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  • 1.
    Almgren, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hantering av produkters miljöaspekter i miljöledningssystem2004Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do standardised environmental management systems lead to reduced environmental impacts?2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to increase the understanding of the relationship between standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) and the environment, focusing on the use of such systems by companies and on systems in accordance with the ISO 14001 and/or EMAS standards. Another purpose is to investigate how standardised EMSs fit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to examine a special EMS solution called the Hackefors model, used by a group of SMEs, to find out how this model has affected the environmental efforts and business of these enterprises.

    To gather knowledge on the connection between EMSs and environmental impacts, two main roads have been followed. Firstly, empirical studies (and a few literature reviews) have been conducted, among other things, aiming to clarify how the standards' requirements are interpreted and applied in reality, and uncover what this means in terms of environmental impacts. For the most part, external environmental auditors and environmental managers have been interviewed. An important purpose is to illuminate what an ISO 14001 certificate, or an EMAS registration, guarantees. This means that the minimum level is emphasised to a large extent. Secondly, a literature review has been conducted to collect knowledge on the selected issue from the international research arena. One intention is that this review will contribute information about the average use of EMSs and thus serve as a good complement to the empirical studies.

    It has to be concluded that a standardised EMS does not guarantee a good environmental performance and defmitely not reduced environmental impacts. Without any doubt, EMSs can be used to structure and strengthen a company's environmental efforts, and many companies surely have achieved important reductions in terms of environmental impacts by using an EMS. However, the standards' formulations are very indistinct and they can be interpreted and applied in many different ways. It is clearly possible to be certified and registered without improving very much at all. The effects of EMSs are to a very large extent dependent on how companies choose to use them. To capture the potential that EMSs have, issues of credibility should be observed. Therefore, the thesis includes some recommendations in the form of discussion points.

    The Hackefors model clearly can be used to overcome many of the common barriers forimplementing an EMS at SMEs. In the studied case, the EMS implementation had led to severalimportant environmental improvements and also to other types of improvements.

    List of papers
    1. Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspects
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of how standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) affect environmental performance. Based on interviews with environmental managers from 18 different companies and two environmental consultants, we make clear how companies identify, formulate and assess their environmental aspects.

    The results show that consultants have an important role concerning EMSs. Many of the environmental managers have deficient knowledge concerning their own EMS, since they cannot explain central EMS procedures. This can probably be explained by too much external assistance, from consultants, in combination with internal barriers such as lack of competence, time and motivation.

    The characteristics of the companies’ assessment methods are presented, which among other things include which parameters are used and their relative weight. From an environmental point of view, it is positive that environmental parameters, in general, have a big influence. However it should also be noted that some of the companies use methods in which business parameters seem to dominate. Other important results show that most systems, overall, are facility oriented. In most cases it was difficult to understand the scope of individual aspects, for example, concerning what environmental impacts were considered. A majority of the environmental managers were rather uncertain about issues in relation to scope and system perspectives. Therefore, it is recommended that incentives be taken to increase environmental managers’ competence and to improve the standards, the guiding documents and the systems for their application.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87143 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

    Keywords
    Product oriented environmental management systems; POEMS; Design for the Environment; DFE; Eco-design; ISO 14001; EMAS
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13541 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.005 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 417-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

    Keywords
    Design for environment; DFE; Environmental management systems; EMS; ISO 14001; EMAS; Auditors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13542 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-07 Created: 2004-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Auditing external environmental auditors: investigating how ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied in reality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditing external environmental auditors: investigating how ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied in reality
    2001 (English)In: Eco-Management and Auditing, ISSN 0968-9427, E-ISSN 1099-0925, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14001 standard leaves a lot to be interpreted by its users. As the standard is growing in popularity the external environmental auditors are becoming key players in the environmental arena. Through interpretations, they form the linkage between the standard document and its application in reality.

    This study is based on interviews conducted with auditors representing all nine certification bodies in Sweden and at the board that accredits these firms. The paper presents how auditors interpret and apply central requirements of ISO 14001, with the aim to illuminate important issues from an environmental point of view.

