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  • 1.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Granlund, Rego
    SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dynamisk planering innebär bland annat att brandmännen delar in sig i mindre grupper än traditionellt. Dessa kan då arbeta förebyggande med utbildning eller placeras strategiskt till exempel i närheten av olycksdrabbade vägsträckor, för att snabbare kunna nå fram till en olycksplats. Då en olycka inträffar larmas de brandmän som snabbast kan nå fram, och det kan vara nödvändigt att larma flera olika grupper.

    En utmaning vid dynamisk planering är att planeringssituationen blir svårare. Det är inte längre självklart vilka brandmän som ska larmas till en viss olycka. Det kan också vara svårt att hitta de bästa placeringarna för brandmän som snabbt ska kunna göra en insats.

    I projektet har vi utvecklat och utvärderat datorbaserade verktyg som kan stödja dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst.

    Bland verktygen finns en beredskapskalkylator med tillhörande visualisering, vilken beräknar beredskapen som en funktion av tiden det tar för de nödvändiga resurserna att nå fram till en viss typ av olycka och sannolikheten för att olyckan ska inträffa i närområdet. Ett annat verktyg kan ge förslag på vilka resurser som bör skickas till en olycksplats för att de ska komma fram så fort som möjligt. Ett tredje verktyg kan ge förslag på hur fordon och personal dynamiskt bör placeras för att beredskapen ska förbättras, dvs. de ska kunna nå fram så fort som möjligt till de platser där det är störst sannolikhet att en olycka kommer att inträffa.

    Verktygen har utvärderats genom två experimentserier. I experimenten testades mänskligt beslutsfattande i en simulerad räddningstjänstmiljö. I den första serien fick personal från olika räddningstjänster prova på dynamisk planering utan hjälp av de datorbaserade verktygen. I den andra serien fick andra räddningstjänster köra samma scenarier, men då ta hjälp av de i projektet utvecklade verktygen.

    Resultaten visar att verktygen kan hjälpa räddningstjänsten med planeringen av beredskapen, men också att det finns risk att detta sker på bekostnad av att planeringen tar något längre tid. En tydlig majoritet av de deltagande räddningstjänstbefälen var positivt inställda till de utvecklade verktygen och tyckte verktyg av detta slag skulle kunna hjälpa dem i det dagliga arbetet.

    Resultaten tydliggör också att olika personer – till och med nära kollegor inom samma räddningstjänst – uppfattar begreppet beredskap på olika sätt. Det visade sig dock att beredskapsvisualiseringen kan bidra till att denna skillnad i uppfattning minskar; i den andra experimentserien, där de hade tillgång till detta verktyg, minskade variationerna i bedömningarna och deltagarnas uppfattningar stämde bättre överens med den beräknade beredskapen.

  • 2.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rego, Granlund
    SICS Swedish ICT, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2562-2567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support tools for efficient dispatching of fire and rescue resources are developed and evaluated. The tools can give suggestions about which resources to dispatch to new accidents, and help the decision makers in evaluating the current preparedness for handling future accidents. The tools are evaluated using simulation game based experiments, with players from the fire and rescue services. The results indicate that the tools can help the fire and rescue services in identifying the closest resources to new accidents, and to select resources that preserve the preparedness in the area. However, the results also indicate that there is a risk that the tools increase the decision time. 

  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ihlström, Carina
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visions of Future News - Consensus or Conflict?2002In: Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The move from print to multimedia will cause changes not only to the form of the news service but also the involved processes in the news organizations. The cooperative scenario building technique is used on a number of groups; end-users, management and media professionals to envisioning the news services of the future. We take the perspective of consensus and conflict to illustrate the identified visions. Firstly, we illuminate conflicts and consensus between the groups, regarding their visions and future use scenarios. Secondly, we show the implications of using the cooperative scenariobuilding technique in relation the consensus and conflict perspectives in cooperative design. We conclude that both consensus and conflicts could be found in the scenarios described in the paper and that the cooperative technique was suitable in this context.

  • 4.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of precedent designs: Competitive analysis meets genre analysis2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers need to survey the competition and analyze precedent designs, but methods for that purpose have not been evaluated in earlier research. This paper makes a comparative evaluation between competitive analysis and genre analysis. A randomized between-group experiment was conducted where graphic design students were conducted one of the two analysis methods. There were 13 students in one group and 16 in the other. The results show that genre analysis produced more detailed descriptions of precedent designs, but its process was more difficult to understand. It is concluded that genre analysis can be integrated into competitive analysis, to make use of the strengths of both methods in the analysis of precedents.

  • 5.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kleiner, A.
    IRobotPasadena, CA, United States.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An interactive visualization system for urban search & rescue mission planning2014In: 12th IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, SSRR 2014 - Symposium Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, no 7017652Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search and rescue scenarios that supports the inspection and access path planning in post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, the system allows for assessment of automatically generated paths, whose computation is based on varying risk factors, in an interactive 3D environment increasing immersion. The incident commander interactively annotates and reevaluates the acquired point cloud based on live feedback. We describe design considerations, technical realization, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation that we conducted to assess our system.

