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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Ewa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordlund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arén, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neurocognitive impairment and driving performance after coronary artery bypass surgery2003In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1010-7940, E-ISSN 1873-734X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 334-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is common after cardiac surgery but few studies have examined the relationship between postoperative neuropsychological test performance and everyday behavior. The influence of postoperative cognitive impairment on car driving has previously not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive function and driving performance after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

    Methods: Twenty-seven patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique and 20 patients scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) under local anesthesia (control group) were enrolled in this prospective study conducted from April 1999 to September 2000. Complete data were obtained in 23 and 19 patients, respectively. The patients underwent neuropsychological examination with a test battery including 12 tests, a standardized on-road driving test and a test in an advanced driving simulator before and 4–6 weeks after intervention.

    Results: More patients in the coronary artery bypass grafting group (n=11, 48%) than in the percutaneous coronary intervention group (n=2, 10%) showed a cognitive decline after intervention (P=0.01). In the on-road driving test, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting deteriorated after surgery in the cognitive demanding parts like traffic behavior (P=0.01) and attention (P=0.04). Patients who underwent percutaneous intervention deteriorated in maneuvering of the vehicle (P=0.04). No deterioration was detected in the simulator in any of the groups after intervention. Patients with a cognitive decline after intervention also tended to drop in the on-road driving scores to a larger extent than did patients without a cognitive decline.

    Conclusion: This study indicates that cognitive functions important for safe driving may be influenced after cardiac surgery.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Ewa
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre.
    Aren, Claes
    Heart and Lung Center, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Are Active Car Drivers Both Before and Soon After Heart Surgery2002In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 205-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive ability is essential for the fitness to drive. Impaired cognitive functions are common after cardiac surgery. Little is known about driving habits and influence of postoperative cognitive decline on driving performance in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of driving activity of patients before and after cardiac surgery. Ninety-seven cardiac surgical patients were interviewed about their driving habits before and 12 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 66. Before the operation, 78% were active car drivers. They drove several times a week including longer than 100 km distances. After the operation, 64% continued to drive and most of them (69%) had commenced driving within 6 weeks. The majority (79%) reported unchanged driving habits, while 13 patients (21%) had reduced their driving activity due to the cognitive symptoms they experienced. Patients with coronary artery disease are active car drivers both before and after heart surgery. Further evaluation of the ability of these patients to drive is required if we are to give advice and apply restrictions in the interest of traffic safety.

  • 3.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Eveling-Barbier, C.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Nylander, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Vectorcardiography is Superior to Conventional ECG for Detection of Myocardial Injury after Coronary Surgery2001In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - The reliability of conventional scalar ECG for diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in cardiac surgery has been questioned. For the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in general vectorcardiography (VCG) is superior to ECG. Therefore, the usefulness of conventional VCG and computerized analysis of spatial VCG changes for diagnosis of PMI were studied.

    Design - VCG registrations were obtained from 218 patients undergoing coronary surgery. The spatial QRS vector loop area of each VCG registration was calculated and the loop area before surgery compared with the loop area after surgery. Conventional VCG criteria for myocardial infarction and set values for loop area reduction were related to sustained elevation of plasma troponin-T and clinical course.

    Results - Both conventional VCG criteria and spatial changes translated better than Q-waves on scalar ECG into elevation of biochemical markers of myocardial injury and impaired clinical course.

    Conclusion - VCG appears superior to conventional ECG as regards detection of myocardial injury in coronary surgery. Computerized programs have facilitated the registration and the interpretation of VCG and this methodology deserves further evaluation in cardiac surgery.