    It can be concluded that many important requirements are interpreted differently. There are disagreements regarding what criteria are approved when determining which environmental aspects are significant. Further on, the standard's requirement for continual improvement is normally transformed to improvements regarding a few ratios. The paper, amongst other issues, also deals with auditors' competence, their objectivity and their opinions about the efforts of certified organizations.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87142 (URN)10.1002/ema.165 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    5. Joint EMS and group certification: a cost-effective route for SMEs to achieve ISO 14001
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint EMS and group certification: a cost-effective route for SMEs to achieve ISO 14001
    1999 (English)In: Greener Management International, ISSN 0966-9671, Vol. 28, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important group from an environmental point of view and they also have environmental requirements - including environmental management systems (EMSs) - imposed on them by larger companies. At Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 30 SMEs are co-operating on environmental issues; they have formed a network and established a joint EMS in accordance with ISO 14001. This is a unique strategy for the implementation of EMSs by SMEs. In this paper the EMS model used at Hackefors is presented and the resulting cost savings are analysed. Environmental improvements are also discussed briefly. It can be concluded that, by networking and implementing a joint EMS, the SMEs (mostly small and 'micro' enterprises) at Hackefors have established a rational and cost-effective solution that has facilitated both the implementation and maintenance of EMSs. Although the EMSs have only recently been certified, many environmental and commercial improvements have already been observed. Many of the companies have received positive responses from their customers and believe that the EMS improves their ability to obtain contracts relating to sales of products and/or services. Furthermore, the companies at Hackefors believe that having an EMS based on ISO 14001 results in positive commercial and environmental effects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 1999
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87141 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2014-10-08
    6. Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems: a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental management system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems: a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental management system
    2003 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 26 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have formed an environmental network and implemented a joint environmental management system (EMS) according to ISO 14001. Based on interviews with the environmental co-ordinators at these enterprises, the effects on business and environmental efforts and impacts are analysed.

    It can be concluded that the joint EMS has resulted in better relations with important stakeholders, such as existing and potential customers. For example, three-fifths said that their EMS had made it easier to receive a contract for the sale of products and services. Several environmental improvements have been observed and are presented in the paper, many of which are considered as consequences of the EMSs. Moreover, based on observations during the study, this paper discusses how boundaries and screening affect the connection between EMSs and environmental performance.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30058 (URN)10.1002/bse.357 (DOI)15518 (Local ID)15518 (Archive number)15518 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    7. The connection between environmental management systems and continual environmental performance improvements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The connection between environmental management systems and continual environmental performance improvements
    2002 (English)In: Corporate Environmental Strategy, ISSN 1066-7938, E-ISSN 1873-6912, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the connection between standardized environmental management systems and environmental performance, based on a case study. By comparing the environmental reviews for a group of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) before and two years after their EMS implementation, we try to show how the environmental performance of these firms has developed and draw some conclusions regarding the connection between standardized EMSs and environmental performance in general.

    The case study illuminates some central aspects of ISO 14001's requirement of continual improvement. Taken together with the literature on this issue, it is clear that in practice a set of indicators are established and monitored, indicators concerning operations as well as management efforts. Hence, the selection of indicators is crucial. External environmental auditors should compare the development of these indicators and determine if an improvement has occurred or not. Naturally, this judgement by auditors is very important and difficult. The situation is very similar to the weighting step recognized as a problem in life cycle analysis, but the use of indicators for management efforts adds an additional dimension to this already intricate problem.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87140 (URN)10.1016/S1066-7938(02)00011-8 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06
  • 3.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental management systems and environmental performance2007In: Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems / [ed] Robert Sroufe and Joseph Sarkis, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2007, p. 242-257Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMSs) are tools that can be used to steer and controlan organisation’s environmental efforts. This chapter focuses on standardisedEMSs, those that deal with fulfilling the requirements of the international standard ISO14001 (ISO 1996) and/or the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) (EC 2001).These standardised EMSs have been applied for about a decade; the number of organisationsthat are certified in accordance with them worldwide is steadily rising and nowhas reached over 100,000 (ISO World 2007).Early EMS work focused on issues relating to implementation. Often, positive environmentaleffects were taken for granted. More recently, however, questions addressingthe effects of standardised EMSs have become more popular in the research literature.The extent and types of effects of a standardised system are critical issues from anenvironmental perspective. The information presented within this chapter will helpuncover and capture some of the nuances of the connection between EMSs and environmentalperformance. Important lessons learned as a result of this study include arelative lack of understanding of EMSs even after more than a decade of practical application.Additional insights include the extent to which EMSs are useful tools in achievingbetter organisational environmental conditions and identification of the importantfactors influencing the effectiveness and efficiency of such systems. While the focus ofthis chapter is on the use of standardised EMSs to reduce environmental impacts, themethods used in this study build on the author’s findings from several earlier studies—a meta-analytic perspective—and are summarised where appropriate. Some key strategicEMS issues addressed here include:

