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  • 1.
    Alkaissi, Aidah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Evertsson, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Johnsson, Vivi-Ann
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Västervik Hospital .
    Ofenbartl, Lilli
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Eksjö Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    P6 acupressure may relieve nausea and vomiting after gynecological surgery: an effectiveness study in 410 women2002In: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, ISSN 0832-610X, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1034-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sensory stimulation of the P6 point on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after gynecological surgery in the everyday clinical setting (effectiveness study).

    Methods: Four hundred and ten women undergoing general anesthesia for elective gynecological surgery were included in a prospective, consecutive, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial with a reference group. One group was given bilateral P6 acupressure (n = 135), a second group similar pressure on bilateral non-acupressure points (n = 139), and a third group (n = 136) served as reference group. Nausea (scale 0–6), vomiting, pain, and satisfaction with the treatment were recorded. Primary outcome was complete response, i.e., no nausea, vomiting or rescue medication for 24 hr. Results were analyzed by applying logistic regression with indicators of treatments, type of operation and risk score for PONV as explanatory variables.

    Results: Complete response was more frequent in the P6 acupressure group than in the reference group (P = 0.0194) Conversely, the incidence of PONV was 46% in the reference group, 38% after pressure on a non-acupoint and 33% after P6 acupressure. The decrease from 46% to 33% was statistically significant. When considering vaginal cases separately, the decrease in PONV was from 36% to 20% (P = 0.0168). The corresponding decrease from 59% to 55% in the laparoscopic surgery group was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion: P6 acupressure is a non-invasive method that may have a place as prophylactic antiemetic therapy during gynecological surgery.

  • 2.
    Alkaissi, Aidah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Gunnarsson, H.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Västervik Hospital, Sweden.
    Evertsson, Karin
    Department of Anesthesiology, Västervik Hospital, Sweden.
    Johnsson, V.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Västervik Hospital, Sweden.
    Ofenbartl, L.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Eksjö Hospital, Sweden.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Disturbing postoperative symptoms are not reduced by prophylactic antiemetric treatment in patients at high risk for post-operative nausea and vomiting2004In: Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 761-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To give prophylactics or timely treatment for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the question. We compared the intensity and number of disturbing post-operative symptoms (i.e. pain, PONV, headache, fatigue, etc.) after prophylactic antiemetic treatment in a group of patients with >30% risk for post-operative vomiting. METHODS: Four hundred and ninety-five patients, from three hospitals, planned for gynaecological surgery were randomized double blind. They were given granisetron 3 mg, droperidol 1.25 mg or no prophylactic antiemetic. Post-operative symptoms were followed for 24 h using a questionnaire. Symptoms were analyzed both according to their intensity and in a dichotomous fashion. RESULTS: The intensity of different symptoms differed depending on whether droperidol, granisetron or no antiemetic had been given (P = 0.005) but the overall incidence of moderate to very severe symptoms was similar in all groups. No group fared better in general. The total number of symptoms was higher in the groups given prophylactic treatment (P < 0.05). The relative risk reduction for PONV with granisetron or droperidol prophylaxis was 27%[95% confidence interval (CI) 8-43] and 22% (2-38), respectively. The NNT (number needed to treat) for granisetron (0-24 h) was 7 and for droperidol 8. The NNH (number needed to harm) (0-24 h) for headache and visual disturbances was 6 and 13 (NS) for granisteron and, 50 (NS) and 6 for droperidol. CONCLUSION: The intensity of symptoms or the total number of disturbing symptoms did not decrease after prophylactic antiemetic treatment in a group of patients, but the profile of disturbing symptoms changed. The relevance of post-operative symptoms in terms of patients' well-being needs to be addressed.

  • 3.
    Alkaissi, Aidah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nausogenic motion stimulation in women with high risk for PONV2005In: Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, ISSN 1496-8975, Vol. 52, p. 703-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a previous study we noticed that P6 acupressure decreased postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) more markedly after discharge. As motion sickness susceptibility is increased by, for example, opioids we hypothesized that P6 acu-pressure decreased PONV by decreasing motion sickness susceptibility. We studied time to nausea by a laboratory motion challenge in a group of volunteers, during P6 and placebo acupressure.