  • 4.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Kågedahl, Bertil
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Olin, Christian
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Unspecific elevation of plasma troponin-T after coronary surgery. Abstract 17th Annual meeting EACTA, 2002 June 12-15, Dublin Ireland2002In: EACTA Abstracts 2002,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Kågedahl, Bertil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Olin, Christian
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    An attempt to quantify the plasma levels of troponin-T and CK-MB after coronary surgery caused by release unrelated to permanent myocardial injury.2001In: Abstract 50th Annual meeting of the Scandinavian Association for Thoracic Surgery. June 14-16, 2001, Oslo, Norway,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kågedal, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olin, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Early Identification of Permanent Myocardial Damage after Coronary Surgery is Aided by Repeated Measurements of CK-MB2002In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - ECG diagnosis of myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery is associated with major pitfalls and enzyme diagnosis is interfered by unspecific elevation unrelated to permanent myocardial injury. Sustained release of troponin-T is a marker of permanent myocardial injury if renal function is maintained. However, early identification of perioperative myocardial infarction is desirable and therefore the usefulness of creatine kinase monobasic (CK-MB) kinetics to detect myocardial injury early after coronary surgery was investigated.

    Design - Two hundred and eighty-six patients undergoing coronary surgery were studied with respect to release of enzymes and troponin-T preoperatively and postoperatively 3 and 8 h after unclamping the aorta, and every morning postoperative days 1-4.

    Results - CK-MB peak was found at 3 h ( n = 145), 8 h ( n = 103) and 16-20 h after unclamping ( n = 38). Depending on when the CK-MB peak was recorded different demographic and perioperative characteristics were found. A sustained release of troponin-T was characteristic for the group with the CK-MB peak at 16-20 h after unclamping.

    Conclusion - If CK-MB is measured only once it may be advisable to do it on the first postoperative morning as these measurements provided the best discrimination between patients with and without sustained elevation of troponin-T. However, repeated sampling provides additional information that aids in the early identification of permanent myocardial injury particularly in patients with borderline elevations of CK-MB.

  • 7.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Kågedal, Bertil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Olin, Christian
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Unspecific elevation of plasma troponin-T and CK-MB after coronary surgery2003In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 283-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - Biochemical markers of myocardial injury are frequently elevated after cardiac surgery. It is generally accepted that release unrelated to permanent myocardial damage explains a proportion of these elevations. However, little is known about the magnitude and temporal characteristics of this diagnostic noise. One way to address this issue would be to study a group without permanent myocardial injury. Design - The unique release kinetics of troponin-T (permanent myocardial injury causes a sustained release of structurally bound troponin) were used to identify patients with no or minimal permanent myocardial injury. Blood was sampled from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) before surgery, 3 and 8 h after unclamping the aorta, and each morning until postoperative day 4, for analysis of enzymes and troponin-T. From 302 consecutive patients a subgroup was identified that fulfilled the following criteria: (a) normalized troponin-T levels =postoperative day 4, (b) no ECG changes indicating myocardial injury. Results - Seventy-seven patients fulfilled the criteria above and in this subgroup troponin-T (2.08 ▒ 1.42 ╡g/ 1, range 0.35-8.99 ╡g/l) peaked at the 3 h recording and creatine kinase monobasic (CK-MB) (28.6 ▒ 11.3 ╡g/l, range 11.9-86.0 ╡g/l) peaked at the 8 h recording after unclamping the aorta. Conclusion - Substantial early elevations of plasma CK-MB and troponin-T occurred in patients with no or minimal permanent myocardial injury after CABG. Unspecific release was most pronounced during the timeframe that is usually studied to evaluate myocardial protective strategies or to compare revascularization procedures.

  • 8.
    Danielsson, Marita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Övrig enhet.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The professional culture among physicians in Sweden: potential implications for patient safety2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Patient safety culture, i.e. a subset of an organization’s culture, has become an important focus of patient safety research. An organization’s culture consists of many cultures, underscoring the importance of studying subcultures. Professional subcultures in health care are potentially important from a patient safety point of view. Physicians have an important role to play in the effort to improve patient safety. The aim was to explore physicians’ shared values and norms of potential relevance for patient safety in Swedish health care.

    Methods

    Data were collected through group and individual interviews with 28 physicians in 16 semi-structured interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim before being analysed with an inductive approach.

    Results

    Two overarching themes, “the competent physician” and “the integrated yet independent physician”, emerged from the interview data. The former theme consists of the categories Infallible and Responsible, while the latter theme consists of the categories Autonomous and Team player. The two themes and four categories express physicians’ values and norms that create expectations for the physicians’ behaviours that might have relevance for patient safety.