    ● Environmental aspects, their identification, formulation and assessment

    ● The scope of EMSs, including their relationship with product development

    ● Environmental policy, targets and objectives

    ● External environmental auditing

    ● Continual improvement in environmental performance

    ● EMSs and the supply chain

  • 4.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How do standardised environmental management systems affect environmental performance and business?2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to increase the understanding of what a standardised environmental management system (EMS) is, can be, and is not. The EMS infrastructure, i.e. the standards for EMSs and corresponding systems for their application, is analysed to find out how"ft affects the environmental efforts of companies. Furthermore, the topic of how standardised EMSs fit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is discussed. A special EMS solution used by a group of SMEs is examined to clarify how this model has affected the environmental efforts and business of these enterprises.

    The thesis is based on three studies. Firstly, external environmental auditors were interviewed. Secondly, the environmental reviews for the group of SMEs were studied. This study also involved a literature review on how to measure environmental performance. Thirdly, the environmental co-ordinators working at the mentioned small enterprises were interviewed.

    It can be concluded that it is too early to draw any general conclusions on how standardised EMSs affect environmental performance. How ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied is largely left to companies and external environmental auditors. In practise, 14001's requirement concerning continual improvement is often restricted to a few environmental aspects and does not say anything about the total environmental impact. Furthermore, there is an inconsistency in the standard text and its implementation concerning which criteria are approved when assessing environmental aspects. Some auditors allow the inclusion of criteria regarding economy and quality, etc. To ensure the credibility of ISO 14001, the standard and the systems for its application should be improved.

    The EMS model studied seems to be a cost-effective solution for SMEs that removes the most important barriers for EMS implementation and maintenance at small firms. Also, it appears to have led to significant environmental improvements.

    List of papers
    1. Auditing external environmental auditors: investigating how ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied in reality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditing external environmental auditors: investigating how ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied in reality
    2001 (English)In: Eco-Management and Auditing, ISSN 0968-9427, E-ISSN 1099-0925, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14001 standard leaves a lot to be interpreted by its users. As the standard is growing in popularity the external environmental auditors are becoming key players in the environmental arena. Through interpretations, they form the linkage between the standard document and its application in reality.

    This study is based on interviews conducted with auditors representing all nine certification bodies in Sweden and at the board that accredits these firms. The paper presents how auditors interpret and apply central requirements of ISO 14001, with the aim to illuminate important issues from an environmental point of view.

    It can be concluded that many important requirements are interpreted differently. There are disagreements regarding what criteria are approved when determining which environmental aspects are significant. Further on, the standard's requirement for continual improvement is normally transformed to improvements regarding a few ratios. The paper, amongst other issues, also deals with auditors' competence, their objectivity and their opinions about the efforts of certified organizations.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87142 (URN)10.1002/ema.165 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspects
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of how standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) affect environmental performance. Based on interviews with environmental managers from 18 different companies and two environmental consultants, we make clear how companies identify, formulate and assess their environmental aspects.

    The results show that consultants have an important role concerning EMSs. Many of the environmental managers have deficient knowledge concerning their own EMS, since they cannot explain central EMS procedures. This can probably be explained by too much external assistance, from consultants, in combination with internal barriers such as lack of competence, time and motivation.

