in this context.

  • 4.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of precedent designs: Competitive analysis meets genre analysis2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers need to survey the competition and analyze precedent designs, but methods for that purpose have not been evaluated in earlier research. This paper makes a comparative evaluation between competitive analysis and genre analysis. A randomized between-group experiment was conducted where graphic design students were conducted one of the two analysis methods. There were 13 students in one group and 16 in the other. The results show that genre analysis produced more detailed descriptions of precedent designs, but its process was more difficult to understand. It is concluded that genre analysis can be integrated into competitive analysis, to make use of the strengths of both methods in the analysis of precedents.

  • 5.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kleiner, A.
    IRobotPasadena, CA, United States.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An interactive visualization system for urban search & rescue mission planning2014In: 12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014 - Symposium Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, no 7017652Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search and rescue scenarios that supports the inspection and access path planning in post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, the system allows for assessment of automatically generated paths, whose computation is based on varying risk factors, in an interactive 3D environment increasing immersion. The incident commander interactively annotates and reevaluates the acquired point cloud based on live feedback. We describe design considerations, technical realization, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation that we conducted to assess our system.

  • 6.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning through Visualization-Based Analysis2014In: Proceedings of the Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Conference 2014, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search~\&~rescue scenarios that supports access path planning for post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, we provide methods for assessment of automatically generated paths. As data uncertainty and a priori unknown information make fully automated systems impractical, we present a set of viable access paths, based on varying risk factors, in a 3D environment combined with the visual analysis tools enabling informed decisions and trade-offs. Based on these decisions, a responder is guided along the path by the incident commander, who can interactively annotate and reevaluate the acquired point cloud to react to the dynamics of the situation. We describe design considerations for our system, technical realizations, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation.

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  • 7.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    iRobot, CA USA.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ulm University, Germany.
    A Visualization-Based Analysis System for Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning Support2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a visualization system for incident commanders (ICs) in urban searchandrescue scenarios that supports path planning in post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, we provide methods for the assessment of automatically generated paths. As data uncertainty and a priori unknown information make fully automated systems impractical, we present the IC with a set of viable access paths, based on varying risk factors, in a 3D environment combined with visual analysis tools enabling informed decision making and trade-offs. Based on these decisions, a responder is guided along the path by the IC, who can interactively annotate and reevaluate the acquired point cloud and generated paths to react to the dynamics of the situation. We describe visualization design considerations for our system and decision support systems in general, technical realizations of the visualization components, and discuss the results of two qualitative expert evaluation; one online study with nine searchandrescue experts and an eye-tracking study in which four experts used the system on an application case.

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  • 8.
    Böhm, Cornelia
    et al.
    Informiq AB.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulations in service design prototyping: Drone deliveries with society-in-the-loop2021In: Playing with tensions: Proceedings of Relating systems thinking and design (RSD10) symposium / [ed] J.C. Diehl, N. Tromp & M. van der Bijl-Brouwer, Delft: TU Delft , 2021, p. 144-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research-through-design study explores how computer simulations of drone delivery traffic can be used in service design. It investigates how computer simulations compared to a desktop walkthrough can inform the design, and how simulations can be used to facilitate a citizen perspective in service design. A workshop where participants evaluated a simulation of the drone delivery service was compared to a workshop where the participants took part in a desktop walkthrough. The results showed that the participants discussed many of the same aspects, but there was a difference in the perspectives taken. The participants using the simulation took more of a community perspective and discussed dystopian risks, and they also used the simulation to compare distance and speed. The participants in the desktop walkthrough took more of a customer perspective and a technology perspective. It is concluded that the simulation helped participants gain common ground of dynamic aspects of intense drone traffic and that the aerial view lifted the perspective from the service encounters and service users to that of the surrounding society.

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  • 9.
    Dinka, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Identity and role-A qualitative case study of cooperative scenario building2006In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 1049-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we argue that users participating in the design process will form the participation as a function of their professional role, but also as a function of their identity more or less independent from their role. In order to get the full potential of cooperative design the user identity in general and in this case their attitudes towards technology in particular should be incorporated into the design process. This case study consists of participatory design sessions with two different organizations, in the context of a media production tool development project. Facilitator skills, and workshop interventions to balance attitudes and to take them into account in design are discussed. Furthermore, we argue that attitudes will affect a subsequent implementation of a technical system, and that knowledge about stakeholder identity can be useful for further design activities and for planning system implementation. © 2006.

  • 10.
    Elmquist, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bock, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SonAir: the design of a sonification of radar data for air traffic control2023In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the increase of digitalization and automation, a new kind of working environment is emerging in the field of air traffic control. Instead of situating the control tower at the airport, it is now possible to remotely control the airport at any given location, i.e. in a remote tower center (RTC). However, by controlling the airport remotely, the situational awareness and sense of presence might be compromised. By using directional sound, a higher situational awareness could potentially be achieved while also offloading the visual perception which is heavily used in air traffic control. Suitable use cases for sonification in air traffic control were found through workshops with air traffic controllers. A sonification design named SonAir was developed based on the outcome of the workshops, and was integrated with an RTC simulator for evaluating to what degree SonAir could support air traffic controllers in their work. The results suggest that certain aspects of SonAir could be useful for air traffic controllers. A continuous sonification where the spatial positioning of aircraft were conveyed was experienced to be partially useful, but the intrusiveness of SonAir should be further considered to fit the air traffic controllers’ needs. An earcon that conveyed when an aircraft enters the airspace and from which direction was considered useful to support situational awareness.