    Conclusions

    Physicians represent a distinct professional subculture in Swedish health care. Several aspects of physicians’ professional culture may have relevance for patient safety. Expectations of being infallible reduce their willingness to talk about errors they make, thus limiting opportunities for learning from errors. The autonomy of physicians is associated with expectations to act independently, and they use their decisional latitude to determine the extent to which they engage in patient safety. The physicians perceived that organizational barriers make it difficult to live up to expectations to assume responsibility for patient safety. Similarly, expectations to be part of multi-professional teams were deemed difficult to fulfil. It is important to recognize the implications of a multi-faceted perspective on the culture of health care organizations, including physicians’ professional culture, in efforts to improve patient safety.

  • 9.
    Danielsson, Marita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar; The Research Unit, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden..
    A National Study of Patient Safety Culture in Hospitals in Sweden2017In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8417, E-ISSN 1549-8425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Using the Hospital Survey on Patient Culture, our aim was to investigate the patient safety culture in all Swedish hospitals and to compare the culture among managers, physicians, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses and to identify factors associated with high overall patient safety.

    METHODS: The study used a correlational design based on cross-sectional surveys from health care practitioners in Swedish health care (N = 23,781). We analyzed the associations between overall patient safety (outcome variable) and 12 culture dimensions and 5 background characteristics (explanatory variables). Simple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the bivariate association between each explanatory variable and the outcome variable. The explanatory variables were entered to determine the multivariate associations between the variables and the outcome variable.

    RESULTS: The highest rated culture dimensions were "teamwork within units" and "nonpunitive response to error," and the lowest rated dimensions were "management support for patient safety" and "staffing." The multivariate analysis showed that long professional experience (>15 years) was associated with increased probability for high overall patient safety. Compared with general wards, the probability for high overall patient safety was higher for emergency care but lower for psychiatric care. The probability for high overall patient safety was higher for both enrolled nurses and physicians compared with managers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The safety culture dimensions of the Hospital Survey on Patient Culture contributed far more to overall patient safety than the background characteristics, suggesting that these dimensions are very important in efforts to improve the overall patient safety culture.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  • 10.
    Danielsson, Marita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fock, Jenni
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Patient safety subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Swedish hospital care: a qualitative study.2014In: BMC nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patient safety culture emerges from the shared assumptions, values and norms of members of a health care organization, unit, team or other group with regard to practices that directly or indirectly influence patient safety. It has been argued that organizational culture is an amalgamation of many cultures, and that subcultures should be studied to develop a deeper understanding of an organization's culture. The aim of this study was to explore subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden in terms of their assumptions, values and norms with regard to practices associated with patient safety.

    METHODS: The study employed an exploratory design using a qualitative method, and was conducted at two hospitals in southeast Sweden. Seven focus group interviews and two individual interviews were conducted with registered nurses and seven focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted with nurse assistants. Manifest content analysis was used for the analysis.

    RESULTS: Seven patient safety culture domains (i.e. categories of assumptions, values and norms) that included practices associated with patient safety were found: responsibility, competence, cooperation, communication, work environment, management and routines. The domains corresponded with three system levels: individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. The seven domains consisted of 16 subcategories that expressed different aspects of the registered nurses and assistants nurses' patient safety culture. Half of these subcategories were shared.

    CONCLUSIONS: Registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden differ considerably with regard to patient safety subcultures. The results imply that, in order to improve patient safety culture, efforts must be tailored to both registered nurses' and nurse assistants' patient safety-related assumptions, values and norms. Such efforts must also take into account different system levels. The results of the present study could be useful to facilitate discussions about patient safety within and between different professional groups.