    The characteristics of the companies’ assessment methods are presented, which among other things include which parameters are used and their relative weight. From an environmental point of view, it is positive that environmental parameters, in general, have a big influence. However it should also be noted that some of the companies use methods in which business parameters seem to dominate. Other important results show that most systems, overall, are facility oriented. In most cases it was difficult to understand the scope of individual aspects, for example, concerning what environmental impacts were considered. A majority of the environmental managers were rather uncertain about issues in relation to scope and system perspectives. Therefore, it is recommended that incentives be taken to increase environmental managers’ competence and to improve the standards, the guiding documents and the systems for their application.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87143 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Joint EMS and group certification: a cost-effective route for SMEs to achieve ISO 14001
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint EMS and group certification: a cost-effective route for SMEs to achieve ISO 14001
    1999 (English)In: Greener Management International, ISSN 0966-9671, Vol. 28, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important group from an environmental point of view and they also have environmental requirements - including environmental management systems (EMSs) - imposed on them by larger companies. At Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 30 SMEs are co-operating on environmental issues; they have formed a network and established a joint EMS in accordance with ISO 14001. This is a unique strategy for the implementation of EMSs by SMEs. In this paper the EMS model used at Hackefors is presented and the resulting cost savings are analysed. Environmental improvements are also discussed briefly. It can be concluded that, by networking and implementing a joint EMS, the SMEs (mostly small and 'micro' enterprises) at Hackefors have established a rational and cost-effective solution that has facilitated both the implementation and maintenance of EMSs. Although the EMSs have only recently been certified, many environmental and commercial improvements have already been observed. Many of the companies have received positive responses from their customers and believe that the EMS improves their ability to obtain contracts relating to sales of products and/or services. Furthermore, the companies at Hackefors believe that having an EMS based on ISO 14001 results in positive commercial and environmental effects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 1999
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87141 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-10 Created: 2013-01-10 Last updated: 2014-10-08
    4. Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems: a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental management system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems: a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental management system
    2003 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 26 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have formed an environmental network and implemented a joint environmental management system (EMS) according to ISO 14001. Based on interviews with the environmental co-ordinators at these enterprises, the effects on business and environmental efforts and impacts are analysed.

    It can be concluded that the joint EMS has resulted in better relations with important stakeholders, such as existing and potential customers. For example, three-fifths said that their EMS had made it easier to receive a contract for the sale of products and services. Several environmental improvements have been observed and are presented in the paper, many of which are considered as consequences of the EMSs. Moreover, based on observations during the study, this paper discusses how boundaries and screening affect the connection between EMSs and environmental performance.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30058 (URN)10.1002/bse.357 (DOI)15518 (Local ID)15518 (Archive number)15518 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 5.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Miljömanagement2004Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljömanagement: miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i företag och andra organisationer2012 (ed. 2 [rev.])Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger läsaren kunskap om viktiga förutsättningar när det gällerföretags, och andra typer av organisationers, arbete med miljö- och hållbar utveckling. Det gäller både förutsättningar utanför och inom organisationer. Boken behandlar även relevanta strategier, metoder och koncept inom området.

    I den första delen – Omvärlden – behandlas områden som främst påverkar företag och andra typer av organisationer utifrån. Inledningsvis beskrivs exempelvis miljöproblematiken och ”hållbar utveckling”. Därefter behandlas miljöpolitik, miljölagstiftning, de ekonomiska systemen samt etiska frågor.

    I den andra delen – Hållbarhetsstrategiskt arbete med fokus på miljö – behandlas delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet som ofta berör hela organisationen. Först introduceras intressentperspektivet och därefter grunderna avseende strategiskt arbete. Vidare finns en kort introduktion till organisationsteori med en beskrivning av hur miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete kan organiseras och genomföras. Därefter följer två kapitel om ledningssystem, först ges en allmän introduktion för flera olika områden och sedan en mer ingående beskrivning. Den andra delen avslutas med ett kapitel om miljöarbete i olika typer av organisationer.

    I bokens tredje del – Viktiga delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet – berörs andra ”områden” i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet, som kan vara mycket viktiga men ofta inte är lika övergripande. Det innefattar miljörevision; miljöarbete med fokus på produkter; miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar; riskhantering; samt marknadsföring och extern kommunikation.