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  • 11.
    Hammarbäck, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SAAB Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    SAAB Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    My synthetic wingman must understand me: modelling intent for future manned–unmanned teaming2023In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cognitive modelling, unmanned aircraft are expected to actas human-like wingmen in the near future. For fluent and effective manned–unmanned teaming, synthetic wingmen must beable to account for and adapt to their partners’ intent with little or no communication. To enable such abilities, it becomescrucial to identify the requirements that makes intent explainable to synthetic wingmen, necessitating approaches to describeand analyse intent from a human-centric perspective. To address this issue, this paper reports on findings from using WorkDomain Analysis to design and analyse models of situated intent with six levels of cognitive control (frames, effects, values,generic, implementations, and physical). Through a literature review and seven subject matter expert interviews, a synthesizedmodel was designed to represent fighter pilots’ intent in a manned–unmanned teaming scenario. Using the synthesized modelas the context, a transfer of control and a link loss situation were further described and analysed. Experiences show that WorkDomain Analysis can provide a practical and applicable means to model situated intent, particularly since designed modelscan be re-utilised to model intent in similar situations. Furthermore, the model analyses show the importance of accountingfor fighter pilots’ adopted frames since small variations of the framing of the situations can propagate throughout the modelresulting in conflicting or inconsistent intent. The paper concludes that synthetic wingmen must be able to reason about all six levels of cognitive control, requiring a more holistic approach to make intent explainable.

  • 12.
    Hammarbäck, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SAAB Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alfredson, Jens
    SAAB Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling situated intent for human-autonomy teaming: a human-centric approach2024In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    entering an era where humans and synthetic agents are supposed to collaborate and cooperate, adequate models of human intent are cru-cial for coordinated teamwork. Unfortunately, although there is a need for such models, the concept of intent is ambiguous and approaches to model intent from a human-centric perspective are scarce. Building upon theoretical and methodological foundations, this study aims to address these gaps by presenting a conceptualisation of intent along-side an approach. specifically, leveraging the six levels of cognitive control outlined in the Joint control Framework, a provisional model of human intent alongside a defined and operationalised concept is presented. Building on these foundations, a novel approach is pro-posed. Utilising seven scenario-based interviews, the value of these contributions is demonstrated through an example case in the context of Manned-Unmanned teaming. it is concluded that intent should be understood as a multi-faceted concept shaped by situated constraints, where intent is formed through a commitment to choices by context-sit-uation and means-end reasoning. it is also concluded that the approach is useful, particularly since it can glean insights from choices considered and committed, both being essential in the design of synthetic team-mates’ capability to adapt to their human partner’s agency.

  • 13.
    Hult, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Irestig, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Design perspectives2006In: Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 0737-0024, E-ISSN 1532-7051, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we argue that a structured use of perspective descriptions can support a design process. A design perspective is a coherent set of values and aspects emphasized by the designer in a given design situation. We present a generic framework for describing 7 dimensions of perspectives concerning user, artifact, context, activities, communication, central relations, and use qualities that we argue are relevant in a design situation. Subsequently we use this metaperspective to describe four perspectives: tool, architectural, usability, and media perspective distilled from literature sources. By conducting two design workshops, we have evaluated the effects of using perspective descriptions to address the problem of idea generation in the early phases of design. Our analysis shows that the perspectives contain values that can have an important impact on the resulting artifact. By guiding the exploration of the design space, they influence both the artifact's conceptual idea and its use qualities. In our design example, a car game, the conceptual idea of the artifact varied from a goal-oriented tool to a media-based communication experience. Use qualities varied from a task-based flow of action to a format-dependent communication experience. The perspectives served as a synthesis of basic assumptions from the literature and as support to generate conceptually different design ideas. Based on the outcome of our study, we propose an approach for working with design perspectives in design practice, and education. We also present an agenda for research on design perspectives. Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 14.
    Ibrahim, Aseel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Speech Enhanced Remote Control for Media Terminal2001In: Proc. 7th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 2001), The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2001, Vol. 4, p. 2685-2688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A media terminal box combines digital television and services on the World Wide Web. This device will be available in many homes and the interaction with it occurs via a remote control and a visual presentation. The problem is the navigation difficulties among the huge number of television channels. The aim of this study is to investigate whether spoken commands could solve the navigation problem. In this study two input techniques were tested: remote control and speech input. The results showed that speech input was more effective as steps to complete tasks were less and shortcuts were used more often in the speech condition. However, the subjective data showed that the subjects were more satisfied with the remote control input. In conclusion, we recommend multimodal interaction where of speech input to complement the remote control unit.