  • 11.
    Doupi, Persephone
    et al.
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland.
    Svaar, Helge
    Svaar Konsult, Norway.
    Bjorn, Brian
    Danish Soc Patient Safety, Denmark.
    Deilkas, Ellen
    Akershus University Hospital, Norway; Norwegian Directorate Heatlh, Norway.
    Nylen, Urban
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Use of the Global Trigger Tool in patient safety improvement efforts: Nordic experiences2015In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Trigger Tool (GTT) developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement is a method for retrospective patient record review based on the use of triggers-signals of potential adverse events that have caused patient harm. The method has the purpose of patient safety measurement and monitoring among adult inpatient populations and has been increasingly popular among Nordic countries. Use of the GTT in the Nordic area has been part of broader legal and policy actions and initiatives supportive of patient safety promotion and is being used to establish also national level estimates of patient safety incidents. Limitations of the method are its dependency on quality of documentation and the varying inter-rater reliability observed in many studies. Strengths of the GTT are its ability to detect larger numbers, as well as different types of adverse events when compared to other incident detection methods, hence it is a good addition to the palette of means for organizational patient safety monitoring. Research on reliability, usefulness and implementation approaches of the GTT, including its automation, is ongoing in the Nordic countries and is expected to generate useful input for the international patient safety community.

  • 12.
    Elfström, J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Vascular surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Samverkan kan frigöra pengar till vården2002In: Dagens medicin : oberoende nyhetstidning för hela sjukvården, ISSN 1104-7488, Vol. 6, p. 46-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Factors influencing patient safety in Sweden: perceptions of patient safety officers in the county councils2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    National, regional and local activities to improve patient safety in Sweden have increased over the last decade. There are high ambitions for improved patient safety in Sweden. This study surveyed health care professionals who held key positions in their county council’s patient safety work to investigate their perceptions of the conditions for this work, factors they believe have been most important in reaching the current level of patient safety and factors they believe would be most important for achieving improved patient safety in the future.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of 218 health care professionals holding strategic positions in patient safety work in Swedish county councils. Using a questionnaire, the following topics were analysed in this study: profession/occupation; number of years involved in a designated task on patient safety issues; knowledge/overview of the county council’s patient safety work; ability to influence this work; conditions for this work; and the importance of various factors for current and future levels of patient safety.

    Results

    The response rate to the questionnaire was 79%. The conditions that had the highest number of responses in complete agreement were “patients’ involvement is important for patient safety” and “patient safety work has good support from the county council’s management”. Factors that were considered most important for achieving the current level of patient safety were root cause and risk analyses, incident reporting and the Swedish Patient Safety Law. An organizational culture that encourages reporting and avoids blame was considered most important for improved patient safety in the future, closely followed by improved communication between health care practitioners and patients.

    Conclusion

    Health care professionals with important positions in the Swedish county councils’ patient safety work believe that conditions for this work are somewhat constrained. They attribute the current levels of patient safety to a broad range of factors and believe that many different solutions can contribute to enhanced patient safety in the future, suggesting that this work must be multifactorial.

  • 14.
    Peterzén, Bengt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lönn, Urban
    Carnstam, Bo
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Casimir Ahn, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Management of patients with end-stage heart disease treated with an implantable left ventricular assist device in a nontransplanting center2000In: Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, ISSN 1053-0770, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 438-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe the setup of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) program in a nontransplanting center.

    Design: A prospective study from February 1993 to June 1999.

    Setting: A university hospital.

    Participants: Ten patients, 6 men, with a mean age of 44 years (range 16 to 63 years) and with end-stage heart failure resulting from dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 7) or ischemic heart disease (n = 3).

    Interventions: The patients received the TCI (Thermo Cardiosystems Inc, Woburn, MA) Heart Mate implantable assist device. Five patients had a pneumatic device, and 5 had an electric device. All except 1 patient with an electric device had the pump for an extended period.

    Measurements and Main Results: Median time on the ventilator was 6.2 days, and median time in the ICU was 14 days. Significant hemodynamic improvement was observed by echocardiography and invasive monitoring. Milrinone and epinephrine supplemented by prostaglandin E1 were the most commonly used drugs to avoid right-sided heart failure. Nine patients were transplanted after pump therapy of 241 days (median) (range, 56 to 873 days). One patient died because of endovascular infection and septicemia. Infectious complications were frequent, especially when the pump time was extended.

    Conclusions: The introduction of an LVAD program in a nontransplanting center can be achieved with good results. Intense collaboration with a transplant center is mandatory. The complication rate increased when treatment times were extended.