  • 6.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning through Visualization-Based Analysis2014In: Proceedings of the Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Conference 2014, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a visualization system for incident commanders in urban search~\&~rescue scenarios that supports access path planning for post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, we provide methods for assessment of automatically generated paths. As data uncertainty and a priori unknown information make fully automated systems impractical, we present a set of viable access paths, based on varying risk factors, in a 3D environment combined with the visual analysis tools enabling informed decisions and trade-offs. Based on these decisions, a responder is guided along the path by the incident commander, who can interactively annotate and reevaluate the acquired point cloud to react to the dynamics of the situation. We describe design considerations for our system, technical realizations, and discuss the results of an expert evaluation.

  • 7.
    Bock, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    iRobot, CA USA.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ropinski, Timo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ulm University, Germany.
    A Visualization-Based Analysis System for Urban Search & Rescue Mission Planning Support2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a visualization system for incident commanders (ICs) in urban searchandrescue scenarios that supports path planning in post-disaster structures. Utilizing point cloud data acquired from unmanned robots, we provide methods for the assessment of automatically generated paths. As data uncertainty and a priori unknown information make fully automated systems impractical, we present the IC with a set of viable access paths, based on varying risk factors, in a 3D environment combined with visual analysis tools enabling informed decision making and trade-offs. Based on these decisions, a responder is guided along the path by the IC, who can interactively annotate and reevaluate the acquired point cloud and generated paths to react to the dynamics of the situation. We describe visualization design considerations for our system and decision support systems in general, technical realizations of the visualization components, and discuss the results of two qualitative expert evaluation; one online study with nine searchandrescue experts and an eye-tracking study in which four experts used the system on an application case.

  • 8.
    Dinka, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Identity and role-A qualitative case study of cooperative scenario building2006In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 1049-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we argue that users participating in the design process will form the participation as a function of their professional role, but also as a function of their identity more or less independent from their role. In order to get the full potential of cooperative design the user identity in general and in this case their attitudes towards technology in particular should be incorporated into the design process. This case study consists of participatory design sessions with two different organizations, in the context of a media production tool development project. Facilitator skills, and workshop interventions to balance attitudes and to take them into account in design are discussed. Furthermore, we argue that attitudes will affect a subsequent implementation of a technical system, and that knowledge about stakeholder identity can be useful for further design activities and for planning system implementation. © 2006.

  • 9.
    Hult, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Irestig, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Design perspectives2006In: Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 0737-0024, E-ISSN 1532-7051, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we argue that a structured use of perspective descriptions can support a design process. A design perspective is a coherent set of values and aspects emphasized by the designer in a given design situation. We present a generic framework for describing 7 dimensions of perspectives concerning user, artifact, context, activities, communication, central relations, and use qualities that we argue are relevant in a design situation. Subsequently we use this metaperspective to describe four perspectives: tool, architectural, usability, and media perspective distilled from literature sources. By conducting two design workshops, we have evaluated the effects of using perspective descriptions to address the problem of idea generation in the early phases of design. Our analysis shows that the perspectives contain values that can have an important impact on the resulting artifact. By guiding the exploration of the design space, they influence both the artifact's conceptual idea and its use qualities. In our design example, a car game, the conceptual idea of the artifact varied from a goal-oriented tool to a media-based communication experience. Use qualities varied from a task-based flow of action to a format-dependent communication experience. The perspectives served as a synthesis of basic assumptions from the literature and as support to generate conceptually different design ideas. Based on the outcome of our study, we propose an approach for working with design perspectives in design practice, and education. We also present an agenda for research on design perspectives. Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 10.
    Ibrahim (Berglund), A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, J.
    Speech Enhanced Remote Control for Media Terminal2001In: Proceedings of Eurospeech’01, Aalborg, Denmark, 2001, Vol. 4, p. 2685–2688-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Swedish Newspapers Approaching e-Business?2002In: elpub 2002 proceedings, Berlin: VWF , 2002, p. 81-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Swedish newspapers have experienced receding advertising revenues during the last years and are now searching for new ways to profit from their online editions. We have conducted three future workshops with both management and end users to envision possible new services that could be profitable for the local newspapers. Furthermore we have conducted an online survey with users selected from a previous study. The objective of this paper is to describe these services and to give a user response to them. We have identified three kinds of services: advertisement services, intermediary services and news services. The results show that the end users preferred the intermediary services and that there is an interest for advertisements in a new setting.

  • 12.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Audience of Swedish Local Online Newspapers: a longitudinal study2002In: elpub 2002, Berlin: VWF , 2002, p. 92-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted a partly longitudinal study using online questionnaires at four Swedish local online newspapers in two different studies. The objective of this paper is to describe the users ’ demographics and reading habits as well as the users ’ expectations of current and future issues regarding the online edition. We also discuss online questionnaires having tried three different approaches to receive as many answers as possible. We have found that the subscribing readers of online editions have increased from one forth to more than a half of the audience, and concluded that the subscribers and nonsubscribers have different reading habits. The findings also show that almost two thirds of the respondents are men and more than 80 % prefer the paper edition of the newspaper. The results indicate an interest for a multimedia paper edition for the future.