  • 15.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Swedish Newspapers Approaching e-Business?2002In: elpub 2002 proceedings, Berlin: VWF , 2002, p. 81-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Swedish newspapers have experienced receding advertising revenues during the last years and are now searching for new ways to profit from their online editions. We have conducted three future workshops with both management and end users to envision possible new services that could be profitable for the local newspapers. Furthermore we have conducted an online survey with users selected from a previous study. The objective of this paper is to describe these services and to give a user response to them. We have identified three kinds of services: advertisement services, intermediary services and news services. The results show that the end users preferred the intermediary services and that there is an interest for advertisements in a new setting.

  • 16.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Audience of Swedish Local Online Newspapers: a longitudinal study2002In: elpub 2002, Berlin: VWF , 2002, p. 92-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted a partly longitudinal study using online questionnaires at four Swedish local online newspapers in two different studies. The objective of this paper is to describe the users ’ demographics and reading habits as well as the users ’ expectations of current and future issues regarding the online edition. We also discuss online questionnaires having tried three different approaches to receive as many answers as possible. We have found that the subscribing readers of online editions have increased from one forth to more than a half of the audience, and concluded that the subscribers and nonsubscribers have different reading habits. The findings also show that almost two thirds of the respondents are men and more than 80 % prefer the paper edition of the newspaper. The results indicate an interest for a multimedia paper edition for the future.

  • 17.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Online News Genre Through the User Perspective2003In: International Conference on Systems Science, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online newspapers, having existed on the Internet for a couple of years, are now having similar form and content, starting to shape what could be called a genre. We have analyzed the news sites of nine Swedish local newspapers using a repertoire of genre elements consisting of navigation elements, landmarks, news streams, headlines, search/archives and advertisements. We have also interviewed 153 end users at these newspapers. The objective of this paper is to describe the user's perspective of the online news genre described in terms of the repertoire of genre elements. The results indicate what elements seems to be the better design choice through the user perspective. Due to remaining similarities with the printed edition, the online newspaper genre is still a variant genre.

  • 18.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perdrix, Ferran
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Audience of Local Online Newspapers in Sweden, Slovakia and Spain - a comparative study2003In: Proccedings of HCI International 2003, 2003, p. 749-753Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a new online audience for local newspapers has emerged during the last years, in response to the growth of the Internet, we need to know who they are, what their reading habits are, and what their view on emerging technologies are, to be able to design good online newspapers. We have conducted a study using online questionnaires at three local online newspapers in three different countries: Sweden, Slovakia and Spain. The objective of this paper is to describe the differences and similarities between the three countries regarding audience profiles, scenarios of use, opinions of current and future issues and to discuss design implications.

  • 19.
    Ilhström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-line newspapers in search for profitable services2002In: E-business and E-work Conference, 2002, p. 1455-1462Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today online newspapers are putting a lot of resources into their news sites without profiting from them. They have to find ways to gain from them in order to keep them going. Lately there has been a move from print to multimedia, i.e. news is only a part among other services at the news sites and is presented as audio and video as well. We have conducted interviews at nine local newspapers in Sweden about their current situation and future plans. We have also used a cooperative scenario building technique aiming at finding new online services that could be profitable with both newspaper management and end users. The objective of this paper is to describe the current situation for these newspapers and to discuss possible new future services. Examples of services from the workshops are e.g. advertisement on demand and intermediary services.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engineering safe aviation systems: balancing resilience and stability2009In: Handbook of Aviation human Factors / [ed] John A. Wise, V. David Hopkin and Daniel J. Garland, CRC Press, 2009, 2, p. 6-1-6-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about ‘timely response’, and control versus the temporal organisation of a controlling system. By three empirical examples, we show how a controlling system can be described in terms of perception points, decision points and action points. Our conclusions are that (1) temporal expectancies shape our ability to exercise control at least as much our ability to understand relations and causality, but temporality is rarely part of approaches to modelling human or system performance, (2) temporal organisation of activities shape our ability to exercise control, (3) by utilising the temporal control framework, we can describe important properties of the temporal organisation of a socio-technical system, and (4) the capacity of modelling is limited to what can be known or imagined. Therefore, models describing resilience or stability should include temporality and be based on frameworks generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of situations.

  • 22.
    Johansson Westberg, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    UTM City-Visualization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles2022In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a digital platform for unmanned traffic management, UTM City, for research on visualization, simulation, and management of autonomous urban vehicle traffic. Such vehicles orient themselves automatically and provide services ranging from transport to remote presence and surveillance, and new regulations and standards for authorization and monitoring are currently being developed to accommodate for such services. Our system has been developed in close collaboration with domain experts that have contributed with scenarios and participated in numerous workshops to explore the use of visualization in airborne drone traffic monitoring, management, and development of the air space. We share here our experiences with this system and explore the need for visualization in future scenarios to ensure safe, free, and efficient air spaces.

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  • 23.
    Korolija, Natascha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Speaking of human factors: Emergent meanings in interviews with professional accident investigators2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the human factor concept, more specifically what it means and includes in everyday professional discourse. It is founded on 10 extensive interviews with professional investigators within the road, maritime and rail administration concerning their practical investigative work. General and specific results are generated of interview contributions using a pragmatic communicative approach and discourse analysis.