    Boken är i första hand skriven för kurser i miljömanagement eller miljöledning vid högskolor och universitet, men kan också användas för utbildningar på företag och inom andra typer av organisationer.

  • 7.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center (BRC).
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biogas in the transport sector: Actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This articlefocuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions.Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essentialrole, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning sociotechnicalsystems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation andsigns of stagnating development.Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procuresbiogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedaviasteers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”.There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due tosuggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comesabout. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-freevehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance,but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policylandscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behindthe decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union andSweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-20 10:58
  • 8.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 9.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 10.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Bohn, Irene
    Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole, Denmark.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Systematic assessment of feedstock for an expanded biogas production: A multi-criteria approach2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions can contribute to more renewable and local energy systems, and also involve other essential aspects such as nutrient recycling. From a theoretical feedstock perspective there is a great biogas potential in Sweden, but the development has been relatively slow as many biogas producers face challenges of different types. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) is of strategic importance. Within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), hosted by Linköping University in Sweden, a research project focused on feedstock has been ongoing for several years. It has involved researchers, biogas and biofertilizer producers, agricultural organizations and others. The main aim has been to develop a method to assess the suitability of feedstock for biogas and biofertilizer production, and to apply this method on a few selected feedstocks. A multi-criteria method has been developed that covers potential, feasibility and resource efficiency, operationalized via 17 indicators directed towards cost efficiency, technological feasibility, energy and environmental performance, accessibility, competition, policy and other issues. Thus the method it is relatively comprehensive, yet hopefully simple enough to be used by practitioners.

    The main ambition, applying the method, has been to collect and structure relevant information to facilitate strategic overviews, communication and informed decision making. This is relevant for development within the biogas and biofertilizer industry, for policymakers, to define and prioritize among essential research projects, etc. This report presents some essential parts of this project, focusing on the multi-criteria method and results regarding ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels and food waste (and stickleback to some extent). It clarifies how the method can be applied and highlights barriers, drivers and opportunities for each feedstock. Comparisons are also made. The results indicate that biogas production from food waste and ley crops is the most straightforward, and for straw and farmed blue mussels there are more obstacles to overcome. For all of them, the dynamic and very uncertain policy landscape is a barrier. In the final chapter, some conclusions about the method and its application are drawn.

  • 11.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Börjesson, Berit
    Altea AB, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint EMS and group certification: a cost-effective route for SMEs to achieve ISO 140011999In: Greener Management International, ISSN 0966-9671, Vol. 28, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important group from an environmental point of view and they also have environmental requirements - including environmental management systems (EMSs) - imposed on them by larger companies. At Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 30 SMEs are co-operating on environmental issues; they have formed a network and established a joint EMS in accordance with ISO 14001. This is a unique strategy for the implementation of EMSs by SMEs. In this paper the EMS model used at Hackefors is presented and the resulting cost savings are analysed. Environmental improvements are also discussed briefly. It can be concluded that, by networking and implementing a joint EMS, the SMEs (mostly small and 'micro' enterprises) at Hackefors have established a rational and cost-effective solution that has facilitated both the implementation and maintenance of EMSs. Although the EMSs have only recently been certified, many environmental and commercial improvements have already been observed. Many of the companies have received positive responses from their customers and believe that the EMS improves their ability to obtain contracts relating to sales of products and/or services. Furthermore, the companies at Hackefors believe that having an EMS based on ISO 14001 results in positive commercial and environmental effects.

  • 12.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 13.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production: Final report of the CEMEX-Linköping University industrial ecology project, 20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains information about a research project lead by researchers from Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University in Sweden. It has been conducted in cooperation with staff from the global cement company CEMEX. The study has been focused on three cement plants in the western parts of Germany, referred to as CEMEX Cluster West. They form a kind of work alliance, together producing several intermediate products and final products. One of the plants is a cement plant with a kiln, while the other two can be described as grinding and mixing stations.

    The overall aim has been to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. An important objective was to systematically assess different cement sites, and production approaches, from a climate perspective, thereby making it easier for the company to analyze different options for improvements. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Industrial Symbiosis (IS) have played an important role.