  • 13.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Online News Genre Through the User Perspective2003In: International Conference on Systems Science, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online newspapers, having existed on the Internet for a couple of years, are now having similar form and content, starting to shape what could be called a genre. We have analyzed the news sites of nine Swedish local newspapers using a repertoire of genre elements consisting of navigation elements, landmarks, news streams, headlines, search/archives and advertisements. We have also interviewed 153 end users at these newspapers. The objective of this paper is to describe the user's perspective of the online news genre described in terms of the repertoire of genre elements. The results indicate what elements seems to be the better design choice through the user perspective. Due to remaining similarities with the printed edition, the online newspaper genre is still a variant genre.

  • 14.
    Ihlström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perdrix, Ferran
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Audience of Local Online Newspapers in Sweden, Slovakia and Spain - a comparative study2003In: Proccedings of HCI International 2003, 2003, p. 749-753Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a new online audience for local newspapers has emerged during the last years, in response to the growth of the Internet, we need to know who they are, what their reading habits are, and what their view on emerging technologies are, to be able to design good online newspapers. We have conducted a study using online questionnaires at three local online newspapers in three different countries: Sweden, Slovakia and Spain. The objective of this paper is to describe the differences and similarities between the three countries regarding audience profiles, scenarios of use, opinions of current and future issues and to discuss design implications.

  • 15.
    Ilhström, Carina
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-line newspapers in search for profitable services2002In: E-business and E-work Conference, 2002, p. 1455-1462Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today online newspapers are putting a lot of resources into their news sites without profiting from them. They have to find ways to gain from them in order to keep them going. Lately there has been a move from print to multimedia, i.e. news is only a part among other services at the news sites and is presented as audio and video as well. We have conducted interviews at nine local newspapers in Sweden about their current situation and future plans. We have also used a cooperative scenario building technique aiming at finding new online services that could be profitable with both newspaper management and end users. The objective of this paper is to describe the current situation for these newspapers and to discuss possible new future services. Examples of services from the workshops are e.g. advertisement on demand and intermediary services.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engineering safe aviation systems: balancing resilience and stability2009In: Handbook of Aviation human Factors / [ed] Wise, J. A., Hopkin, V. D., & Garland, D. J., CRC Press, 2009, 2, p. 6-1-6-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about ‘timely response’, and control versus the temporal organisation of a controlling system. By three empirical examples, we show how a controlling system can be described in terms of perception points, decision points and action points. Our conclusions are that (1) temporal expectancies shape our ability to exercise control at least as much our ability to understand relations and causality, but temporality is rarely part of approaches to modelling human or system performance, (2) temporal organisation of activities shape our ability to exercise control, (3) by utilising the temporal control framework, we can describe important properties of the temporal organisation of a socio-technical system, and (4) the capacity of modelling is limited to what can be known or imagined. Therefore, models describing resilience or stability should include temporality and be based on frameworks generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of situations.

  • 18.
    Korolija, Natascha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Speaking of human factors: Emergent meanings in interviews with professional accident investigators2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the human factor concept, more specifically what it means and includes in everyday professional discourse. It is founded on 10 extensive interviews with professional investigators within the road, maritime and rail administration concerning their practical investigative work. General and specific results are generated of interview contributions using a pragmatic communicative approach and discourse analysis.

    Results show that human factors is an expression tied to individual professional experience, sparks dissatisfaction and demands specification due to recurring indexicality problems. It tends to be used for negative matters. The specific results, listing eight different meanings, indicate that there is no such thing as a professional usage of the human factor but a spectrum of meanings. The study concludes that the meanings of the human factor (a) always evolve in the dynamic process of producing and understanding language, (b) are context-dependent, and (c) emerge through talk, as one type of discourse. Contrary to ordinary conceptions, there is no simple matter as a human factor that may be used in a routine manner. A non-specific use of the notion may even obscure a course of events and prevent necessary investigation, for example, if the human factor simply replaces a factor such as ‘fatigue’. Although contemporary interdisciplinary research focuses peripheral factors, the idea of individual humans and their erroneous acts has survived – and lives – in the practical world of professional investigators. Empirically deduced meanings need to be continuously highlighted and problematised if theory is to approach everyday professional practice.

  • 19.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Operationalising civil pilot's process of understanding instrument failure events2002In: Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2002, p. 569-574Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instrument failure in civil aircraft is potentially very dangerous. It is therefore imperative to understand where breakdowns in the distributed cognitive process of understanding occur in the cockpit. In this paper I present a model of distributed situational understanding using eye-point-ofgaze equipment. The model includes a range of constructs, from perceivablestimuli in the cockpit, to eye-point-of-gaze data, to situational awareness, and finally understanding and action. To test the model, in series of simulated flights, conducted in the VINTHEC project, experienced pilots were presented with situations of instrument failure. In the experimentalsetting, the pilot’s understanding was found to be adequate to deal with an altitude bust event, but not with a map shift event. It is concluded that the complicated situational awareness construct does not contribute to the model, whereas pilot actions and eye-point-of-gaze data are importantmeasuring points for understanding the pilots process of understanding.