    Results show that human factors is an expression tied to individual professional experience, sparks dissatisfaction and demands specification due to recurring indexicality problems. It tends to be used for negative matters. The specific results, listing eight different meanings, indicate that there is no such thing as a professional usage of the human factor but a spectrum of meanings. The study concludes that the meanings of the human factor (a) always evolve in the dynamic process of producing and understanding language, (b) are context-dependent, and (c) emerge through talk, as one type of discourse. Contrary to ordinary conceptions, there is no simple matter as a human factor that may be used in a routine manner. A non-specific use of the notion may even obscure a course of events and prevent necessary investigation, for example, if the human factor simply replaces a factor such as ‘fatigue’. Although contemporary interdisciplinary research focuses peripheral factors, the idea of individual humans and their erroneous acts has survived – and lives – in the practical world of professional investigators. Empirically deduced meanings need to be continuously highlighted and problematised if theory is to approach everyday professional practice.

  • 24.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Operationalising civil pilot's process of understanding instrument failure events2002In: Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2002, p. 569-574Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instrument failure in civil aircraft is potentially very dangerous. It is therefore imperative to understand where breakdowns in the distributed cognitive process of understanding occur in the cockpit. In this paper I present a model of distributed situational understanding using eye-point-ofgaze equipment. The model includes a range of constructs, from perceivablestimuli in the cockpit, to eye-point-of-gaze data, to situational awareness, and finally understanding and action. To test the model, in series of simulated flights, conducted in the VINTHEC project, experienced pilots were presented with situations of instrument failure. In the experimentalsetting, the pilot’s understanding was found to be adequate to deal with an altitude bust event, but not with a map shift event. It is concluded that the complicated situational awareness construct does not contribute to the model, whereas pilot actions and eye-point-of-gaze data are importantmeasuring points for understanding the pilots process of understanding.

  • 25.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shaping electronic news: A case study of genre perspectives on interaction design2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes and analyzes implications of going from hypertext news to hypermedia news through a process of design, involving users and producers. As in any product development, it is difficult to conceive design of a novel news format that does not relate to earlier genres, and thus to antecedent designs. The hypothesis is that this problem can be addressed by explicitly taking a genre perspective to guide interaction design. This thesis draws on genre theory, which has previously been used in rhetoric, literature, and information systems. It is also informed by theories from humancomputer interaction. The methodological approach is a case study of the ELIN project, in which new tools for online hypermedia newspaper production were developed and integrated. The study follows the project from concept design to interaction design and implementation of user interfaces, over three years. The thesis makes three contributions. Firstly, a genre perspective on interaction design is described, revealing broadly in what respects genre affects design. Secondly, the online newspaper genre is described. Based on a content analysis of online newspaper front-pages, and interviews with users and producers, genre specific design recommendations regarding hypertext news front-page design are given. A content analysis of Swedish online newspapers provides a basis for a design rationale of the context stream element, which is an important part of the news context on article pages. Regarding hypervideo news, design rationale is given for the presentation of hypervideo links, in the context of a hypermedia news site. The impact on news production in terms of dynamics of convergence is also discussed. Thirdly, the design processes in cooperative scenario building workshops are evaluated, regarding how the users and producers were able to contribute. It provides implications and lessons learned for the workshop phase model. A discourse analysis also reveals important facilitator skills and how participants relied on genre in the design process.

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  • 26.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Situation Awareness Systems, States and Processes: A holistic framework2015In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 447-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that state, system, and process descriptions of situation awareness (SA) are interdependent. Based on SA research from the last 30 years, the paper proposes a holistic SA framework. SA states emerge from processes of exploring situations through SA systems. Reflecting research on safety II (resilience), in describing SA states, the framework distinguishes frames (what situations are considered) from implications (regarding the situations) of objects on and of an event horizon. The paper describes and discusses SA system and process dependencies on SA states. It also describes SA system components as mediators and catalysts for SA, SA system properties (e.g. buffering SA), and dynamic SA system formation. Based on an analysis of four enactments of Air Traffic Control situations, the paper argues that what is domain-characteristic may not characterise all situations in a domain. The SA field could thus benefit from incrementally refining a nuanced cross-domain framework.

  • 27.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lessons Learned from Facilitation in Collaborative Design2007In: Proceeding AUIC '07 Proceedings of the eight Australasian conference on User interface - Volume 64 / [ed] Piekarski, W., Plimmer, B., Sydney , Australia: Australian Computer Society, 2007, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a skilled facilitator in design meetings with users is often emphasized, but less is said about how to improve the facilitation process. This paper reports experiences and lessons learned from facilitation of cardbased sessions in three design cases through an analysis of two sessions with users, and one session with professional designers. The analysis showed that many alternatives were not documented in the sessions with users who designed primarily by talking, compared to the professional designers who primarily designed by placing cards. We propose that facilitation, in cases similar to those presented here, could be improved by suggesting alternatives and possible consequences, prompt the participants to explore the consequences, and graphic facilitation.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Genres, Use Qualities and Interactive Artifacts2003In: People and Computers XVII - Proceedings of HCI 2003: Designing for Society: Volume 2 / [ed] Gray, P., Johnson, H., O'Neill, E., Bristol: Research Press International on behalf of British HCI Group , 2003, p. 165-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop will deal with genre analysis and use-quality analysis in relation to interactive artifacts, as well as provide an opportunity to apply these concepts. Starting out with a wide look at genres of interactive artifacts, we continue into a focused discussion on a repertoire of genre elements. As a tool for design, such a repertoire is needed to be able to understand what experience one might expect from specific designs within a genre. Furthermore, the use qualities of interactive artifacts relate to the concept of genre, and to specific genres in complex ways. We wish to extend the ongoing discussion on the concept of genres in relation to interactive artifacts, as well as further develop tools and insights to advance the genre concept within our field of practice.

