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  • 1.
    Aase, Audun
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Hajdusek, Ondrej
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Oines, Oivind
    Norwegian Vet Institute, Norway.
    Quarsten, Hanne
    Sorlandet Hospital Health Enterprise, Norway.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Herstad, Tove K.
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Kjelland, Vivian
    University of Agder, Norway; Sorlandet Hospital Health Enterprise, Norway.
    Sima, Radek
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Jalovecka, Marie
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Aaberge, Ingeborg S.
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood2016In: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 2374-4235, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 411-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A modified microscopy protocol (the LM-method) was used to demonstrate what was interpreted as Borrelia spirochetes and later also Babesia sp., in peripheral blood from patients. The method gained much publicity, but was not validated prior to publication, which became the purpose of this study using appropriate scientific methodology, including a control group. Methods Blood from 21 patients previously interpreted as positive for Borrelia and/or Babesia infection by the LM-method and 41 healthy controls without known history of tick bite were collected, blinded and analysed for these pathogens by microscopy in two laboratories by the LM-method and conventional method, respectively, by PCR methods in five laboratories and by serology in one laboratory. Results Microscopy by the LM-method identified structures claimed to be Borrelia- and/or Babesia in 66% of the blood samples of the patient group and in 85% in the healthy control group. Microscopy by the conventional method for Babesia only did not identify Babesia in any samples. PCR analysis detected Borrelia DNA in one sample of the patient group and in eight samples of the control group; whereas Babesia DNA was not detected in any of the blood samples using molecular methods. Conclusions The structures interpreted as Borrelia and Babesia by the LM-method could not be verified by PCR. The method was, thus, falsified. This study underlines the importance of doing proper test validation before new or modified assays are introduced.

  • 2.
    Ali Khan, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Maqbool Khan, Kashif
    College of Pharmacy, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global phenomenon that has severe epidemiological ramifications world-wide. It has been suggested that antibiotics that have been discharged into the natural aquatic environments after usage or manufacture can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). These environmental ARGs could serve as a reservoir and be horizontally transferred to human-associated bacteria and thus contribute to AR proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Northern Pakistan and study the occurrence of ARGs in selected samples from this region. 19 sampling sites were selected; including six rivers, one dam, one canal, one sewage drain and four drug formulation facilities. Our results show that five of the rivers have antibiotic levels comparable to surface water measurements in unpolluted sites in Europe and the US. However, high levels of antibiotics could be detected in the downstream river in close vicinity of the 10 million city Lahore, 1100, 1700 and 2700 ng L−1 for oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Highest detected levels were at one of the drug formulation facilities, with the measured levels of 1100, 4100, 6200, 7300, 8000, 27000, 28000 and 49000 ng L−1 of erythromycin, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole respectively. ARGs were also detected at the sites and the highest levels of ARGs detected, sulI and dfrA1, were directly associated with the antibiotics detected at the highest concentrations, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Highest levels of both antibiotics and ARGs were seen at a drug formulation facility, within an industrial estate with a low number of local residents and no hospitals in the vicinity, which indicates that the levels of ARGs at this site were associated with the environmental levels of antibiotics.

  • 3.
    Almstrand, R
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lydmark, P
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sorensson, F
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hermansson, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Dynamics of specific ammonia-oxidizing bacterial populations and nitrification in response to controlled shifts of ammonium concentrations in wastewater2013In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 2183-2191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are essential for the nitrification process in wastewater treatment. To retain these slow-growing bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), they are often grown as biofilms, e.g., on nitrifying trickling filters (NTFs) or on carriers in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). On NTFs, a decreasing ammonium gradient is formed because of the AOB activity, resulting in low ammonium concentrations at the bottom and reduced biomass with depth. To optimize the NTF process, different ammonium feed strategies may be designed. This, however, requires knowledge about AOB population dynamics. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we followed biomass changes during 6 months, of three AOB populations on biofilm carriers. These were immersed in aerated MBBR tanks in a pilot plant receiving full-scale wastewater. Tanks were arranged in series, forming a wastewater ammonium gradient mimicking an NTF ammonium gradient. The biomass of one of the dominating Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like populations increased after an ammonium upshift, reaching levels comparable to the high ammonium control in 28 days, whereas a Nitrosomonas europaea-like population increased relatively slowly. The MBBR results, together with competition studies in NTF systems fed with wastewater under controlled ammonium regimes, suggest a differentiation between the two N. oligotropha populations, which may be important for WWTP nitrification.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Chirico, Jan
    National Vet Institute SVA, Sweden.
    Christensson, Madeleine
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Nordstrom, Jonas
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; Dalarna County Adm Board, Sweden.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Molecular detection of Babesia capreoli and Babesia venatorum in wild Swedish roe deer, Capreolus capreolus2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, no 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The epidemiology of the zoonotic tick-transmitted parasite Babesia spp. and its occurrence in wild reservoir hosts in Sweden is unclear. In European deer, several parasite species, including Babesia capreoli and the zoonotic B. venatorum and B. divergens has been reported previously. The European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, is an important and common part of the indigenous fauna in Europe, as well as an important host for Ixodes ricinus ticks, the vector of several Babesia spp. in Europe. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of Babesia spp. in roe deer in Sweden. Findings: Roe deer (n = 77) were caught and sampled for blood. Babesia spp. was detected with a PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Babesia spp. was 52 %, and two species were detected; B. capreoli and B. venatorum in 44 and 7.8 % of the individuals, respectively. Infection occurred both in summer and winter. Conclusions: We showed that roe deer in Sweden, close to the edge of their northern inland distributional range, are infected with Babesia spp. The occurrence of B. venatorum in roe deer imply that it is established in Sweden and the zoonotic implication of this finding should be regarded to a greater extent in future.