  • 15.
    Peterzén, Bengt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lönn, Urban
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carnstam, Bo
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Casimir Ahn, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Anesthetic management of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of an axial flow pump and a short-acting beta-blocker1999In: Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, ISSN 1053-0770, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 431-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To describe the clinical protocol regarding monitoring, pharmacologic interventions, and postoperative care during and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on the beating heart with an axial flow pump and a short-acting β-blocker.

    Design: A retrospective study.

    Setting: A university hospital.

    Participants: Seventeen patients scheduled for elective CABG.

    Interventions: Invasive monitoring was performed with either a standard pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) or a surgically placed PAC. An axial flow pump was inserted through a graft sutured to the ascending aorta. A short-acting β-blocker was administered to decrease the motion of the heart and make conditions for CABG adequate and safe.

    Measurements and main results: Compared with baseline measurements, there were significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and right ventricular ejection fraction during maximal axial flow pump support and β-blockade. No significant change in heart rate was observed at this time. Hemodynamic variables were normalized in the intensive care unit. All patients were separated from the Hemopump without inotropic support, and values of troponin-T, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were low postoperatively. All patients survived and were discharged from the hospital.

    Conclusion: The anesthetic protocol for patients undergoing surgery with a beating heart and the combined use of an axial flow pump and a short-acting β-blocker is outlined. Multiple-vessel CABG on the beating heart was performed with maintenance of an acceptable hemodynamic situation.

  • 16.
    Peterzén, Bengt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lönn, Urban
    Babic, Ankica
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Casimir Ahn, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Postoperative management of patients with Hemopump support after coronary artery bypass grafting1996In: The Annals of thoracic surgery, ISSN 0003-4975, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 378-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In this study, we describe postoperative monitoring, pharmacologic therapy, and hemodynamic responses in patients receiving Hemopump support after postcardiotomy heart failure.

    Methods

    The Hemopump was used in 24 patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Results

    Fourteen patients (58%) were weaned from the Hemopump. Low to moderate doses of a combination of catecholamines, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, vasodilators, and vasoconstrictors were required to optimize Hemopump function and left ventricular unloading. Mean arterial blood pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and urinary output were the most important therapy guidelines.

    Conclusions

    Together with our clinical protocol, the Hemopump effectively unloaded the failing ventricle while maintaining vital-organ perfusion. Doses of vasoactive drugs could be kept low. This approach to treatment provides good conditions for recovery of the stunned myocardium.

  • 17.
    Peterzén, Bengt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lönn, Urban
    Jansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Casimir Ahn, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Long-term follow-up of patients treated with an implantable left ventricular assist device as an extended bridge to heart transplantation2002In: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, ISSN 1053-2498, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 604-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four patients were given the TCI implantable left ventricular assist device as a bridge to heart transplantation. The median treatment time was 541 days (range 462 to 873 days), with a total of 2,417 treatment days. The patients were followed with exercise tests and echocardiography 3 to 18 months after implantation. An invasive method was used for quantification of inflow valve incompetence.

  • 18.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Department of Infection Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bastami, Salumeh
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety. Public Health Agency, Sweden.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Direct health care costs and length of hospital stay related to health care-acquired infections in adult patients based on point prevalence measurements2016In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 500-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of health care-acquired infection (HAI) and the consequence for patients with HAI tend to vary from study to study. By including all patients, all medical specialties, and performing a follow-up analysis, this study contributes to previous findings in this research field. Methods: Data from the Swedish National Point Prevalence Surveys of HAI 2010-2012 was merged with cost per patient data from the county Health Care Register (N=6,823). Extended length of stay (LOS) and costs related to an HAI were adjusted for sex, age, intensive care unit use, and surgery. Results: Patients with HAI (n=732) had a larger proportion of readmissions compared with patients with no HAI (29.0% vs 16.5%). Of the total bed days, 9.3% was considered to be excess days attributed to the group of patients with an HAI. The excess LOS comprised 11.4% of the total costs (95% CI, 10.2-12.7). The 1-year overall mortality rate for patients with HAI in comparison to all other patients was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.45-2.11), all 5 of these differences were statistically significant (P<.001). Conclusions: Even if not all outcomes for patients with an HAI can be explained by the HAI itself, the increase in inpatient days, readmissions, associated costs, and higher mortality rates are quite notable. (C) 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 19.
    Ridderstolpe, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Risk factor analysis of early and delayed cerebral complications after cardiac surgery2002In: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, ISSN 1053-0770, E-ISSN 1532-8422, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To report the incidence, severity, and possible risk factors for early and delayed cerebral complications.