  • 29.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Human Autonomy in Future Drone Traffic: Joint Human-AI Control in Temporal Cognitive Work2021In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 4, article id 704082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of human operators are changing due to increased intelligence and autonomy of computer systems. Humans will interact with systems at a more overarching level or only in specific situations. This involves learning new practices and changing habitual ways of thinking and acting, including reconsidering human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems. This paper describes a design case of a future autonomous management system for drone traffic in cities in a key scenario we call The Computer in Brussels. Our approach to designing for human collaboration with autonomous systems builds on scenario-based design and cognitive work analysis facilitated by computer simulations. We use a temporal method, called the Joint Control Framework to describe human and automated work in an abstraction hierarchy labeled Levels of Autonomy in Cognitive Control. We use the Score notation to analyze patterns of temporal developments that span levels of the abstraction hierarchy and discuss implications for human-automation communication in traffic management. We discuss how autonomy at a lower level can prevent autonomy on higher levels, and vice versa. We also discuss the temporal nature of autonomy in minute-to-minute operative work. Our conclusion is that human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems is based on fundamental trade-offs between technological opportunities to automate and values of what human actors find meaningful.

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  • 30.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis in the conceptual design of first-of-a-kind systems - designing urban air traffic management2018In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in design for high-stakes domains, such as air traffic management (ATM) since it focuses on human expert performance in regular and contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system since there is nothing to analyse before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned air traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this research-through-design study, we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA in the design of a first-of-a-kind UTM system. In a series of co-design workshops, we identified future services, traffic patterns, and regulations that framed the design of UTM system concepts. They were based on combinations of four basic building blocks: points, lines, planes, and volumes. Concepts of point-based control, airport geofences, grid squares, layers, and tubes were discussed. Throughout the conceptual designing, results were documented in an evolving Work Domain Analysis (WDA), which is a cornerstone of CWA. This approach allowed us to bootstrap the CWA for a first-of-a-kind-system.

  • 31.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Communication Problems in Crisis Response2011In: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference: Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011 , Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes five problem areas of communication that occur during crisis response. These areas arecommunication infrastructure, situation awareness, individual and organizational common ground, form andcontent of messages, and communication paths through organizations. Five focus groups with Swedish fieldpersonnel from national and international crises were performed. The main contribution of this article is ahypothesis, based on the outcomes of the focus groups, about the relation between communication problems andhow they interact with crisis response work.

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  • 32.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cheaitou, Ali
    Univ Sharjah, U Arab Emirates.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Tahboub, Zain
    Dubai Aviat Engn Projects, U Arab Emirates.
    Human-in-the-loop AI: Requirements on future (unified) air traffic management systems2019In: 2019 IEEE/AIAA 38TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intense drone traffic, exceeding human capabilities of manual control, is expected to occur during the last stage of Unified Traffic Management (UTM) and Unmanned Airspace System (UAS) service deployment in cities. In this paper, we discuss how humans and automation could collaborate to manage this airspace. We review theory on options for UTM airspace structure (volumes, points, networks, layers), machine learning, optimization, and human-automation collaboration. Based on simulation and visualization of two cities, we discuss four abilities: to discern traffic patterns, to recognize situations, to predict situational developments, and to function in varying conditions of rule-following habits of airspace users. We then discuss the challenge of collaborating though the use of advanced visual dashboards, for human-in-the loop AI but also for society-in-the-loop. Finally, we discuss how the challenge of humanautomation collaboration can be expected to shift, as the capabilities of the machine increases.

  • 33.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Air Navigation Services of Sweden.
    AMPLIFY ATM TEAMWORK WITH AUTOMATION: An Eye Tracking Study of Air Traffic Management Tools on Two Large Displays During Regular ATM Simulator Training2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna Research Institute.
    Fredäng, Annevi
    Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland, Sweden.
    Scenario play workshops: Co-design of emergency response scenarios for information technology design in collaboration with emergency response personnel.2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a co-design method for emergency response scenario creation, to support the evaluation of new information technologies. The aim of our use of the method were to achieve scenarios that could be used in experiments or training sessions with professional emergency response personnel. We have analyzed how the method facilitated the design of scenarios (events, resource demands, communication between players), and the description of constraints in a resource management matrix. Our research indicates that the resource management matrix could be an important complement to function-centric analysis methods such as Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). We also illustrate how the interplay between play and situation description allowed us to simultaneously design and validate the scenarios with respect to playability versus resource demands. We discuss how the resource matrix can be used to adjust the validated scenarios after the design sessions.