  • 5.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    School of Natural Science, Technology & Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melik, Wessam
    School of Natural Science, Technology & Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Division of Virology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Haglund, Mats
    Kalmar County hospital.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Överby, Anna K.
    Division of Virology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andreassen, Åshild
    Division of Infectious Disease Control, Department of Virology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Magnus
    School of Natural Science, Technology & Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden / School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tick-borne encephalitis virus sequenced directly from questing and blood-feeding ticks reveals quasispecies variance2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, p. e103264-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3´ non-coding region (3´NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3´NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3´NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and controls, Hypr and Neudoerfl. Toro 2003 and Habo 2011 contained mainly a short (A)3C(A)6 poly(A)  tract. A similar pattern was observed for the human TBEV isolates 1993/783 and 1991/4944; however, one clone of 1991/4944 contained an (A)3C(A)11 poly(A) sequence, demonstrating that quasispecies with longer poly(A) could be present in human isolates. Neudoerfl has previously been reported to contain a poly(A) region, but to our surprise the re-sequenced genome contained two major quasispecies variants, both lacking the poly(A) tract. We speculate that the observed differences are important factors for the understanding of virulence, spread, and control of the TBEV.

  • 6.
    Augustinsson (Nilsdotter-Augustinsson), Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Frydén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaction of staphylococcus epidermidis from infected hip prostheses with neutrophil granulocytes2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 408-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the interaction of Staphylococcus epidermis isolated from granulation tissue covering infected hip prostheses and neutrophil granulocytes. Bacterial strains isolated from normal flora were used as controls. The bacteria were well characterized with routine methods and further characterized with random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses and slime tests. Phagocytosis and chemiluminescence (CL) assays were used in the neutrophil interaction studies. The prostheses strains were ingested to a lesser extent than strains from normal flora (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant difference between the prostheses strains and the normal flora strains in terms of total CL response. However, the extracellular CL response from the neutrophils was lower in comparison with the normal flora when interacting with the prostheses strains. The results of this study support the notion that S. epidermidis strains isolated from infected hip prostheses have an enhanced capacity to resist phagocytosis and that most of these strains elicit a reduced inflammatory response, measured as the production of extracellular oxidative metabolites from the neutrophils, compared to normal flora.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Microbiology, Medical Services, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Detection and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Stångån River, Sweden2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem which threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. It is becoming increasingly clear that the dynamics of antibiotic resistance are not confined to clinical settings. The environment is likely to play an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from and to both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river which flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent wastewater treatment plant over three months. Seven antibiotic resistance genes and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using realtime PCR. Furthermore, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of ten different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the wastewater treatment plant as compared to upstream. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from Stångån River, suggesting that selection for antibiotic resistance genes did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in antibiotic resistance genes is likely to be due to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the wastewater treatment plant.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    URBAN WASTEWATER EFFLUENT INCREASES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENE CONCENTRATIONS IN A RECEIVING NORTHERN EUROPEAN RIVER2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 192-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stangan River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stangan River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. (c) 2014 SETAC

  • 9.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e108151-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  • 11.
    Borjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, A
    Unilabs, Gothenburg.
    Melin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lofgren, S
    County Hospital Ryhov.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in municipal wastewater: an uncharted threat?2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, ISSN 1364-5072, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 1244-1251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: (i) To cultivate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) To characterize the indigenous MRSA-flora, (iii) To investigate how the treatment process affects clonal distribution and (iv) To examine the genetic relation between MRSA from wastewater and clinical MRSA. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected during 2 months at four key sites in the WWTP. MRSA isolates were characterized using spa typing, antibiograms, SSCmec typing and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Conclusions: MRSA could be isolated on all sampling occasions, but only from inlet and activated sludge. The number of isolates and diversity of MRSA were reduced by the treatment process, but there are indications that the process was selected for strains with more extensive antibiotic resistance and PVL+ strains. The wastewater MRSA-flora had a close genetic relationship to clinical isolates, most likely reflecting carriage in the community. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that MRSA survives in wastewater and that the WWTP may be a potential reservoir for MRSA.

  • 12.
    Bucardo, Filemon
    et al.
    University of Leon.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low Prevalence of Rotavirus and High Prevalence of Norovirus in Hospital and Community Wastewater after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in Nicaragua2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of Leon from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, pandlt;0.05), and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July-September), and the majority of all RV detected (6/9) belonged to subgroup (SG) I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity) to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%). Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21) were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction.

  • 13.
    Bucardo, Filemon
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, University of León, UNAN-León, Nicaragua.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Paniagua, Margarita
    Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology Centre, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Espinoza, Felix
    Department of Microbiology, University of León, UNAN-León, Nicaragua.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pediatric norovirus diarrhea in Nicaragua2008In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 2573-2580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about norovirus (NoV) infections in Central America is limited. Through a passive community and hospital pediatric diarrhea surveillance program, a total of 542 stool samples were collected between March 2005 and February 2006 in León, Nicaragua. NoV was detected in 12% (65/542) of the children; of these, 11% (45/409) were in the community and 15% (20/133) were in the hospital, with most strains (88%) belonging to genogroup II. NoV infections were age and gender associated, with children of <2 years of age (P < 0.05) and girls (P < 0.05) being most affected. Breast-feeding did not reduce the number of NoV infections. An important proportion (57%) of NoV-infected children were coinfected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. A significant proportion (18/31) of NoV-positive children with dehydration required intravenous rehydration. Nucleotide sequence analysis (38/65) of the N-terminal and shell region in the capsid gene revealed that at least six genotypes (GI.4, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and a potentially novel cluster termed "GII.18-Nica") circulated during the study period, with GII.4 virus being predominant (26/38). The majority (20/26) of those GII.4 strains shared high nucleotide homology (99%) with the globally emerging Hunter strain. The mean viral load was approximately 15-fold higher in children infected with GII.4 virus than in those infected with other G.II viruses, with the highest viral load observed for the group of children infected with GII.4 and requiring intravenous rehydration. This study, the first of its type from a Central American country, suggests that NoV is an important etiological agent of acute diarrhea among children of <2 years of age in Nicaragua.