  • 20.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shaping electronic news: A case study of genre perspectives on interaction design2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes and analyzes implications of going from hypertext news to hypermedia news through a process of design, involving users and producers. As in any product development, it is difficult to conceive design of a novel news format that does not relate to earlier genres, and thus to antecedent designs. The hypothesis is that this problem can be addressed by explicitly taking a genre perspective to guide interaction design. This thesis draws on genre theory, which has previously been used in rhetoric, literature, and information systems. It is also informed by theories from humancomputer interaction. The methodological approach is a case study of the ELIN project, in which new tools for online hypermedia newspaper production were developed and integrated. The study follows the project from concept design to interaction design and implementation of user interfaces, over three years. The thesis makes three contributions. Firstly, a genre perspective on interaction design is described, revealing broadly in what respects genre affects design. Secondly, the online newspaper genre is described. Based on a content analysis of online newspaper front-pages, and interviews with users and producers, genre specific design recommendations regarding hypertext news front-page design are given. A content analysis of Swedish online newspapers provides a basis for a design rationale of the context stream element, which is an important part of the news context on article pages. Regarding hypervideo news, design rationale is given for the presentation of hypervideo links, in the context of a hypermedia news site. The impact on news production in terms of dynamics of convergence is also discussed. Thirdly, the design processes in cooperative scenario building workshops are evaluated, regarding how the users and producers were able to contribute. It provides implications and lessons learned for the workshop phase model. A discourse analysis also reveals important facilitator skills and how participants relied on genre in the design process.

  • 21.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Situation Awareness Systems, States and Processes: A holistic framework2015In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 447-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that state, system, and process descriptions of situation awareness (SA) are interdependent. Based on SA research from the last 30 years, the paper proposes a holistic SA framework. SA states emerge from processes of exploring situations through SA systems. Reflecting research on safety II (resilience), in describing SA states, the framework distinguishes frames (what situations are considered) from implications (regarding the situations) of objects on and of an event horizon. The paper describes and discusses SA system and process dependencies on SA states. It also describes SA system components as mediators and catalysts for SA, SA system properties (e.g. buffering SA), and dynamic SA system formation. Based on an analysis of four enactments of Air Traffic Control situations, the paper argues that what is domain-characteristic may not characterise all situations in a domain. The SA field could thus benefit from incrementally refining a nuanced cross-domain framework.

  • 22.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lessons Learned from Facilitation in Collaborative Design2007In: Proceeding AUIC '07 Proceedings of the eight Australasian conference on User interface - Volume 64 / [ed] Piekarski, W., Plimmer, B., Sydney , Australia: Australian Computer Society, 2007, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a skilled facilitator in design meetings with users is often emphasized, but less is said about how to improve the facilitation process. This paper reports experiences and lessons learned from facilitation of cardbased sessions in three design cases through an analysis of two sessions with users, and one session with professional designers. The analysis showed that many alternatives were not documented in the sessions with users who designed primarily by talking, compared to the professional designers who primarily designed by placing cards. We propose that facilitation, in cases similar to those presented here, could be improved by suggesting alternatives and possible consequences, prompt the participants to explore the consequences, and graphic facilitation.

  • 23.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Genres, Use Qualities and Interactive Artifacts2003In: People and Computers XVII - Proceedings of HCI 2003: Designing for Society: Volume 2 / [ed] Gray, P., Johnson, H., O'Neill, E., Bristol: Research Press International on behalf of British HCI Group , 2003, p. 165-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop will deal with genre analysis and use-quality analysis in relation to interactive artifacts, as well as provide an opportunity to apply these concepts. Starting out with a wide look at genres of interactive artifacts, we continue into a focused discussion on a repertoire of genre elements. As a tool for design, such a repertoire is needed to be able to understand what experience one might expect from specific designs within a genre. Furthermore, the use qualities of interactive artifacts relate to the concept of genre, and to specific genres in complex ways. We wish to extend the ongoing discussion on the concept of genres in relation to interactive artifacts, as well as further develop tools and insights to advance the genre concept within our field of practice.

  • 24.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis in the conceptual design of first-of-a-kind systems - designing urban air traffic management2018In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in design for high-stakes domains, such as air traffic management (ATM) since it focuses on human expert performance in regular and contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system since there is nothing to analyse before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned air traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this research-through-design study, we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA in the design of a first-of-a-kind UTM system. In a series of co-design workshops, we identified future services, traffic patterns, and regulations that framed the design of UTM system concepts. They were based on combinations of four basic building blocks: points, lines, planes, and volumes. Concepts of point-based control, airport geofences, grid squares, layers, and tubes were discussed. Throughout the conceptual designing, results were documented in an evolving Work Domain Analysis (WDA), which is a cornerstone of CWA. This approach allowed us to bootstrap the CWA for a first-of-a-kind-system.

  • 25.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Communication Problems in Crisis Response2011In: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference: Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011 , Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes five problem areas of communication that occur during crisis response. These areas arecommunication infrastructure, situation awareness, individual and organizational common ground, form andcontent of messages, and communication paths through organizations. Five focus groups with Swedish fieldpersonnel from national and international crises were performed. The main contribution of this article is ahypothesis, based on the outcomes of the focus groups, about the relation between communication problems andhow they interact with crisis response work.