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  • 35.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibrahim, Aseel
    Nokia Home Communications, Linköping.
    Jönsson, David
    Nokia Home Communications, Linköping.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Centre for User Oriented IT- design, Stockholm.
    Qvarfordt, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    "The snatcher catcher" - an interactive refrigerator2002In: Proceedings of the second Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction, 2002, p. 209-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provoke a debate about the use of new technology, the Snatcher Catcher, an intrusive interactive refrigerator that keeps record of the items in it, was created. In this paper we present the fridge, and how we used it in a provocative installation. The results showed that the audience was provoked, and that few people wanted to have the fridge in their surroundings.

  • 36.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A framework for describing interaction between human operators and autonomous, automated, and manual control systems2021In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 23, p. 381-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how to describe critical episodes of interaction between human operators and autonomous, automated, and manual control systems. The first part of the paper poses three questions: (1) what levels of cognitive control are important to include in a descriptive framework for joint human-autonomy in process control; (2) how should one describe temporal developments in joint socio-technical systems; and (3) how does one analyse communication and control at the system joints. The paper proceeds by proposing a new framework for description and analysis, the Joint Control Framework (JCF), with a simple notation, the Score (JCF-S). It allows descriptions of the three previously mentioned aspects through three analytical activities: process mapping (PM), analysis of Levels of Autonomy in Cognitive Control (LACC), and temporal descriptions of human-machine interaction (T-HMI) through the Score notation. This facilitates analyses across cases and domains. The framework is discussed based on an analysis of two episodes; one work episode (from an air traffic control tower simulator); and one work procedure (from an unmanned traffic management system design concept).

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  • 37.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A framework for describing interaction between human operators and autonomous, automated, and manual control systems2020In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 381-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how to describe critical episodes of interaction between human operators and autonomous, automated,and manual control systems. The first part of the paper poses three questions: (1) what levels of cognitive control are impor-tant to include in a descriptive framework for joint human-autonomy in process control; (2) how should one describe temporaldevelopments in joint socio-technical systems; and (3) how does one analyse communication and control at the system joints.The paper proceeds by proposing a new framework for description and analysis, the Joint Control Framework (JCF), with asimple notation, the Score (JCF-S). It allows descriptions of the three previously mentioned aspects through three analyticalactivities: process mapping (PM), analysis of Levels of Autonomy in Cognitive Control (LACC), and temporal descriptionsof human–machine interaction (T-HMI) through the Score notation. This facilitates analyses across cases and domains. Theframework is discussed based on an analysis of two episodes; one work episode (from an air traffic control tower simulator);and one work procedure (from an unmanned traffic management system design concept).

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  • 38.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resilience is not a silver bullet - Harnessing resilience as core values and resource contexts in a double adaptive process2019In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 188, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses one of the paradoxes of the resilience perspective: if we admit that we cannot foresee what kind of disturbance that we have to cope with, it will also be difficult to decide on what to invest in to improve resilience and safety. With this challenge in mind, three previously published case studies were re-analysed using the Systemic Resilience Model. The Systemic Resilience Model describes systems in terms of events, resilience functions, and strategies of stability or flexibility. It was observed that that the object of resilience shifts under pressure. Further, it was found that the notion of system goals in the Systemic Resilience Model should be replaced with the notion of core values, which can shift along a core value ladder. Our contribution is an increased understanding of the of what and against what of resilience. It was concluded that resilience is a double adaptive process - both as an entity coping with the unexpected or unplanned, and as a phenomenon that shifts along a ladder of core values during pressure regarding both fundamental objectives, functions, structure and system boundaries. This knowledge can be used to improve the implementation of resilience in socio-technical systems.

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  • 39.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systemic resilience model2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, ISSN 0951-8320, Vol. 141, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems.

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  • 40.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Systemic resilience model2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 141, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems.

  • 41.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Josefsson, Billy
    The Use of Conflict Detection Tools in Air Traffic Management – an Unobtrusive Eye Tracking Field Experiment During Controller Competence Assurance2014In: HCI-Aero 2014 - International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aerospace, Mountain View, CA, USA: ACM Press, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at explaining loss of separation events over the Swedish air space in 2011- 2012, which occurred despite an automated conflict detection tool working as designed. The study suggests that there may be a trade-off between spending visual scan time on own conflict detection versus visual scan time spent on examining potential conflicts presented by the conflict detection automation. The issue is hard to solve, and is unfortunately far from resolved. This area of research requires a substantial applied research effort, if the goal is to both increase safety and capacity of ATM through the use of automation.