  • 14.
    Bäckman, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Clear-cutting affects the ammonia-oxidising community differently in limed and non-limed coniferous forest soils2004In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, ISSN 0178-2762, E-ISSN 1432-0789, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 260-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of clear-cutting on the ammonia-oxidising bacterial community were studied in the soil of limed and non-limed spruce forest plots located in the central part of southern Sweden. The communities were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from total DNA with primers reported to be specific for β-subgroup ammonia-oxidising bacteria. The bands on the DGGE were sequenced and each unique sequence was interpreted as representing one ammonia-oxidising population. The relative abundance of each population was determined by measuring the fluorescence of the respective DGGE bands. In both limed and non-limed soil, the same two Nitrosospira populations were found, one belonging to cluster 2 (NScl2) and one to cluster 4 (NScl4). However, while NScl4 first appeared a year after the clear-cutting in the non-limed plot, it was present both before and after the cutting in the limed plot. Irrespective of previous liming, clear-cutting caused a shift in the ammonia-oxidiser community, from dominance by the NScl2 population to a community with approximately equal relative abundance of NScl2 and NScl4. In both plots the total size of the community increased after clear-cutting (based on increased DGGE band intensity), most likely due to increased NH4+ availability, but the growth response was faster in the limed plot. Hence, the prior liming increased the responsiveness of the ammonia-oxidisers to the changes caused by cutting. This is the first study to report the effects of clear-cutting on the ammonia-oxidising community, and the results show a clear correlation between increased potential nitrification and a shift in the ammonia-oxidiser community.

  • 15.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dienues, Olaf
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jarnheimer, Per-Åke
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Department of Natural Science, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden/Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden/Unilabs, Capio, St Goumlran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quantification of genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams and tetracyclines in wastewater environments by real-time PCR2009In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, ISSN 0960-3123, E-ISSN 1369-1619, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study real-time PCR assays, based on the LUX-technique, were developed for quantification of genes mediating resistance to aminoglycosides [aac(6 ')-Ie + aph(2 ' ')], beta-lactams (mecA), and tetracyclines (tetA and tetB), for use in wastewater environments. The developed assays were applied on DNA extracted from three wastewater-associated environments: soil from an overland flow area treating landfill leachates, biofilm from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, and sludge from a hospital wastewater pipeline. The highest concentration of all genes was observed in the hospital pipeline and the lowest in the overland flow system. TetA and aac(6 ')-Ie + aph(2 ' ') could be detected in all environments. The tetB gene was detected in the overland flow area and the hospital wastewater pipeline and mecA was detected in the wastewater treatment plant and the hospital pipeline. The developed LUX real-time PCR assays were shown to be fast and reproducible tools for detection and quantification of the four genes encoding antibiotic resistance in wastewater.

  • 16.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, Ann
    Ryaverket, Gryaab, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genes encoding tetracycline resistance in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant investigated during one yearManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetracycline-resistant bacteria and genes encoding tetracycline resistance are common in anthropogenic environments. We studied how wastewater treatment affects the prevalence and concentration of two genes that encode resistance to tetracycline: tetA and tetB. Using real-time PCR we analysed wastewater samples collected monthly for one year at eight key-sites in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We detected tetA and tetB at each sampling site and the concentration of both genes, expressed per wastewater volume or per total-DNA, decreased over the treatment process. The reduction of tetA and tetB was partly the result of the sedimentation process. The ratio of tetA and tetB, respectively, to total DNA was lower in or after the biological processes. Taken together our data show that tetracycline resistance genes occur throughout the WWTP and that the concentrations are reduced under conventional operational strategies. However, it is not possible to conclude the eventual risk for humans with respect to resistance spreading.

  • 17.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden/Laboratory Services, Unilabs, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Melin, Sara
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in municipal wastewater: An uncharted threat?Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recently detected in municipal wastewater, why there is a need for further studies to elucidate if MRSA in wastewater constitutes a health risk, and to determine how wastewater treatment processes affects MRSA. We cultivated MRSA from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant to characterise the indigenous MRSA-flora and to investigate how the wastewater treatment process affects the clonal distribution. MRSA isolates were characterised using spa typing, antibiograms, SSCmec typing and detection of Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. We found that the wastewater MRSA-flora has a close genetic relationship to clinical isolates, but we also isolated novel spa types, primarily from the activated sludge treatment step. The number of isolates and the diversity of MRSA are reduced by the treatment process, but the process also selects for more extensive antibiotic resistant strains as well as for PVL positive strains.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A seasonal study of the mecA gene and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus in a municipal wastewater treatment plant2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 925-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in which the mecA gene mediates resistance, threatens the treatment of staphylococcal diseases. The aims were to determine the effect of wastewater treatment processes on mecA gene concentrations, and the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA over time. To achieve this a municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated for the mecA gene, S. aureus and MRSA, using real-time PCR assays. Water samples were collected monthly for one year, at eight sites in the plant, reflecting different aspects of the treatment process. The mecA gene and S. aureus could be detected throughout the year at all sampling sites. MRSA could also be detected, but mainly in the early treatment steps. The presence of MRSA was verified through cultivation from inlet water. The concentration of the mecA gene varied between months and sampling sites, but no obvious seasonal variation could be determined. The wastewater treatment process reduced the mecA gene concentration in most months. Taken together our results show that the mecA gene, S. aureus and MRSA occur over the year at all sites investigated.

  • 19.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden; Unilabs, Capio S:t Görans Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Correction: A seasonal study of the mecA gene and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (in WATER RESEARCH, Volume 43, Issue 4, Pages 925-932)2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 3900-3900Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 20.
    Caliz, Joan
    et al.
    University of Girona.
    Vila, Xavier
    University of Girona.
    Marti, Esther
    University of Barcelona.
    Sierra, Jordi
    University of Barcelona.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Baneras, Lluis
    University of Girona.
    Montserrat, Genoveva
    University of Girona.
    The microbiota of an unpolluted calcareous soil faces up chlorophenols: Evidences of resistant strains with potential for bioremediation2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 104-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To highlight the effects of a variety of chlorophenols (CP) in relation to the response of an indigenous bacterial community, an agricultural Mediterranean calcareous soil has been studied in microcosms incubated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil samples were artificially polluted with 2-monochlorophenol (MCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), at concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 5000 mg kg(-1). Both activity and composition of the microbial community were assessed during several weeks, respectively, by respirometric methods and PCR-DGGE analysis of extracted DNA and RNA. Significant decreases in soil respirometric values and changes in the bacterial community composition were observed at concentrations above 1000 mg kg(-1) MCP and TCP, and above 100 mg kg(-1) PCP. However, the persistence of several active bacterial populations in soil microcosms contaminated with high concentration of CP, as indicated by DGGE fingerprints, suggested the capacity of these native bacteria to survive in the presence of the pollutants, even without a previous adaptation or contact with them. The isolation of potential CP degraders was attempted by culture plating from microcosms incubated with high CP concentrations. Twenty-three different isolates were screened for their resistance to TCP and PCP. The most resistant isolates were identified as Kocuria palustris, Lysobacter gummosus, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas putida, according to 16S rRNA gene homology. In addition, these four isolates also showed the capacity to reduce the concentration of TCP and PCP from 15% to 30% after 5 d of incubation in laboratory assays (initial pollutant concentration of 50 mg L(-1)). Isolate ITP29, which could be a novel species of Bacillus, has been revealed as the first known member in this bacterial group with potential for CP bioremediation applications, usually wide-spread in the soil natural communities, which has not been reported to date as a CP degrader.