    A common way of making cement is to burn limestone in a cement kiln. This leads to the formation of cement clinker, which is then grinded and composes the main component of Ordinary Portland Cement. One very important phase of the production of clinker is the process of calcination, which takes place in the kiln. In this chemical reaction calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature and calcium oxide and carbon dioxide are produced. The calcination is of high importance since it implies that carbon bound in minerals is transformed to CO2. A large portion of the CO2 emissions related to clinker production is coming from the calcination process.

    Both clinker and Ordinary Portland Cement (CEM I 42.5) were studied. However, there are other ways of making cement, where the clinker can be substituted by other materials. Within Cluster West, granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry is used to a large extent as such a clinker substitute. This slag needs to be grinded, but an important difference compared to clinker is that it has already been treated thermally (during iron production) and therefore does not have to be burned in a kiln. With the purpose to include products with clearly different share of clinker substitutes, the project also comprised CEM III/A 42.5 (blended cement, about 50% clinker) and CEM III/B 42.5 N-. (blended cement, about 27% clinker). To sum up, this means that the study involved “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where a byproduct is utilized to a large extent instead of clinker.

    The methodology is mostly based on Life Lycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate, using the SimaPro software. This means that the cement products have been studied from the extraction of raw materials until they were ready for delivery at the “gate” of Cluster West. The functional unit was 1 tonne of product. A lot of data was collected regarding flows of material and energy for the year of 2009. In addition, some information concerning 1997 was also acquired. Most of the used data has been provided by CEMEX, but to be able to cover upstream parts of the life cycle data from the Ecoinvent database has also been utilized.

    The extensive data concerning 2009 formed the base for the project and made it possible to study the selected products thoroughly for this year. However, the intention was also to assess other versions of the product system – Cluster West in 1997 and also a possible, improved future case. For this purpose, a conceptual LCA method was developed that made it possible to consider different products as well as different conditions for the product system. Having conducted the baseline LCA, important results could be generated based on knowledge about six key performance indicators (KPIs) regarding overall information about materials, the fuel mix and the electricity mix. The conceptual LCA method could be used for other products and versions of Cluster West, without collecting large amounts of additional specific Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. The developed conceptual LCA method really simplified the rather complex Cluster West production system. Instead of having to consider hundreds of parameters, the information about the six KPIs was sufficient to estimate the emissions from different products produced in different versions of the production system (Cluster West).

    The results showed that the clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag, mainly since it reduces the emissions accounted related to calcination. For example, the CO2-eq emissions related to CEM III/B product were estimated to be 65 percent lower than those for CEM I.

    A framework for identifying and evaluating options for improvement has been developed and applied. Based on that framework the present production system was analyzed and illustrated, and different measures for reducing the climate impact were shown and evaluated. Two possible scenarios were defined and the conceptual LCA model used to estimate their climate performance.

    The authors’ recommendation is for CEMEX to continue to increase the share of CEM III (the share of good clinker substitutes), and to make efforts to shift the focus on the market from clinker and cement plants to different types of cement (or concrete) or even better to focus on the lifecycle of the final products such as buildings and constructions.

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 14.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: För en hållbar utveckling2013Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The connection between environmental management systems and continual environmental performance improvements2002In: Corporate Environmental Strategy, ISSN 1066-7938, E-ISSN 1873-6912, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the connection between standardized environmental management systems and environmental performance, based on a case study. By comparing the environmental reviews for a group of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) before and two years after their EMS implementation, we try to show how the environmental performance of these firms has developed and draw some conclusions regarding the connection between standardized EMSs and environmental performance in general.

    The case study illuminates some central aspects of ISO 14001's requirement of continual improvement. Taken together with the literature on this issue, it is clear that in practice a set of indicators are established and monitored, indicators concerning operations as well as management efforts. Hence, the selection of indicators is crucial. External environmental auditors should compare the development of these indicators and determine if an improvement has occurred or not. Naturally, this judgement by auditors is very important and difficult. The situation is very similar to the weighting step recognized as a problem in life cycle analysis, but the use of indicators for management efforts adds an additional dimension to this already intricate problem.