  • 42.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    A Pragmatic Approach to Uncover Blind Spots in Accident Investigation in Ultra-safe Organizations - A Case Study from Air Traffic Management2019In: ADVANCES IN HUMAN ERROR, RELIABILITY, RESILIENCE, AND PERFORMANCE, SPRINGER , 2019, Vol. 778, p. 199-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, the aim of safety science has been to further improve safety through more extensive analysis methods (address more factors, with increasingly complex causality models). However, recent research has uncovered how the application of even very advanced methods are subjects to the same pressures of reality of work, as other work tasks, and may therefore also have incidents, where all issues are not examined with equal thoroughness, and not implemented with the same enthusiasm. Some of these performance shaping factors may be systemic, affecting many investigations, resulting in investigation "blind spots". This can facilitate the build-up of latent risk conditions in otherwise ultra-safe organizations, resulting in what is in the literature called a man-made disaster (or, less dramatically, a man-made incident). In this paper, we present an approach to uncovering "blind spots" in investigation processes, describing how it was applied at an Air Navigation Service provider.

  • 43.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Urban Air Traffic Management (UTM) Implementation In Cities - Sampled Side-Effects2018In: 2018 IEEE/AIAA 37TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2018, p. 400-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drone-based services in cities will most likely result in high traffic densities (especially during peak hours). Basic unmanned/urban (air) traffic management (UTM) tools and interventions to cope with traffic issues are now well-known (e.g. geofences, layers). There can however be interdependencies between issues and solutions when combined. This paper presents sampled side-effects of using basic unmanned traffic management interventions in an airspace with autonomous point-to-point drone traffic. The samples are based on an interactive simulation and consists of statistics and synthetic images of the simulated situations. We have for instance sampled traffic proximate to a geofenced airport, and traffic from/to proximate logistics hubs. Consequences for UTM development in cities, for the European development of U-space U3 and U4, are discussed.

  • 44.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nylin, Magnus
    Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Challenges for Research and Innovation in Design of Digital ATM Controller Environments An episode analysis of six simulated traffic situations at Arlanda airport2016In: 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other areas, air traffic control has faced challenges in the reality of digitalization and automation. Despite the introduction of new technology, runway incursions are a persisting problem at airports. A runway incursion that develops into an incident or accident is the No 1 risk for the Air Navigation Service Providers. World-wide ATM tower work relies on variations of a generic design and tool set with a high degree of similarities, but with varying degrees of digitalization. Our study investigates the roles of ATM systems in the development of runway incursions, and on the potential to address them through further digitalization. This case study is based on the digitalized tower environment of Arlanda airport, and has a special focus on the electronic flight strips. Six episodes from a human-in-the loop simulation of Arlanda tower are described in detail, based on audio/video and eye gaze recordings. Four of the episodes contained irregularities of which two were runway incursions. Results showed that the e-strip system conceptually still very much plays the same role as the old paper strips it replaced, not taking full advantage of the possibilities of a digitalized system. It also showed that the systems in the tower environment are often not sharing information and that the human operator is very much left alone to gather and interpret the information from the different systems. The conclusion is that there are some significant design challenges ahead for to create the ATM system for the future with maintained or increased safety and performance with improved human-automation collaboration.

  • 45.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nylin, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Research, Innovation, and Digitalization, Air Navigation Services of Sweden (LFV), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Department of Driver and Vehicle, Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling operator control work across traffic management domains: implications for interaction design2024In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management in aviation, shipping, and rail transport shows similarities and dissimilarities in the work process. For example, they share the temporal aspect, but different levels of urgency in the control work set different requirements on monitoring, decisions, and actions. However, few studies have been presented that model and compare the different domains in terms of temporal decision-making. The Joint Control Framework (JCF) is an approach to analyse and temporally model operators’ control processes from a cognitive systems engineering perspective. In this study, we have used JCF to map, and compare, cognitive joints, such as perceptions, decisions, and actions, in temporally challenging control situations in air traffic control, maritime vessel traffic service, and train traffic management. Data was collected collaboratively with traffic operators, focusing on (1) identifying challenging traffic situations and (2) jointly modelling the temporal decision-making patterns of these situations using simplified JCF. Post-analysis was done by breaking down the results into different processes and comparing domains to ascertain how operators maintain control. An intermediate level of activity—between general monitoring and work with specific vehicles—was identified: processes-in-focus. A shared problem arises in the shift between general monitoring and the processes-in-focus. All processes-in-focus comprise cognitive joint cycles of perceptions, decisions, and actions. However, depending on the framing of processes-in-focus, the patterns of joints, such as temporal extension and complexity, differ. In the remainder of the article, implications for the interaction design, in particular the potential for human–AI/automation teaming with higher levels of automation and cognitive autonomy, are discussed.