  • 21.
    Dalin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ansker,
    Stockholm vatten.
    Häggström,
    Stockholm vatten.
    Dahlberg, B
    Göteborg vatten.
    Pott, B-M
    Sydvatten.
    Ericsson, P
    Norrvatten.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
     Analysmetoder för norovirus i ytvatten:  Utveckling av molekylärbiologisk metodik för detektion och kvantifiering i vatten och slam2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Viruses causing water-borne outbreaks and concentration methods for viruses in water is described. Analysis methodology for measuring background levels of norovirus in surface water sources has been developed. The detection is performed using an automated molecular analysis chain.

  • 22.
    Dessau, Ram B
    et al.
    Slagelse Hospital, Slagelse, Denmark.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyman, Dag
    Åland University, Mariehamn, Finlad.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite2015In: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, ISSN 1556-6811, E-ISSN 1556-679X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 823-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. The seroconversion or relative change is defined by dividing the measurement units from the second sample by those from the first sample. The threshold for the minimum level of significant change was defined at the 2.5% level to represent the random error level. The thresholds were a 2.7-fold rise for the flagellar IgG assay and a 1.8-fold rise for the C6 assay. Of 1,886 persons, 102/101 (5.4%) had a significant rise in antibody reactivity in the flagellar assay or the C6 assay. Among 40 cases with a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the sensitivities corresponding to a rise in antibodies were 33% and 50% for the flagellar antigen and the C6 antigen, respectively. Graphical methods to display the antibody response and to choose thresholds for a rise in relative antibody reactivity are shown and discussed. In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites showed a rise in Borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% threshold in either ELISA but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis.

  • 23.
    Fomsgaard, Anders
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark .
    Fertner, Mette E
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark .
    Essbauer, Sandra
    Institute Mikrobiol Bundeswehr, Germany .
    Nielsen, Alex Y
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark .
    Frey, Stefan
    Institute Mikrobiol Bundeswehr, Germany .
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bodker, Rene
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Weidmann, Manfred
    University of Medical Gottingen, Germany .
    Dobler, Gerhard
    Institute Mikrobiol Bundeswehr, Germany .
    Letter: Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Zealand, Denmark, 20112013In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1171-1173Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 24.
    Fryland, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Sandin, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyman, Dag
    Aland Borrelia Grp.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology.
    Biomarkers in blood a few days after a bite by a Borrelia burgdorferi infected tick:: Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi-infected subjects show higher Th1-associated response compared with subjects who later develop Lyme borreliosis2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical outcome following infection with Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) differs between individuals, ranging from asymptomatic infection to Lyme borreliosis (LB) with persistent symptoms post-treatment. Previous studies in mice and humans have generated the hypothesis that a successful outcome of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is associated with an early strong pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)1-like immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the early course of events in B. burgdorferi s.l.-associated inflammation by screening for possible early immune biomarkers in peripheral blood from newly tick-bitten persons. The study subjects bitten by B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected ticks were divided into (1) those later developing clinical LB, (2) those who developed anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies but not clinical LB, (3) those who neither developed antibodies nor clinical LB. A fourth group consisted of bitten study subjects without development of antibodies or clinical LB. Two sets of samples, both comprising all four groups, were collected in order to repeat the analyses and confirm the data. Sera or plasma collected a few days after the tick bite were analysed for 18 biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IL-27, TNF, CCL18, CCL20, CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, calprotectin, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9) by multiplex bead assay and ELISA. In the first set of samples, the neutrophil activation marker calprotectin was increased in subjects who developed clinical LB compared with subjects who developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. but did not develop LB. However, the finding could not be confirmed in the second set of samples, thus the study failed to identify an early prognostic marker for development of clinical LB. Interestingly, both sets of samples showed increases in two different Th1-associated markers, CXCL10 and IL-12p70, respectively, in subjects who following a bite by a B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected tick developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. but did not develop LB compared with subjects who developed clinical LB, thus supporting the hypothesis of an early strong Th1-response being important for optimal resolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection.

  • 25.
    Fryland, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyman, Dag
    Aland Borrelia Grp.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Low risk of developing Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the south-east of Sweden after being bitten by a Borrelia burgdorferi-infected tick2011In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 1201-9712, Vol. 15, no 3, p. E174-E181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb)-infected ticks in Sweden is largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of Bb in ticks that had bitten humans and the risk of developing LB from Bb-infected ticks. Methods: Health questionnaires, blood samples, and ticks were collected from 394 tick-bitten study subjects in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden, at the time of the tick bite. Questionnaires and blood samples were also collected 3 months later. Ticks were screened for Bb DNA with PCR, while sera were analyzed for antibodies against Bb using two ELISA assays. Seroconversion, i.e., an at least two-fold increase in anti-Bb antibodies after 3 months, was confirmed using a Strip-Immunoassay. Results: Seventy-five of 397 ticks collected from the study subjects were determined to be Bb-positive. Sixty-four of the tick-bitten subjects had been bitten by Bb-infected ticks. Four of them showed seroconversion and were therefore considered to have an active Bb infection. None of these four subjects had sought health care due to symptoms, but one reported symptoms. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the risk of developing LB after being bitten by a Bb-infected tick is low, and asymptomatic Bb infections appear to be more frequent than symptomatic infections.