  • 16.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tracing business and environmental effects of environmental management systems: a study of networking small and medium-sized enterprises using a joint environmental management system2003In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hackefors Industrial District in Sweden, 26 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have formed an environmental network and implemented a joint environmental management system (EMS) according to ISO 14001. Based on interviews with the environmental co-ordinators at these enterprises, the effects on business and environmental efforts and impacts are analysed.

    It can be concluded that the joint EMS has resulted in better relations with important stakeholders, such as existing and potential customers. For example, three-fifths said that their EMS had made it easier to receive a contract for the sale of products and services. Several environmental improvements have been observed and are presented in the paper, many of which are considered as consequences of the EMSs. Moreover, based on observations during the study, this paper discusses how boundaries and screening affect the connection between EMSs and environmental performance.

  • 17.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öberg, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental management systems: scope assessment of environmental aspectsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of how standardised environmental management systems (EMSs) affect environmental performance. Based on interviews with environmental managers from 18 different companies and two environmental consultants, we make clear how companies identify, formulate and assess their environmental aspects.

    The results show that consultants have an important role concerning EMSs. Many of the environmental managers have deficient knowledge concerning their own EMS, since they cannot explain central EMS procedures. This can probably be explained by too much external assistance, from consultants, in combination with internal barriers such as lack of competence, time and motivation.

    The characteristics of the companies’ assessment methods are presented, which among other things include which parameters are used and their relative weight. From an environmental point of view, it is positive that environmental parameters, in general, have a big influence. However it should also be noted that some of the companies use methods in which business parameters seem to dominate. Other important results show that most systems, overall, are facility oriented. In most cases it was difficult to understand the scope of individual aspects, for example, concerning what environmental impacts were considered. A majority of the environmental managers were rather uncertain about issues in relation to scope and system perspectives. Therefore, it is recommended that incentives be taken to increase environmental managers’ competence and to improve the standards, the guiding documents and the systems for their application.

  • 19.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

  • 20.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 417-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

  • 21.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 22.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wik, Gunnar
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Auditing external environmental auditors: investigating how ISO 14001 is interpreted and applied in reality2001In: Eco-Management and Auditing, ISSN 0968-9427, E-ISSN 1099-0925, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14001 standard leaves a lot to be interpreted by its users. As the standard is growing in popularity the external environmental auditors are becoming key players in the environmental arena. Through interpretations, they form the linkage between the standard document and its application in reality.

    This study is based on interviews conducted with auditors representing all nine certification bodies in Sweden and at the board that accredits these firms. The paper presents how auditors interpret and apply central requirements of ISO 14001, with the aim to illuminate important issues from an environmental point of view.

    It can be concluded that many important requirements are interpreted differently. There are disagreements regarding what criteria are approved when determining which environmental aspects are significant. Further on, the standard's requirement for continual improvement is normally transformed to improvements regarding a few ratios. The paper, amongst other issues, also deals with auditors' competence, their objectivity and their opinions about the efforts of certified organizations.

  • 23.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county2013In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

  • 24.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry2015In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