    Design: Retrospective study.

    Setting: Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.

    Participants: Consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the period July 1996 through June 2000 (n = 3,282).

    Interventions: A standard cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) technique was used for most patients. Postoperative anticoagulant treatment included heparin or anti-Xa dalteparin. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery received acetylsalicylic acid, and patients undergoing valve surgery received warfarin.

    Measurements and Main Results: Cerebral complications occurred in 107 patients (3.3%). Of these, 60 (1.8%) were early, and 33 (1.0%) were delayed, and in 14 (0.4%) patients the onset was unknown. There were 37 variables in univariate analysis (p < 0.15) and 14 variables in multivariate analysis (p < 0.05) associated with cerebral complications. Predictors of early cerebral complications were older age, preoperative hypertension, aortic aneurysm surgery, prolonged CPB time, hypotension at CPB completion and soon after CPB, and postoperative arrhythmia and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Predictors of delayed cerebral complications were female gender, diabetes, previous cerebrovascular disease, combined valve surgery and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, postoperative supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, and prolonged ventilator support. Early cerebral complications seem to be more serious, with more permanent deficits and a higher overall mortality (35.0% v 18.2%).

    Conclusion: Most cerebral complications had an early onset. The results of this study suggest that aggressive antiarrhythmic treatment and blood pressure control may imfurther prove the cerebral outcome after cardiac surgery.

  • 20.
    Ridderstolpe, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Superficial and deep sternal wound complications: Incidence, risk factors and mortality2001In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1010-7940, E-ISSN 1873-734X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1168-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sternal wound complications often have a late onset and are detected after patients are discharged from the hospital. In an effort to catch all sternal wound complications, different postdischarge surveillance methods have to be used. Together with this long-term follow-up an analysis of risk factors may help to identify patients at risk and can lead to more effective preventive and control measures.

    Methods: This retrospective study of 3008 adult patients who underwent consecutive cardiac surgery from January 1996 through September 1999 at Link÷ping University Hospital, Sweden, evaluated 42 potential risk factors by univariate analysis followed by backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Two-thirds of the 291 (9.7%) sternal wound complications that occurred were identified after discharge. Of the 291 patients, 47 (1.6%) had deep sternal infections, 50 (1.7%) had postoperative mediastinitis, and 194 (6.4%) had superficial sternal wound complications. Twenty-three variables were selected by univariate analysis (P<0.15) and included in a multivariate analysis where eight variables emerged as significant (P<0.05). Preoperative risk factors for deep sternal infections/mediastinitis were obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes, smoking, peripheral vascular disease, and high New York Heart Association score. An intraoperative risk factor was bilateral use of internal mammary arteries, and a postoperative risk factor was prolonged ventilator support. Risk factors for superficial sternal wound complications were obesity, and an age of

  • 21.
    Ridderstolpe, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Ensolution AB, TeknoCenter, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Skau, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center2002In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 26, p. 309-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR®) containing two interrelated parts, “ProcessGuide and CostControl,” was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  • 22.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strategier för säker och ännu säkrare vård: Enkätstudie om landstingens patientsäkerhetsarbete2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 45, p. 2024-2027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en enkät till 216 personer med särskilt ansvar för patientsäkerhet har frågor ställts om vad som har haft betydelse och vad som kommer att ha betydelse för att uppnå en god patientsäkerhet i framtiden.

    Händelse- och riskanalyser ansågs ha varit mycket viktigt för att uppnå dagens patientsäkerhetsnivå, liksom rapportering av avvikelser och risker.

    Faktorer som ansågs mycket viktiga för att öka patientsäkerheten var främst organisationskultur, kommunikation och utbildning.

    Även förbättrad infektionskontroll och standardisering av rutiner samt bättre instruktioner och utbildning avseende medicinsk teknik var viktiga områden.