  • 26.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Air Navigation Services of Sweden.
    AMPLIFY ATM TEAMWORK WITH AUTOMATION: An Eye Tracking Study of Air Traffic Management Tools on Two Large Displays During Regular ATM Simulator Training2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlund, Rego
    Santa Anna Research Institute.
    Fredäng, Annevi
    Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland, Sweden.
    Scenario play workshops: Co-design of emergency response scenarios for information technology design in collaboration with emergency response personnel.2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a co-design method for emergency response scenario creation, to support the evaluation of new information technologies. The aim of our use of the method were to achieve scenarios that could be used in experiments or training sessions with professional emergency response personnel. We have analyzed how the method facilitated the design of scenarios (events, resource demands, communication between players), and the description of constraints in a resource management matrix. Our research indicates that the resource management matrix could be an important complement to function-centric analysis methods such as Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). We also illustrate how the interplay between play and situation description allowed us to simultaneously design and validate the scenarios with respect to playability versus resource demands. We discuss how the resource matrix can be used to adjust the validated scenarios after the design sessions.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibrahim, Aseel
    Nokia Home Communications, Linköping.
    Jönsson, David
    Nokia Home Communications, Linköping.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Centre for User Oriented IT- design, Stockholm.
    Qvarfordt, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    "The snatcher catcher" - an interactive refrigerator2002In: Proceedings of the second Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction, 2002, p. 209-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provoke a debate about the use of new technology, the Snatcher Catcher, an intrusive interactive refrigerator that keeps record of the items in it, was created. In this paper we present the fridge, and how we used it in a provocative installation. The results showed that the audience was provoked, and that few people wanted to have the fridge in their surroundings.

  • 29.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systemic resilience model2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, ISSN 0951-8320, Vol. 141, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems.

  • 30.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Josefsson, Billy
    The Use of Conflict Detection Tools in Air Traffic Management – an Unobtrusive Eye Tracking Field Experiment During Controller Competence Assurance2014In: HCI-Aero 2014 - International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aerospace, Mountain View, CA, USA, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at explaining loss of separation events over the Swedish air space in 2011- 2012, which occurred despite an automated conflict detection tool working as designed. The study suggests that there may be a trade-off between spending visual scan time on own conflict detection versus visual scan time spent on examining potential conflicts presented by the conflict detection automation. The issue is hard to solve, and is unfortunately far from resolved. This area of research requires a substantial applied research effort, if the goal is to both increase safety and capacity of ATM through the use of automation.

  • 31.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nylin, Magnus
    Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Air Nav Serv Sweden, Sweden.
    Challenges for Research and Innovation in Design of Digital ATM Controller Environments An episode analysis of six simulated traffic situations at Arlanda airport2016In: 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other areas, air traffic control has faced challenges in the reality of digitalization and automation. Despite the introduction of new technology, runway incursions are a persisting problem at airports. A runway incursion that develops into an incident or accident is the No 1 risk for the Air Navigation Service Providers. World-wide ATM tower work relies on variations of a generic design and tool set with a high degree of similarities, but with varying degrees of digitalization. Our study investigates the roles of ATM systems in the development of runway incursions, and on the potential to address them through further digitalization. This case study is based on the digitalized tower environment of Arlanda airport, and has a special focus on the electronic flight strips. Six episodes from a human-in-the loop simulation of Arlanda tower are described in detail, based on audio/video and eye gaze recordings. Four of the episodes contained irregularities of which two were runway incursions. Results showed that the e-strip system conceptually still very much plays the same role as the old paper strips it replaced, not taking full advantage of the possibilities of a digitalized system. It also showed that the systems in the tower environment are often not sharing information and that the human operator is very much left alone to gather and interpret the information from the different systems. The conclusion is that there are some significant design challenges ahead for to create the ATM system for the future with maintained or increased safety and performance with improved human-automation collaboration.