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  • 46.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Tommie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    THE USE OF VIRTUAL REALITY FOR HIGH FIDELITY SIGNAGE PROTOTYPING IN WAYSHOWING COURSE MODULES – BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS AND STUDENT PRE-REQUISITES2012In: 5th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid 19th - 21st November, 2012, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2012, p. 4935-4942Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High fidelity signage prototyping for public buildings is impractical to teach in Wayshowing classes with many students. To achieve high fidelity, the creation of signs that look like the final production signs is required (but which may differ in other respects, such as using other materials). However, a problem is that physical signs are impractical to deploy in buildings that are in use. Student work with prototype signage may disturb other activities that go on in the space. Access to unused buildings can also be problematic to achieve. It is furthermore impractical because any existing signage tends to interfere with student signage. In addition, it can be very time consuming to swap signage systems between student groups. The use of virtual reality can solve those problems for signage prototyping. In the full paper we will present a course design utilizing virtual reality for Wayshowing. Virtual reality is often used for Wayshowing experiments and is then seen as a realistic substitute for reality. We see many of the same challenges as are presented in research as relevant for students to master. This includes for instance tests of sign legibility, comparing sign designs (through usage trials), and evacuation during stressful situations. It is beneficial to be able to conduct design activities addressing those challenges before investing in physical signs. Using 3D blueprints, Wayshowing design can even be carried out before actually constructing a building. Therefore, we believe that virtual Wayshowing will become an increasingly relevant skill in the future. Here, we outline student Wayshowing design and evaluation activities as course modules and discuss benefits and student pre-requisites of using virtual reality. For usage in our course, an existing public building was modelled in high fidelity including light sources. This facilitates comparisons between modelled signage and reality. The virtual building was constructed as a 3D model in Autodesk Maya and 3D studio max. A wall size display of 3640 x1050 pixels was deployed to project the student designs. It provides a wide window of realistic size into the 3d world. This allows groups of students to view the designs and discuss them together on a shared screen. The course plan includes signage systems design and evaluation, as well as design and evaluation of individual signs. Each system of signs can be placed in a separate data file for deployment in the 3Dworld. They can then be evaluated using virtual walkthroughs, and different designs (from different student groups) can be compared. Typeface selection and detail design can also be evaluated with respect to for instance readability and placemaking. The placemaking design concerns how the signage fits and creates the identity and experience of the place. All aspects of the signage system contribute to placemaking as well as to more instrumental aspects such as informing. The signs contribute to the experience of what the place is about and the system of signs to the experience of the place as a whole.Placemaking design also benefits from high fidelity, since fine details are important. The course can thus draw on a broad student background in subjects such as 3D modelling, typography, and information graphics design. The amount of study time and course topics is thus highly dependent on student academic background.

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  • 47.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation2014In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel-Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience-their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of plans made in advance. In this paper, we analyze the experiences of 14 members of Swedish field teams involved in the crises response, based on focus group discussions. We describe a cycle of preparing for role improvisation, of taking improvised roles, of working in them, and of getting out of them when they are no longer a benefit. The discussions revealed that although role improvisation was seen as necessary to get the work done, they also saw a need to manage negative side effects and vulnerabilities of role improvisation in various ways. We discuss training goals based on their experiences, to address perceived strengths and vulnerabilities of role improvisation. We also discuss factors affecting role improvisation, such as a resilience climate of shared attitudes. Our results can be useful for organizations that have or that plan to adopt flexible crisis response teams. Our results can also be of interests to a more general audience with an interest in how practices necessary for resilience can bring negative side effects, for instance, resilience loss in the organization after an initial adaptive stage.

  • 48.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find - The consequences of underlying accident models in eight accident investigation manuals2009In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 1297-1311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation manuals are influential documents on various levels in a safety management system, and it is therefore important to appraise them in the light of what we currently know - or assume - about the nature of accidents. Investigation manuals necessarily embody or represent an accident model, i.e., a set of assumptions about how accidents happen and what the important factors are. In this paper we examine three aspects of accident investigation as described in a number of investigation manuals. Firstly, we focus on accident models and in particular the assumptions about how different factors interact to cause - or prevent - accidents, i.e., the accident "mechanisms". Secondly, we focus on the scope in the sense of the factors (or factor domains) that are considered in the models - for instance (hu)man, technology, and organization (MTO). Thirdly, we focus on the system of investigation or the activities that together constitute an accident investigation project/process. We found that the manuals all used complex linear models. The factors considered were in general (hu)man, technology, organization, and information. The causes found during an investigation reflect the assumptions of the accident model, following the What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find or WYLFIWYF principle. The identified causes typically became specific problems to be fixed during an implementation of solutions. This follows what can be called What-You-Find-Is-What-You-Fix or WYFIWYF principle.

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  • 49.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What you find is not always what you fix-How other aspects than causes of accidents decide recommendations for remedial actions2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2132-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In accident investigation, the ideal is often to follow the principle "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix", an ideal reflecting that the investigation should be a rational process of first identifying causes, and then implement remedial actions to fix them. Previous research has however identified cognitive and political biases leading away from this ideal. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the same factors that often are highlighted in modern accident models are not perceived in a recursive manner to reflect how they influence the process of accident investigation in itself. Those factors are more extensive than the cognitive and political biases that are often highlighted in theory. Our purpose in this study was to reveal constraints affecting accident investigation practices that lead the investigation towards or away from the ideal of "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix". We conducted a qualitative interview study with 22 accident investigators from different domains in Sweden. We found a wide range of factors that led investigations away from the ideal, most which more resembled factors involved in organizational accidents, rather than reflecting flawed thinking. One particular limitation of investigation was that many investigations stop the analysis at the level of "preventable causes", the level where remedies that were currently practical to implement could be found. This could potentially limit the usefulness of using investigations to get a view on the "big picture" of causes of accidents as a basis for further remedial actions.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of So Denmark.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation.

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