  • 26.
    Generó, Magalí Martí
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Juottonen, Heli
    MEM-group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M.
    Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Yrjälä, Kim
    MEM-group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia2015In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 81, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ombrotrophic raised bogs are nutrient poor acidic peatlands accumulating organic matter. They are widely spread on northern latitudes and are substantial sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere being of great concern from a climate change perspective. We investigated the methanogen community composition along microtopographic gradients within three bogs in Scandinavia, receiving different amounts of nitrogen precipitation. Methanogenic community analyses by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mcrA gene showed different profiles among the three sites, while no in- fluence of the microtopographic gradients was observed. Peat temperature and dissolved organic carbon were the major edaphic variables explaining 38% of the variation of the methanogenic community di- versity among the bogs. The family Methanoregulaceae (hydrogenotrophic methanogens) showed the largest relative proportion and highest activity in all three sites. Quantitative PCR of the mcrA gene and transcripts showed that the most northern site, receiving the lowest atmospheric nitrogen load, had significantly lower abundance and activity of methanogens (4.7 106 and 2.4 104 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), compared to the most southern site (8.2 107 and 4.6 105 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), receiving the highest nitrogen load. No patterns of the mcrA gene and tran- script abundances were observed along the microtopography. The results indicated that the difference in occurrence of methanogens is mainly due to geoclimatological conditions rather than site intrinsic microtopographic variation. The study further suggests that environmental changes on the site intrinsic topography will not affect the methanogenic activity, while increasing average temperatures in Scan- dinavian ombrotrophic raised bogs might contribute to an increase of the methanogenic archaeal activity resulting in an increase of methane production. 

  • 27.
    Grankvist, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Labbe Sandelin, Lisa
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jennie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Wenneras, Christine
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden2015In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1462-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months.

  • 28.
    Granquist, Erik G.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Kristiansson, Malin
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Nodtvedt, Ane
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Okstad, Wenche
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Stuen, Snorre
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in Ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of Norway2014In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 780-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reports suggest a potential for transmission of a newly discovered rickettsial endosymbiont, Midichloria mitochondrii, to animals and humans from feeding ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Using molecular methods: I. ricinus, sheep and red deer in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-endemic areas of Norway, were examined to see if they were infected by M. mitochondrii or related organisms like Wolbachia pipientis and Rickettsia spp. A total of 532 ticks collected from pastures, 76 blood samples from grazing lambs and 12 organ samples from hunted deer, were analyzed during the study. All larval pools, 60.4% pooled nymphs and 35.1% of adult ticks were positive for M. mitochondrii. There was a significant difference between geographical areas in the prevalence of M. mitochondrii infection among nymphs. A total of 2.2% pooled nymphs and 5.3% adult ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Eleven percent of pooled nymphs were positive for Borrelia spp, 2.2% of pooled nymphs and 3.5% of adult ticks were positive for Rickettsia spp. and none of the ticks were positive for W. pipientis. The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection was 54% and 75% in grazing lambs and deer, respectively. No animals were positive for Borrelia spp., M. mitochondrii, Rickettsia spp. or W. pipientis. The reported findings suggest that M. mitochondrii is widespread in tick populations at different geographical sites, and may appear in co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ticks.

  • 29. Hallin, S
    et al.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    PCR detection of genes encoding nitrite reductase in denitryifying bacteria.1999In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 65, p. 1652-1657Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Hallin, S
    et al.
    Lydmark, P
    Kokalj, S
    Hermansson, M
    Sorensson, F
    Jarvis, A
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Community survey of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in full-scale activated sludge processes with different solids retention time2005In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 629-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To study the effects of different solids retention time (SRT) on the nitrification activity and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in two full-scale activated sludge processes during a 5-month period. Methods and Results: The AOB community composition was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the identified populations were enumerated by quantitative FISH. Potential nitrification rates were determined in batch tests and the in situ rates were calculated from mass balances of nitrogen in the plants. Increased SRT reduced the nitrification activity, but neither the number per mixed liquor suspended solids nor community composition of AOB were affected. Two dominant AOB populations related to Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were identified by FISH, whereas only the latter could be detected by DGGE. Conclusions: The effect of a longer SRT on the activity was probably because of physiological changes in the AOB community rather than a change in community composition. Significance and Impact of the Study: Physiological alterations of a stable AOB community are possible and may stabilize activated sludge processes. The commonly used FISH probes designed to target all beta-proteobacterial AOB does not detect certain Nitrosomonas oligotropha populations, leading to an underestimation of AOB if a wider set of probes is not used. © 2005 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  • 31.
    Henningsson, Anna J
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gyllemark, Paula
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Nyman, Dag
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Bimelix Biomedical Laboratory, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Low risk of seroconversion or clinical disease in humans after a bite by an Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected tick2015In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 787-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of contracting human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) after a tick bite is mainly unknown. In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by ticks negative for both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. (Group C). Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires were collected from tick-bitten humans at 34 primary healthcare centres in Sweden and in the Åland Islands, Finland, at the time of the tick bite and after three months. A total of 2553 ticks detached from humans in 2007-2009 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and 31 (1.2%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 556 (21.8%) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., and eight (0.3%) were co-infected by A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. The overall prevalence of Anaplasma IgG antibodies in the included participants (n=90) was 17%, and there was no significant difference between the groups A-C. Only one of the participants (in Group C) showed a four-fold increase of IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum at the three-month follow-up, but reported no symptoms. The frequency of reported symptoms did not differ between groups A-C, and was unrelated to the findings of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the detached ticks. We conclude that the risk for HGA or asymptomatic seroconversion after a tick bite in Sweden or in the Åland Islands is low, even if the tick is infected by A. phagocytophilum.

  • 32. Hermansson, A
    et al.
    Hermansson, A
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in arable soil by real-time PCR2001In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 972-976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time PCR was used to quantify populations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria representing the ▀ subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in samples of arable soil, both nitrogen fertilized and unfertilized, from Mellby, Sweden. Primers and probes targeting a 16S ribosomal DNA region of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were designed and used. In the fertilized soil there were ~6.2 x 107 ammonia-oxidizing bacteria per g of soil, three times more than the number of bacteria in the unfertilized soil. The lyric efficiency of bead beating in these soils was investigated by using populations of free or loosely attached bacteria, bacteria tightly bound to particles, and bacteria in nonfractionated samples. The shapes of the curves generated in these tests showed that the concentration of template DNA released at various times remained constant after 10 to 100 s of bead beating.