  • 32.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Tommie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    THE USE OF VIRTUAL REALITY FOR HIGH FIDELITY SIGNAGE PROTOTYPING IN WAYSHOWING COURSE MODULES – BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS AND STUDENT PRE-REQUISITES2012In: 5th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid 19th - 21st November, 2012, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2012, p. 4935-4942Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High fidelity signage prototyping for public buildings is impractical to teach in Wayshowing classes with many students. To achieve high fidelity, the creation of signs that look like the final production signs is required (but which may differ in other respects, such as using other materials). However, a problem is that physical signs are impractical to deploy in buildings that are in use. Student work with prototype signage may disturb other activities that go on in the space. Access to unused buildings can also be problematic to achieve. It is furthermore impractical because any existing signage tends to interfere with student signage. In addition, it can be very time consuming to swap signage systems between student groups. The use of virtual reality can solve those problems for signage prototyping. In the full paper we will present a course design utilizing virtual reality for Wayshowing. Virtual reality is often used for Wayshowing experiments and is then seen as a realistic substitute for reality. We see many of the same challenges as are presented in research as relevant for students to master. This includes for instance tests of sign legibility, comparing sign designs (through usage trials), and evacuation during stressful situations. It is beneficial to be able to conduct design activities addressing those challenges before investing in physical signs. Using 3D blueprints, Wayshowing design can even be carried out before actually constructing a building. Therefore, we believe that virtual Wayshowing will become an increasingly relevant skill in the future. Here, we outline student Wayshowing design and evaluation activities as course modules and discuss benefits and student pre-requisites of using virtual reality. For usage in our course, an existing public building was modelled in high fidelity including light sources. This facilitates comparisons between modelled signage and reality. The virtual building was constructed as a 3D model in Autodesk Maya and 3D studio max. A wall size display of 3640 x1050 pixels was deployed to project the student designs. It provides a wide window of realistic size into the 3d world. This allows groups of students to view the designs and discuss them together on a shared screen. The course plan includes signage systems design and evaluation, as well as design and evaluation of individual signs. Each system of signs can be placed in a separate data file for deployment in the 3Dworld. They can then be evaluated using virtual walkthroughs, and different designs (from different student groups) can be compared. Typeface selection and detail design can also be evaluated with respect to for instance readability and placemaking. The placemaking design concerns how the signage fits and creates the identity and experience of the place. All aspects of the signage system contribute to placemaking as well as to more instrumental aspects such as informing. The signs contribute to the experience of what the place is about and the system of signs to the experience of the place as a whole.Placemaking design also benefits from high fidelity, since fine details are important. The course can thus draw on a broad student background in subjects such as 3D modelling, typography, and information graphics design. The amount of study time and course topics is thus highly dependent on student academic background.

  • 33.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation2014In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel-Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience-their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of plans made in advance. In this paper, we analyze the experiences of 14 members of Swedish field teams involved in the crises response, based on focus group discussions. We describe a cycle of preparing for role improvisation, of taking improvised roles, of working in them, and of getting out of them when they are no longer a benefit. The discussions revealed that although role improvisation was seen as necessary to get the work done, they also saw a need to manage negative side effects and vulnerabilities of role improvisation in various ways. We discuss training goals based on their experiences, to address perceived strengths and vulnerabilities of role improvisation. We also discuss factors affecting role improvisation, such as a resilience climate of shared attitudes. Our results can be useful for organizations that have or that plan to adopt flexible crisis response teams. Our results can also be of interests to a more general audience with an interest in how practices necessary for resilience can bring negative side effects, for instance, resilience loss in the organization after an initial adaptive stage.

  • 34.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find - The consequences of underlying accident models in eight accident investigation manuals2009In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 1297-1311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation manuals are influential documents on various levels in a safety management system, and it is therefore important to appraise them in the light of what we currently know - or assume - about the nature of accidents. Investigation manuals necessarily embody or represent an accident model, i.e., a set of assumptions about how accidents happen and what the important factors are. In this paper we examine three aspects of accident investigation as described in a number of investigation manuals. Firstly, we focus on accident models and in particular the assumptions about how different factors interact to cause - or prevent - accidents, i.e., the accident "mechanisms". Secondly, we focus on the scope in the sense of the factors (or factor domains) that are considered in the models - for instance (hu)man, technology, and organization (MTO). Thirdly, we focus on the system of investigation or the activities that together constitute an accident investigation project/process. We found that the manuals all used complex linear models. The factors considered were in general (hu)man, technology, organization, and information. The causes found during an investigation reflect the assumptions of the accident model, following the What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find or WYLFIWYF principle. The identified causes typically became specific problems to be fixed during an implementation of solutions. This follows what can be called What-You-Find-Is-What-You-Fix or WYFIWYF principle.

  • 35.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What you find is not always what you fix-How other aspects than causes of accidents decide recommendations for remedial actions2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2132-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In accident investigation, the ideal is often to follow the principle "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix", an ideal reflecting that the investigation should be a rational process of first identifying causes, and then implement remedial actions to fix them. Previous research has however identified cognitive and political biases leading away from this ideal. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the same factors that often are highlighted in modern accident models are not perceived in a recursive manner to reflect how they influence the process of accident investigation in itself. Those factors are more extensive than the cognitive and political biases that are often highlighted in theory. Our purpose in this study was to reveal constraints affecting accident investigation practices that lead the investigation towards or away from the ideal of "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix". We conducted a qualitative interview study with 22 accident investigators from different domains in Sweden. We found a wide range of factors that led investigations away from the ideal, most which more resembled factors involved in organizational accidents, rather than reflecting flawed thinking. One particular limitation of investigation was that many investigations stop the analysis at the level of "preventable causes", the level where remedies that were currently practical to implement could be found. This could potentially limit the usefulness of using investigations to get a view on the "big picture" of causes of accidents as a basis for further remedial actions.

  • 36.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of So Denmark.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, p. 455-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation.