     

  • 23.
    Rutberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Borgstedt Risberg, Madeleine
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Nordqvist, Pernilla
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Characterisations of adverse events detected in a university hospital: a 4-year study using the Global Trigger Tool method2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 004879-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To describe the level, preventability and categories of adverse events (AEs) identified by medical record review using the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). To estimate when the AE occurred in the course of the hospital stay and to compare voluntary AE reporting with medical record reviewing. Design: Two-stage retrospective record review. Setting: 650-bed university hospital. Participants: 20 randomly selected medical records were reviewed every month from 2009 to 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures: AE/1000 patient-days. Proportion of AEs found by GTT found also in the voluntary reporting system. AE categorisation. Description of when during hospital stay AEs occur. Results: A total of 271 AEs were detected in the 960 medical records reviewed, corresponding to 33.2 AEs/1000 patient-days or 20.5% of the patients. Of the AEs, 6.3% were reported in the voluntary AE reporting system. Hospital-acquired infections were the most common AE category. The AEs occurred and were detected during the hospital stay in 65.5% of cases; the rest occurred or were detected within 30 days before or after the hospital stay. The AE usually occurred early during the hospital stay, and the hospital stay was 5 days longer on average for patients with an AE. Conclusions: Record reviewing identified AEs to a much larger extent than voluntary AE reporting. Healthcare organisations should consider using a portfolio of tools to gain a comprehensive picture of AEs. Substantial costs could be saved if AEs were prevented.

  • 24.
    Rutberg, HANS
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Eckhardt, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping.
    Biermann, O.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Patient safety in Sweden2015In: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, ISSN 1436-9990, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the patient safety work in Sweden and the cooperation between the Nordic countries in the area of patient safety. It depicts the national infrastructure, methods and partners in patient safety work as well as the development in key areas. Since 2000, the interest in patient safety and quality issues has significantly increased. A national study (2009) showed that more than 100,000 patients (8.6 %) experienced preventable harm in hospitals. Since 2007, all Swedish counties and regions work on the "National commitment for increased patient safety" to systematically minimize adverse events in the healthcare system. Also, a national strategy for patient safety has been proposed based on a new law regulating the responsibility for patient safety (2011) and a zero vision in terms of preventable harm and adverse events. The Nordic collaboration in this field currently focuses on the development of indicators and quality measurement with respect to nosocomial infections, harm in inpatient somatic care, patient safety culture, hospital mortality and polypharmacy in the elderly. The Nordic collaboration is driven by the development, exchange and documentation of experiences and evidence on patient safety indicators. The work presented in this article is only a part of the Swedish and the Nordic efforts related to patient safety and provides an interesting insight into how this work can be carried out.

  • 25.
    Rutberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Sommer, AnnSofie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pulmonary Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Respiratory Medicine UHL.
    Skau, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Vascular surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Kvalitet inom sjukvården. Vad är det och hur mäts den?2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 3044-3045Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Reporting of Sentinel Events in Swedish Hospitals: A Comparison of Severe Adverse Events Reported by Patients and Providers2011In: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, ISSN 1553-7250, E-ISSN 1938-131X, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 495-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mandatory and voluntary reporting of adverse events is common in health care organizations but a more accurate understanding of the extent of patient injury may be obtained if additional sources are used. Patients in Sweden may file a claim for economic compensation from the national insurance system if they believe they have sustained an injury. The extent and pattern of reporting of serious adverse events in a mandatory national reporting system was compared with the reporting of adverse events on the basis of patient claims.

    Methods: Regional sentinel event reports were compared with malpractice claims data between 1996 and 2003. A sample consisting of 113 patients with deaths or serious injuries was selected from the malpractice claims data source. The medical records of these patients were reviewed by three chief medical officers.

    Results: Of the deaths or injuries associated with the 113 patients—25 deaths, 37 with more than 30% disability, and 51 with 16%-30% disability—23 (20%) had been reported by chief medical officers to the National Board of Health and Welfare as sentinel events. Most adverse events were found in orthopedic surgery, and orthopedic injuries had more serious consequences. None of the patient injuries caused by infections were reported as sentinel events. Individual errors were more frequent in cases reported as sentinel events.