    Methods: 60 women with high and low susceptibilities for motion sickness participated in a randomized and double-blind study with an active P6 acupressure, placebo acupressure, and a control group (n = 20 in each group). The risk score for PONV was over 50%. The motion challenge was by eccentric rotation in a chair, blindfolded and with chin to chest movements of the head. The challenge was stopped when women reported moderate nausea. Symptoms were recorded.

    Results: Mean time to moderate nausea was longer in the P6 acu-pressure group compared to the control group. P6 acupressure = 352 (259–445), mean (95% confidence interval) in seconds, control = 151 (121–181) and placebo acupressure = 280 (161–340); (P = 0.006). No difference was found between P6 and placebo acupressure or placebo acupressure and control groups. Previous severity of motion sickness did not influence time to nausea (P = 0.107). The cumulative number of symptoms differed between the three groups (P < 0.05). Fewer symptoms were reported in the P6 acupressure compared to the control group P < 0.009. Overall, P6 acupressure was only marginally more effective than placebo acupressure on the forearms.

    Conclusion: In females with a history of motion sickness P6 acu-pressure increased tolerance to experimental nauseogenic stimuli, and reduced the total number of symptoms reported.

  • 4.
    Alkaissi, Aidah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Stålnert, Monica
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Effect and placebo effect of acupressure (P6) on nausea and vomiting after outpatientgynaecological surgery1999In: Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture and acupressure have previously been reported to possess antiemetic effect. We wanted to investigate the "true" and placebo effect of acupressure in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty women undergoing outpatient minor gynaecological surgery were entered into a double-blind and randomised study. One group received acupressure with bilateral stimulation of P6 (A), a second group received bilateral placebo stimulation (P) and a third group received no acupressure wrist band and served as a reference group (R). PONV was evaluated as number of patients with complete response (no PONV), nausea only or vomiting. In addition, the need for rescue antiemetic medication and nausea after 24 h was registered. RESULTS: Complete response was obtained in 11, 11 and 9 patients in groups, A, P and R, respectively. Nine, 7 and 6 patients had nausea before discharge home, and 1, 1 and 8 patients were nauseated (8 vs 1 patient: P < 0.05) 24 h after operation in A, P and R groups, respectively. When compared to placebo acupressure (2 patients vomited and 5 needed rescue), significantly (P < 0.05) fewer needed rescue antiemetic medication after acupressure at P6 (no vomiting or rescue medication). When compared to the observation group (5 vomited and 4 needed rescue antiemetics), significantly fewer vomited after acupressure (P < 0.05) CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing brief gynaecological surgery, placebo effect of acupressure decreased nausea after 24 h but vomiting and need of rescue antiemetics was reduced only by acupressure with the correct P6 point stimulation.

  • 5.
    Bartha, Erzsebet
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rudin, Å.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Flisberg, P.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden, .
    Lundberg, CJ.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Could benefits of epidural analgesia following oesophagectomy be measured by perceived perioperative patient workload?2008In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1313-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A controversy exists whether beneficial analgesic effects of epidural analgesia over intravenous analgesia influence the rate of post-operative complications and the length of hospital stay. There is some evidence that favours epidural analgesia following major surgery in high-risk patients. However, there is a controversy as to whether epidural analgesia reduces the intensive care resources following major surgery. In this study, we aimed at comparing the post-operative costs of intensive care in patients receiving epidural or intravenous analgesia.

    Methods: Clinical data and rates of post-operative complications were extracted from a previously reported trial following thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomy. Cost data for individual patients included in that trial were retrospectively obtained from administrative records. Two separate phases were defined: costs of pain treatment and the direct cost of intensive care.

    Results: Higher calculated costs of epidural vs. intravenous pain treatment, 1,037 vs. 410 Euros/patient, were outweighed by lower post-operative costs of intensive care 5,571 vs. 7,921 Euros/patient (NS).

    Conclusion: Higher costs and better analgesic effects of epidural analgesia compared with intravenous analgesia do not reduce total costs for post-operative care following major surgery.