  • 25.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vision för biodrivmedel i Östergötland: Tillgång på regionala råvaror och principer för en resurseffektiv produktion år 20302012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary focus in this study is availability of local feedstock for biofuels for transportation. A basic assumption is that we need to increase the availability of all renewable fuels amongst which biofuels are one, to have a chance to reach the political goals and visions that are set for the Swedish transportation sector in the period up to year 2030. In the region of Östergötland biofuels are estimated to be a renewable alternative with good potential why we chose to focus on this. The aim of this study is threefold, to map a potential feedstock for biofuels for transportation, to elucidate characteristic principles of resource efficient biofuel production and to discuss and sketch a synoptic strategy of biofuel production plants for realizing the potential feedstock. The study takes off from an ”a priori construct” of potential sources of feedstock in Östergötland developed together with a group of experts. Further on a literature and an interview study with actors in the biofuel sector is performed to derive both quantitative and qualitative data for the mapping of the potential feedstock. The potential is further analyzed through scenario building. Two different scenarios are built for the year 2030, EXPAN (The expansion scenario) and INNTEK (The innovation- and technique development scenario). The potential of scenario INNTEK is assumed to be a bit more uncertain than the potential of scenario EXPAN since the realization of the potential requires some specific technological break-through whilst the EXPAN scenario requires technological development that is expected to be more closely achievable, but above all a better steering and allocation of available resources. The scenarios does not include any feedstock from forestry since the technological break-through required to get biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass viable until the year 2030 is not expected to happen soon enough. The potential of scenario EXPAN amounted to almost 40% of todays need for fuel in the transportation sector in Östergötland while INNTEK reached just over 50%. The agricultural sector is found to be the most important sector for producing a potential feedstock for biofuels and, but the forest industry is also considered to be important although lignocellolosic biomass from the forest is not considered for the potential feedstock. Since the resources from agriculture is estimated to be a major part of the potential feedstock for biofuels in Östergötland a sensitivity analysis on the share of cropland used for production of raw material for biofuel production  is performed where the share is varied between 30-60%. In the scenarios EXPAN and INNTEK a share of 30% of the available cropland in Östergötland is used. Further the three principles characterizing resource efficient production of biofuels is described: energy cascading, biofuels cascading and value rising utilization of resources. Since the transition towards usage of biofuels is partly an environmental driven process it is important to develop resource efficient systems where the environmental pressure is minimized. The most important policy measure for biofuels for transportation today, the European Renewable Directive (RED), is fostering only production of biofuels with low emissions of greenhouse gases and is not taking any of the other added values often associated with biofuels into consideration. An important bottle-neck when it comes to realization of the biofuel potential is estimated to be the establishment of new production plants. In the report an idea sketch is presented where a number of plants which would realize about 700 GWh (1000 GWh including tall oil) beyond the 500 GWh that is produced at present. From the starting point where Östergötland is estimated to be considering potential feedstock and production conditions biofuels are estimated to be an obvious track to go in the transition towards a bigger share of renewable fuels. A continued expansion and development of the existing production plants in Händelö, Norrköping and in Linköping is desirable, but to reach the political goals that have been set for the next 20 years also completely new production plants are required at several locations in the region.

  • 26.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

    This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 27.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry: a case study of a German cement production cluster2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to them. In order to effectively improve climate performance of cement production, it is essential to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate various improvement measures and implement the most effective and feasible measures.

    This has been done in this article by developing an assessment framework based on concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis which creates an structure for seeking and evaluating the performance and feasibility of various CO2 improvement measures. The developed framework has a wide system perspective, takes a wide range of CO2 improvement measures, and treats all material, and energy flows within the industry as potentially useful resources. This framework is applied in practice for assessing the most feasible measures to apply within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX.

    Purpose

    Use the concepts of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis and develop an assessment framework for aggregating, categorizing, and evaluating various CO2 improvement measures for a given production system. In addition, apply this framework on an actual cement production system and summarize the results both in qualitative and quantitative terms.

    Theoretical framework

    The assessment framework developed in this article is based on the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis: (1) study of the flows of material and energy in production systems is important, (2) emphasizing on the importance of studying industrial systems in integration with their surrounding systems, not as isolated entities, and (3) in an industrial ecosystem no material and energy stream should be treated as waste and all material and energy streams are potentially useful inputs for other industrial processes.

    Results

    The result is an assessment framework which can be used to systematically gather, classify and evaluate different CO2 improvement measures for cement production. This framework consists of two parts: (1) generic assessment and (2) site-specific assessment of CO2 improvement measures. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. degree of connectedness which is required for their implementation), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    The framework is also applied on three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West and the results of the assessment are summarized.

    Conclusions

    As demonstrated in the case of Cluster West, the assessment framework developed in this article can be used by a cement producing companies such as CEMEX in order to systematically assess hundreds of measures and identify the most feasible and applicable ones for implementing on each of their cement production plants.

    Lessons learned during development of this assessment framework, may be used when approaching industrial systems other than cement production.

  • 28.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 29.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 30.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

  • 31.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yufang, Guo
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yonghui
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Yuxian
    Linköping University. Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zhang, Fagen
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

  • 32.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 14, article id 3756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

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