  • 33. Hermansson, Anna
    et al.
    Bäckman, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Quantification of ammonia-oxidising bacteria in limed and non-limed acidic coniferous forest soil using real-time PCR2004In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1935-1941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) in limed and non-limed acidic coniferous forest soil were investigated using real-time PCR. Two sites in southern Sweden were studied, 244 Åled and Oxafällan. The primers and probe used earlier appeared to be specific to the 16S rRNA gene of AOB belonging to the β-subgroup of the Proteobacteria [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (2001) 972]. Plots treated with two different doses of lime, 3 or 6 t ha-1, were compared with non-limed control plots on two occasions during a single growing season. Three different soil depths were analysed to elucidate possible differences in the density of their AOB communities. The only clear effect of liming on the AOB was recorded in the beginning of the growing season at 244 Åled. In samples taken in April from this site, the numbers of AOB were higher in the limed plots than in the control plots. At the end of the growing season the AOB communities were all of a similar size in the different plots at both sites, irrespective of liming. The number of AOB, determined using real-time PCR, ranged between 6×106 and 1×109 cells g-1 soil (dw) at the two sites, and generally decreased with increasing soil depth. The results showed no correlation between community density and potential nitrification. This may indicate a partly inactive AOB community. Furthermore, more than 107 cells g-1 soil (dw) were recorded using real-time PCR in the control plot at 244 Åled, although Bäckman et al. [Soil Biol. Biochem. 35 (2003) 1337] detected no AOB like sequences in the same plots using PCR followed by DGGE. Taken together our results strongly suggest that the primers and probe set used are not well suited for quantifying AOB in acidic forest soils, which is probably due to an insufficient specificity. This shows that it is extremely important to re-evaluate any primers and probe set when used in a new environment. Consideration should be given to the specificity and sensitivity, both empirically and using bioinformatic tools.

  • 34.
    Jarvis, A
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Sundberg, C
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Milenkovski, S
    Lund University.
    Pell, M
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Smars, S
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallin , S
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Activity and composition of ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities and emission dynamics of NH3 and N2O in a compost reactor treating organic household waste2009In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, ISSN 1364-5072 , Vol. 106, no 5, p. 1502-1511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To monitor emissions of NH3 and N2O during composting and link these to ammonia oxidation rates and the community structure of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB).

    A laboratory-scale compost reactor treating organic household waste was run for 2 months. NH3 emissions peaked when pH started to increase. Small amounts of N2O and CH4 were also produced. In total, 16% and less than 1% of the initial N was lost as NH3-N and N2O-N respectively. The potential ammonia oxidation rate, determined by a chlorate inhibition assay, increased fourfold during the first 9 days and then remained high. Initially, both Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas populations were detected using DGGE analysis of AOB specific 16S rRNA fragments. Only Nitrosomonas europaea was detected under thermophilic conditions, but Nitrosospira populations re-established during the cooling phase.

    Thermophilic conditions favoured high potential ammonia oxidation rates, suggesting that ammonia oxidation contributed to reduced NH3 emissions. Small but significant amounts of N2O were emitted during the thermophilic phase. The significance of different AOBs detected in the compost for ammonia oxidation is not clear.

    This study shows that ammonia oxidation occurs at high temperature composting and therefore most likely reduces NH3 emissions.

  • 35.
    Jenkins, Andrew
    et al.
    Unilabs Telelab, Skien, Norway .
    Hvidsten, Dag
    University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stuen, Snorre
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Sandnes, Norway .
    Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik
    Unilabs Telelab, Skien, Norway .
    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway: evaluation of a PCR test targeting the chromosomal flaB gene2012In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A consensus TaqMan real-time PCR test targeting the chromosomal flaB gene of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was constructed. The test was compared with a recently published generic Light Upon eXtension (LUX) 16S rRNA real-time PCR test (Wilhelmsson et al. in J Clin Microbiol 48:4169-4176, 2010) on material consisting of 242 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in Northern Norway (n = 139) and Telemark County in Southern Norway (n = 103). Ticks positive in either test were further tested by nested PCR amplification of the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic-spacer region followed by sequencing for species identification. A tick was defined as Borrelia positive if two of three tests were positive. Thirty-four of the 242 (14 %) ticks satisfied this definition of positivity. Of these ticks 32 were positive both in the rRNA and flaB test, while two were positive only in the rRNA test. One tick was positive only in the rRNA test and was considered false positive since PCR for sequencing failed. The sensitivity of the flaB test was 94 % and the specificity 100 %. It was possible to determine the species present using Tm analysis. Among ticks from Northern Norway the prevalence of Borrelia was 13 %, whereas the prevalence in Telemark was 16 %. Among identified species (n = 33) B. afzelii was found in 16 (47 %), B. garinii in 15 (44 %) and B. valaisiana in 2 (6 %) ticks, respectively. The flaB test is a rapid, sensitive and specific test for detection and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in I. ricinus ticks. This is the first report on Borrelia prevalence in I. ricinus in Northern Norway.

  • 36. Katerov, V
    et al.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Totolian, A
    Schalén, C
    Streptococcal opacity factor: A family of bifunctional proteins with lipoproteinase and fibronectin-binding activities2000In: Current Microbiology, ISSN 0343-8651, E-ISSN 1432-0991, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The serum opacity factor (SOF) of Streptococcus pyogenes is a type- specific lipoproteinase of unknown biological significance. We have sequenced the sof gene and characterized the corresponding SOF protein from a strain of type M63. It was found that sof63 is related to sof22 and that, similar to SOF22 [25], SOF63 binds fibronectin. Moreover, we demonstrate opacity factor activity in a Streptococcus dysgalactiae fibronectin-binding protein FnBA that is structurally related to the SOF proteins of S. pyogenes. Sequence analysis of these three SOF proteins showed a unique periodical pattern of conserved and variable regions. The enzymatically active part of SOF63 was localized to the fragment corresponding to the entire set of conserved and variable sequences, while for fibronectin-binding a single repeat in the C terminal part of the protein was sufficient. The results show that streptococcal SOF proteins form a novel family of bifunctional proteins with lipoproteinase and fibronectin-binding activities.