  • 37.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Törnqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Establishing conversation spaces in hastily formed networks: the worst fire in modern Swedish history2014In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 790-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In presenting examples from the most extensive and demanding fire in modern Swedish history, this paper describes challenges facing hastily formed networks in exceptional situations. Two concepts that have been used in the analysis of the socio-technical systems that make up a response are conversation space and sensemaking. This paper argues that a framework designed to promote understanding of the sensemaking process must take into consideration the time at which as well as the location in which an individual is engaged in an event. In hastily formed networks, location is partly mediated through physical systems that form conversation spaces of players and their interaction practices. This paper identifies and discusses four challenges to the formation of shared conversation spaces. It is based on the case study of the 2006 Bodträskfors forest fire in Sweden and draws on the experiences of organised volunteers and firefighters who participated in a hastily formed network created to combat the fire. 

  • 38.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Törnqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resilience in Sensemaking and Control of Emergency Response2012In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 99-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model for describing resilience in emergency management of irregular events. The purpose of our model is to describe three parallel developments in an emergency response scenario. Namely, changes in the ongoing events processes, the actors' sensemaking and control functions, and the technologies used for sensemaking and control. Focusing on the three separate developments enables identifying resilience in the choice of control functions and technologies in response to foreseen and actual process changes, their consequences and new disturbances. Our model was created following an emergency exercise that proved to be difficult to analyse with respect to resilience using existing models. We use the exercise to illustrate and apply our model through a qualitative analysis.

  • 39.
    Lundblad, Karin
    et al.
    LiU KogVet, currently Relcon Scandpower AB.
    Speziali, Josephine
    LiU KogVet, currently Vattenfall Power Consultant AB.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    FRAM as a risk assessment method for nuclear fuel transportation2008In: International Confererence Working on Safety,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview and evaluation of the predictive use of the Functional Resonance Accident Model, FRAM (Hollnagel, 2004), a method that is under development and in line with the theoretical framework of Resilience Engineering (Hollnagel et al. 2006). FRAM is based on the premise that both negative and positive events can result from (expected and unexpected) combinations of the variability in the normal performance of complex socio-technical systems. FRAM was used as a qualitative risk assessment method in a nuclear power plant. The process assessed was the transportation of an 80 ton heavy metal cylinder for transportation of used fuel. The study focused on the transportation of the cylinder inside the power plant and in particular the 40 meter lift that is needed to get the cylinder up into the reactor hall. The FRAM analysis was used to propose recommendations at different levels, such as how to improve human-machine interface issues, procedures, information dissemination within the organization, and government guidelines. 

  • 40.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A framework for learning from adaptive performance2014In: Resilience engineering in practice. Vol. 2: Becoming resilient / [ed] Christopher P. Nemeth, Erik Hollnagel, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014, 2, p. 79-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams2013In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

  • 42.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping.
    Resilience Strategies across Industries for Managing Everyday Risks2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH. Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work2014In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 78-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

  • 44.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    MINES ParisTech.
    The context and habits of accident investigation practices: A study of 108 Swedish investigators2010In: SAFETY SCIENCE, ISSN 0925-7535, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 859-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context and habits of accident investigation practices were explored by means of questionnaire data obtained from accident investigators in the healthcare, transportation, nuclear and rescue sectors in Sweden. Issues explored included; resources, training, time spent in different phases of an investigation, methods and procedures, beliefs about causes to accidents, communication issues, etc. Examples of findings were: differences in the extent to which the human factor was perceived as a dominant cause to accidents; manning resources to support investigations were perceived as rather scarce; underutilization of data from safety related processes such as risk analysis and auditing data; the phase of suggesting remedial actions (recommendations) were comparatively brief and generally not well supported. A majority of the investigators thought that the investigations were free from pressures to follow a specific direction; the investigators also thought that performing an investigation in itself (regardless of the specific results) had positive influences on safety. A majority of the investigators thought that upper management had a relatively strong influence on safety in the organizations. The results are discussed in terms of suggestions for strategies to strengthen investigation practices - particularly those conducted as part-time work in organizations.

  • 45.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SONIFYING THE PERIPHERY: SUPPORTING THE FORMATION OF GESTALT IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL2016In: Proceedings of ISon 2016, 5th Interactive Sonification Workshop, CITEC, Bielefeld University, Germany, December 16, 2016, CITEC, Bielefeld University , 2016, p. 23-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a design-led exploration of sonification to provide peripheral awareness in air traffic control centers. Our assumption is that by using musical sounds for sonification of peripheral events, it is possible to create a dynamic soundscape that complements the visual information to support the formation and maintenance of an airspace Gestalt throughout the air traffic controller’s interaction. An interactive sonification concept was designed, focusing on one controlled sector of airspace with inbound and outbound aircraft. A formative assessment of the sonification concept suggests that our approach might facilitate the air traffic controller’s work by providing complementary auditory information about inbound and outbound aircraft, particularly in situations where the traffic volume is moderate to low. 

  • 46.
    Svensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Efficiency and Safety of Air Traffic Management Tool Usage: A case study on how a controller uses tools to detect and solve conflicts during regular ATM simulator training2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Tran Luciani, Danwei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enabling Designers to Sketch Immersive Fulldome Presentations2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, 2016, p. 1490-1496Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sketching is an integral part of a designer's creative process, especially in the early phase of a project and in particular when exploring an unfamiliar medium. Traditional design principles does not seem to apply when designing presentations for a fulldome. Surprisingly, interviews with local creative professionals revealed that sketching was a challenge when designing fulldome presentations, which made it more difficult for them to understand the characteristics of this unfamiliar medium. This challenge has also been affirmed by the first author's own experience of creating a fulldome presentation. This paper describes the challenges in designing for a fulldome and discusses the work in progress by imagining new variations of sketching media that are being created as early design concepts, which will be tried out by a reference group. The aim is to identify characteristics a sketching medium needs to have in order for a designer to successfully express and explore early ideas for a fulldome presentation.