    Conclusions: Adverse events causing severe harm are underreported to a great extent in Sweden despite the existence of a mandatory reporting system; physicians often consider them to be complications. Health care organizations should consider using a portfolio of tools—including incident reporting, medical record review, and analysis of patient claims—to gain a comprehensive picture of adverse events.

  • 27.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    What can we learn from patient claims?: Analysing of patient injuries following orthopaedic surgery2012In: Patient Safety in Surgery, ISSN 1754-9493, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Objective data on the incidence and pattern of adverse events after orthopaedic surgical procedures remain scarce, secondary to the reluctance for encompassing reporting of surgical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of adverse events after orthopaedic surgery reported to a national database for patient claims in Sweden.

    Methods: In this retrospective review data from two Swedish national databases during a 4-year period were analyzed. We used the "County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company", a national no-fault insurance system for patient claims, and the "National Patient Register at the National Board of Health and Welfare".

    Results: A total of 6,029 patient claims filed after orthopaedic surgery were assessed during the study period. Of those, 3,336 (55%) were determined to be adverse events, which received financial compensation. Hospital-acquired infections and sepsis were the most common causes of adverse events (n = 741; 22%). The surgical procedure that caused the highest rate of adverse events was "decompression of spinal cord and nerve roots" (code ABC**), with 168 adverse events of 17,507 hospitals discharges (1%). One in five (36 of 168; 21.4%) injured patient was seriously disabled or died.

    Conclusions: We conclude that patients undergoing spinal surgery run the highest risk of being severely injured and that these patients also experienced a high degree of serious disability. The most common adverse event was related to hospital acquired infections. Claims data obtained in a no-fault system have a high potential for identifying adverse events and learning from them.

  • 28.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Olai, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden: A comparison of patient claims data and national quality register (Swespine) data2011In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 727-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine).

    Methods: We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 2005. The medical records of the patients filing these claims were reviewed and compared with Swespine data for the same period.

    Results: Two-thirds (119/182, 65%) of patients who claimed economic compensation from the insurance company were registered in Swespine. Of the 210 complications associated with these 182 claims, only 74 were listed in Swespine. The most common causes of compensated injuries (n = 139) were dural lesions (n = 40) and wound infections (n = 30). Clinical outcome based on global assessment, leg pain, disability, and quality of health was worse for patients who claimed economic compensation than for the total group of Swespine patients.

    Interpretation: We found considerable under-reporting of complications in Swespine. Dural lesions and infections were not well recorded, although they were important reasons for problems and contributed to high levels of disability. By analyzing data from more than one source, we obtained a better understanding of the patterns of adverse events and outcomes after spine surgery.

  • 29.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patient safety dialogue: evaluation of an intervention aimed at achieving an improved patient safety culture2011In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8425, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 185-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Patient Safety Dialogue, a local intervention inspired by walk round-style approaches, was implemented in 2005 in a Swedish county council to achieve a positive patient safety culture in health care. This paper evaluates the results and changes after 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue in 50 departments (37 medical and 13 psychiatric) in 3 hospitals.

    METHODS: The patient safety culture maturity was rated on 5 levels that correspond with the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework. The assessment was based on information supplied by the departments and discussions between clinical leaders and staff members with special patient safety assignments and representatives from a patient safety unit. Three patient safety areas were assessed: hospital-acquired infections, outcome measurements, and general patient safety. Each department was assessed 3 times: at baseline and at follow-ups at 18 and 36 months. Average scores were calculated for each of the 3 safety areas on all occasions. The departments were classified into 3 types of trajectories on the basis of the development of their scores over time.

    RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the departments attained higher scores in round 3 than in round 1. Seventy-eight percent of the departments in the general patient safety area were categorized as continuously improving or developing, compared with 68% for outcome measurement and 50% for hospital-acquired infection. Approximately one-third was categorized as nonimproving, with scores in round 3 lower than or equal to the scores in round 1. The medical departments had higher scores than the psychiatric departments in all rounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most of the 50 departments were evaluated to have improved their patient safety culture during the 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue, suggesting that the intervention is effective in supporting an improved patient safety culture. However, one-third of the departments did not improve during the 5-year study period.

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