  • 37.
    Labbe Sandelin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olsen, Bjorn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, p. e0133250-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  • 38.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Haglund, Mats
    Kalmar County hospital.
    Sjöwall, Johanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Stockholm.
    Nyman, Dag
    Åland Central Hospital, Åland, Finland.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Determining factors for successful vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus in older individuals2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 persons (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic Åland Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 14 healthrelated factors: [age, gender, number of vaccine doses (0-5), time since last vaccine dose, previous TBE disease, vaccination against other flaviviruses, ≥2 tick-bites during the previous 3 months, pet-ownership, asthma, smoking, allergy, diabetes, medication, and previous tumor]. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the person and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining successful vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same response. Participants receiving medication and participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower TBEV antibody titers on average, while those with self-reported asthma had higher titers. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.

  • 39.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden .
    Haglund, Mats
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden .
    Sjöwall, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Stockholm.
    Nyman, Dag
    Aland Central Hospital, Finland .
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Factors Determining Immunological Response to Vaccination against Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Older Individuals2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e0100860-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 individuals (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic A land Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 12 health-related factors. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the individual and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining the immunological response to vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same immunological response. Participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower odds of being seropositive for neutralizing TBEV antibodies on average, while participants with self-reported asthma had higher odds of being seropositive. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.

  • 40.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjowall, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Haglund, Mats
    Kalmar County hospital.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Stockholm.
    Nyman, Dag
    Åland Central Hospital, Åland, Finland.
    Andreassen, Åshild
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Olso, Norway.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks detached from humans and follow-up of serological and clinical response.2014In: Ticks and Tick Borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection after a tick bite remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated the presence of TBEV in ticks detached from humans in an attempt to relate viral copy number, TBEV subtype, and tick feeding time with the serological and clinical response of the tick-bitten participants. Ticks, blood samples, and questionnaires were collected from tick-bitten humans at 34 primary health care centers in Sweden and in the Aland Islands (Finland). A total of 2167 ticks was received from 1886 persons in 2008-2009. Using a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR, 5 TBEV-infected ticks were found (overall prevalence 0.23%, copy range <4 X 10(2)-7.7 X 10(6) per tick). One unvaccinated person bitten by a tick containing 7.7 x 10(6) TBEV copies experienced symptoms. Another unvaccinated person bitten by a tick containing 1.8 x 10(3) TBEV copies developed neither symptoms nor TBEV antibodies. The remaining 3 persons were protected by vaccination. In contrast, despite lack of TBEV in the detached ticks, 2 persons developed antibodies against TBEV, one of whom reported symptoms. Overall, a low risk of TBEV infection was observed, and too few persons got bitten by TBEV-infected ticks to draw certain conclusions regarding the clinical outcome in relation to the duration of the blood meal and virus copy number. However, this study indicates that an antibody response may develop without clinical symptoms, that a bite by an infected tick not always leads to an antibody response or clinical symptoms, and a possible correlation between virus load and tick feeding time. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Lindeborg, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Barboutis, Christos
    Hellenic Ornithological Society and Natural History Museum of Crete, Greece.
    Ehrenborg, Christian
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden .
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus2012In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 2095-2097Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lydmark, P.
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Almstrand, R.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, K.
    Mattsson, A.
    Gryaab, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sorensson, F.
    Sörensson, F., Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology .
    Hermansson, M.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Effects of environmental conditions on the nitrifying population dynamics in a pilot wastewater treatment plant2007In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 2220-2233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of environmental conditions, especially ammonium concentration, on community composition and nitrification activity of nitrifying bacterial biofilms in a pilot wastewater treatment plant was examined. A decreasing ammonium gradient was created when four aerated tanks with suspended carrier material were serially fed with wastewater. Community composition was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes as well as partial 16S rRNA and amoA gene analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes identified at least five ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and two nitrite-oxidizing bacterial (NOB) populations. A change in nitrifying community was detected in the tanks, indicating that ammonium was an important structuring factor. Further, we found support for different autoecology within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage, as at least one population within this lineage increased in relative abundance with ammonium concentration while another population decreased. Absolute numbers of AOB and NOB growing in biofilms on the carriers were determined and the cell specific nitrification rates calculated seemed strongly correlated to ammonium concentration. Oxygen could also be limiting in the biofilms of the first tank with high ammonium concentrations. The response of the nitrifying community to increased ammonium concentrations differed between the tanks, indicating that activity correlates with community structure. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 43.
    Matussek, A
    et al.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strindhall, J
    yDepartment of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Stark, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rohde, M
    zDepartment of Microbiology, German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Gemany.
    Geffers, R
    Mucosal Immunity Group, German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Buer, J
    Mucosal Immunity Group, German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig/Institute of Medical Microbiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Löfgren, S
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Infection of human endothelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus induces transcription of genes encoding an innate immunity response2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 536-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium frequently isolated from patients with bloodstream infections. Endothelial cells (EC) play an important role in host defence against bacteria, and recent reports have shown that infection of EC with S. aureus induces expression of cytokines and cell surface receptors involved in activating the innate immune response. The ability of S. aureus to invade nonphagocytic cells, including EC, has been documented. However, the knowledge of the role of EC in pathogenesis of S. aureus infection is still limited. In this study, we investigate the gene-expression program in human EC initiated by internalized 5. aureus, using microarray analysis. We found 156 genes that were differentially regulated at least threefold, using arrays representing 14,239 genes. Many of the up regulated genes code for proteins involved in innate immunity, such as cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion proteins. Other upregulated genes encode proteins involved in antigen presentation, cell signalling and metabolism. Furthermore, intracellular bacteria survived for days without inducing EC death. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 44.
    Matussek, Andreas
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Stark, Lisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Dienus, Olaf
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Aronsson, Joakim
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Mernelius, Sara
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Lofgren, Sture
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Analyzing Multiclonality of Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Diagnostics Using spa-Based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis2011In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 3647-3648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method which characterizes multiclonal communities of Staphylococcus aureus. The spa PCR-based DGGE method simultaneously separates strains that differ in only one base, thereby revealing multiclonal colonization and infections.