  • 48.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jungert, Erland
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff2009In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part A. Systems and humans, ISSN 1083-4427, E-ISSN 1558-2426Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research gives attention to role improvisation in command and controlteams designated for crisis and disaster response operations in aninternational context. The paper reports a study, which had the goal todevelop, on the bases of real response operations, a role-playing simulationto explore and study role improvisation in highly realistic situations. Thestudy was based on a single-case, the command staff of the SwedishResponse Team. The objective of the study was achieved by (a) identifyingcritical areas concerning role improvisation of the command staff, (b)proposing a model-based simulation design that incorporates these areas,and (c) preparing and executing a role-playing simulation based on thisdesign. The critical areas were identified from two previous responseoperations. The analysis utilized a phenomenological approach, and wasbased on twenty-two interviews and three workshops. The identified critical areas were integrated in the simulation design by means of the initial set-up,scenario stimuli, and interactions with the simulation staff. This was basedon a synthesis of the models of command and control and responseoperations, scenario and tasks, simulation approach and manipulation of theimprovisation variables. The developed simulation was a scenario-basedreal-time role-playing simulation with a progressively unfolding scenario.The scenario was based on events taking place during the 2007 Californiawildfires. The simulation was evaluated by assessing the subjective realism.The paper reports experience from designing and conducting the roleplayingsimulation. It identifies demands and requirements, which have tobe met in order to simulate highly realistic situations. It also demonstrateshow, on the bases of real response operations, such simulations can bedesigned. Lastly, it also identifies areas that require attention in order o usethe role-playing simulations to explore and study role improvisation.

  • 49.
    Trofast, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haugum, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygren, Victoria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyström, Tommie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Gary
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thunborg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Törnqvist, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå2012In: 3:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Linköping, 2012, p. 11-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta paper beskriver arbetet med att utveckla en modell för utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå (UEX) vid Institutionen för Teknik och Naturvetenskap, Linköpings Universitet under läsåret 2010-2011.

    Modellen har utvecklats och testats vid utbildningsprogrammet Grafisk Design och Kommunikation (GDK), men med syfte att kunna appliceras även på andra kandidatprograms examensarbete.

    Det projektet prövat är om man kan höja kvaliteten på examensarbeten och effektiviteten i hanteringen av dessa jämfört med nuvarande modell. Modellen bygger på att tvärvetenskapliga kompetensgrupper med flera examinatorer granskar examensarbetenas kvalitet utifrån sina spetskompetenser. Vidare ersätts mycket av de individuella handledningarna med gruppseminarier för att få ett kunskapsutbyte mellan examensarbetena.

    Projektet har också mynnat ut i en gemensam bedömningsgrund för examensarbeten på kandidatnivå, samt en språkgranskningsmall som kan användas för att öka den språkliga kvalitén på examensarbetsrapporten.

    Genom enkätundersökningar både bland studenter, handledare och examinatorer har resultatet av modellen undersökts.

    Efter enbart ett års testande av modellen är det svårt att dra långtgående slutsatser. Resultatet har till viss del störts av förändringar av examensarbeteföreskrifterna vid Linköpings Universitet. De slutsatser som kan dras är att kompetensgrupperna med flera examinatorer skapar en kunskapsbrygga mellan examinatorerna samt en gemensam bedömningsgrund. En hel del slutsatser kan användas som rekommendationer för att ytterligare utveckla modellen.

  • 50.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, BjörnLinköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.Lundberg, JonasLinköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Proceedings of the Resilience Engineering Workshop, 25-27 June, 2007, Vadstena, Sweden2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience Engineering is a new approach to safety and risk management. Whereas conventional approaches to system safety are dominated by hindsight and emphasize error tabulation and probabilistic risk analysis, Resilience Engineering emphasizes an organisations ability to adjust its functioning, prior to or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain operations even after a major mishap or in the presence of continuous stress.

    A common description of a resilient system is a system that has:

    • the ability to respond, quickly and efficiently, to regular disturbances and threats,
    • the ability to monitor continuously for irregular disturbances and threats, and to revise the basis for monitoring when needed, and
    • the ability to anticipate future changes in the environment that may affect the system’s ability to function, and the willingness to prepare against these changes even if the outcome is uncertain.

    Resilience engineering provides the methods by which a system’s resilience can be gauged or measured, and the means by which a system’s resilience can be improved. Resilience has for many decades proven to be a useful construct in analyzing the persistence, stability and flexibility of ecological systems.

    The Resilience Engineering workshop is organised by the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory at the Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University. The workshop is an opportunity to discuss Resilience Engineering and its implications for research and practice in, among other disciplines, system safety, risk analysis, system design, and accident analysis

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