  • 45.
    Mernelius, S.
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, E.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Löfgren, S.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ehricht, R.
    Alere Technology GmbH, Germany; InfectoGnostics, Germany.
    Monecke, S.
    Alere Technology GmbH, Germany; InfectoGnostics, Germany.
    Matussek, A.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Staphylococcus aureus colonization related to severity of hand eczema2016In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1355-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates and epidemiology in hand eczema is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these issues. Samples were collected by the "glove juice" method from the hands of 59 patients with chronic hand eczema and 24 healthy individuals. Swab samples were taken from anterior nares and throat from 43 of the 59 patients and all healthy individuals. S. aureus were spa typed and analysed by DNA-microarray-based genotyping. The extent of the eczema was evaluated by the hand eczema extent score (HEES). The colonization rate was higher on the hands of hand eczema patients (69 %) compared to healthy individuals (21 %, p amp;lt; 0.001). This was also seen for bacterial density (p = 0.002). Patients with severe hand eczema (HEES a parts per thousand yen 13) had a significantly higher S. aureus density on their hands compared to those with milder eczema (HEES = 1 to 12, p = 0.004). There was no difference between patients and healthy individuals regarding colonization rates in anterior nares or throat. spa typing and DNA-microarray-based genotyping indicated certain types more prone to colonize eczematous skin. Simultaneous colonization, in one individual, with S. aureus of different types, was identified in 60-85 % of the study subjects. The colonization rate and density indicate a need for effective treatment of eczema and may have an impact on infection control in healthcare.

  • 46.
    Mernelius, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lofgren, S
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, A
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden .
    The role of broth enrichment in Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and transmission from the throat to newborn infants: results from the Swedish hygiene intervention and transmission of S-aureus study2013In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1593-1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus is detected by direct plating, whereas incubation in enrichment broth prior to plating to increase the proportion of positive samples has not been fully evaluated. S. aureus throat colonization has been suggested to be more common than colonization of the anterior nares, but no data are available on the transmission of S. aureus from the throat. Swab samples were collected from the anterior nares and umbilicus from newborn infants (n = 168), anterior nares, throat, skin lesions, and vagina from parents (n = 332), and anterior nares, throat, and skin lesions from healthcare workers (n = 231) at three maternity wards. spa typing was used to elucidate the transmission routes of S. aureus. The use of enrichment broth prior to plating increased the proportion of positive samples by 46 %. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization in adults was 58 %. Throat colonization (47 %) was significantly more common than colonization in any of the other screened sites (p andlt; 0.001). In total, 103 out of 168 (61 %) newborn infants were colonized during their hospital stay. Overall, 124 S. aureus transmissions to newborn infants were detected. Although we detected an increased risk of transmission from the nares as compared to the throat, with an odds ratio of 4.8 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-12.7], we detected a transmission rate of 7 % from the throat. We show that S. aureus throat colonization is more common than colonization in any of the other sites among the parents and staff. We also show evidence of transmission from the throat.

  • 47.
    Mernelius, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lofgren, Sture
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Varnamo Hospital, Sweden .
    Lenrick, Raymond
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Tiefenthal Thrane, Malena
    Hoglands Hospital Eksjo, Sweden .
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: The Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study2013In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Methods: Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. Results: The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. Conclusion: It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright (C) 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Baath, Erland
    Lund University.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berglund, Olof
    Lund University.
    Toxicity of fungicides to natural bacterial communities in wetland water and sediment measured using leucine incorporation and potential denitrification2010In: ECOTOXICOLOGY, ISSN 0963-9292, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed potential toxicity of fungicides to natural bacterial communities from a constructed wetland, located in southern Sweden, and compared the sensitivity of two endpoints indicating bacterial activity, leucine incorporation, and potential denitrification, in detecting toxicity. The effects of eight fungicides (benomyl, carbendazim, carboxin, captan, cycloheximide, fenpropimorph, propiconazole, and thiram), two bactericides (bronopol and chlortetracycline) as controls, and one reference compound (3,5-dichlorophenol), were tested in a water-sediment microcosm set-up. Leucine incorporation was measured in both the water and sediment column, while potential denitrification was measured for the entire microcosm. The bactericides and the reference compound gave sigmoid concentration-response curves for both endpoints in all but one case. The fungicides thiram, captan, and benomyl, and to a lesser extent fenpropimorph and propiconazole had quantifiable toxic effects on leucine incorporation, with EC50 values ranging from 3 to 70 mg l(-1), while carbendazim, carboxin, and cycloheximide had little effect at the investigated concentrations. Only thiram and captan inhibited potential denitrification; the other fungicides showed no quantifiable effect. A greater toxic effect on leucine incorporation was recorded for bacterial communities associated with the water column, compared to the sediment column, for all tested compounds. Leucine incorporation was the more sensitive method for toxicity assessment of bacterial communities, and also allowed for a rapid and simple way of comparing exposure in the sediment and water column, making it an attractive standard method for community based toxicological assays in aquatic environments.

  • 49. Neubauer, H
    et al.
    Pantel, I
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Characterization of the molybdate transport system ModABC of Staphylococcus carnosus. 1999In: Archives of Microbiology, ISSN 0302-8933, E-ISSN 1432-072X, Vol. 172, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist Gustafsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to extracellular matrix proteins and effects of fibrinogen-bound bacteria on oxidase activity and apoptosis in neutrophils2005In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 113, no 5, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus epidermidis often causes foreign-body infections such as those associated with hip prostheses, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not fully understood. We performed spectrophotometry to study the ability of S. epidermidis to bind to immobilised fibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin, and collagen. The strains were isolated from infected hip prostheses or from normal flora and the well-known protein-binding strain Staphylococcus aureus Cowan was used as positive control. We also analysed the interaction between neutrophils and a fibrinogen-bound prosthesis-derived strain of S. epidermidisby measuring chemiluminescence to determine the neutrophil oxidative response and binding of annexin V to indicate neutrophil apoptosis. We found that binding of S. epidermidis to extracellular matrix proteins varied under different growth conditions, and that prosthesis isolates adhered better to vitronectin than did strains from normal flora. The oxidative response caused by fibrinogen-bound S. epidermidis was not above the background level, which was in marked contrast to the distinct response induced by fibrinogen-associated S. aureus Cowan. Furthermore, fibrinogen-adhering S. epidermidis retarded neutrophil apoptosis. We conclude that surface-bound S. epidermidis induces only a weak inflammatory response, which in combination with the ability of the adherent bacteria to retard neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to low-grade inflammation and loosening of prostheses.

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