  • 6.
    Bartha, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Evaluation of costs and effects of epidural analgesia and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after major abdominal surgery2006In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The outcome of different treatment strategies for postoperative pain has been an issue of controversy. Apart from efficacy and effectiveness a policy decision should also consider cost-effectiveness. Since economic analyses on postoperative pain treatment are rare we developed a decision model in a pilot cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) comparing epidural analgesia (EDA) and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) after major abdominal surgery in routine care. Methods. Using a decision-tree model, treatment with EDA (ropivacaine and morphine) was compared with PCIA (morphine). Effects and costs of treatment were established. The number of pain-free days at rest (pain intensity <30 using visual analogue scale 1-100 mm) was the primary measure of effect. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in direct costs divided by the difference in effect. A database on 644 patients collected for the purpose of quality control during the period of 1997 to 1999 was the main data source. Sensitivity analysis was used to test uncertain data. Results. EDA was more effective in terms of pain-free days but more expensive. The additional cost for each pain-free day was 5652 Euros. Conclusion. It is a judgement of value if the additional cost is reasonable. When the cost of around 55 000 Euros per gained life-year with full health for other interventions is debated, our result indicates poor cost-effectiveness for EDA. Before any conclusion can be drawn concerning policy recommendations the difference in costs has to be related to other outcome measures as length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality are required. © The Board of Management and Trustees of the British Journal of Anaesthesia 2005. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Bartha, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Postoperativ smärtlindring - till vilket pris?: En hälsoekonomisk modellanalys av två smärtlindringsmetoder2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  common  method  for  postoperative  pain  control  after  major  abdominal surgery in routine care is epidural analgesia (EDA) using a combination of local anaesthetics  with  opiate  and  patient-controlled   intravenous  analgesia  using opiate (PCIA). It is a matter of dispute which method is better and should be favoured in different clinical situations. The superior analgesic effect of epidural analgesia reported in clinical trials has been difficult to transform into clinical practice.  In a large number  of patients  the epidural  analgesia  is discontinued earlier  than planned  because  of technical  difficulties.  The influence  of better analgesic effect on outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity has also been an issue  of  controversy.  There  are  no  clear  recommendations  which  treatment should  be  selected  in  specific  situations.  According  to  the  guidelines  of  the Swedish  Society  of Anaesthesiology  both  EDA  and  PCIA  can  be chosen  in several  situations.  Apart  from  efficacy  and  effectiveness  a  policy  decision should    also    consider    cost-effectiveness.    Since    economic    analyses    on postoperative pain treatment are rare an analysis of costs and consequences of planned  and discontinued  treatment  is of interest  when  comparing  these  two strategies. The aim of this report is to estimate cost-effectiveness  of treatment with EDA and PCIA under clinical circumstances by a decision analytic model using a clinical database as datasource.

    Using   a   decision-tree,   treatment   with   EDA   was   compared   with   PCIA (morphine) by describing the possible clinical pathways for the successful and early-terminated treatments. The length of treatment was 3 days. A database on 644 patients collected for the purpose of quality control during 1997-99 was the main data source. By using the model costs and effects were established. The effects were expressed as number of pain-free days and the costs in Swedish krona (SEK). Number of pain-free days at rest (pain intensity<30 using visual analogue  scale  1-100  mm)  was  the  primary  measure  of  effect.  The  cost- effectiveness,  the average cost for reaching a particular outcome with a given treatment, is expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio (CER). When decision has to be  taken  to  replace  a  treatment  with  a  more  expensive  and  more  effective treatment, an estimate of the additional resources that have to be used to obtain the additional benefit is needed. That is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

    The result of the main analysis is that the cost for each pain-free day is 6.489 SEK for treatment with EDA and 2.602 SEK for PCIA. The incremental cost- effectiveness  ratio  is  50.215  SEK.  This  is  the  additional  cost  for  each  of additional  pain-free  day in a situation  when treatment  strategy  from PCIA is converted to EDA. The sensitivity analysis of our result shows that the result of the cost analysis is robust. However changes in assumptions of effect size have substantial impact on the result*.

    *  See  an  English  version  of  the  report.  Bartha  E,  Carlsson  P,  Kalman  S. Evaluation  of  costs  and  effects  of  epidural  analgesia  and  patient-controlled intravenous  analgesia after major abdominal  surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2005 Oct 28; [Epub ahead of print]

  • 8.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Respiratory monitoring using photoplethysmography - evaluation in the postoperative care unit1998In: Annual International Conference of th IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,1998, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Studies on the halothane-diethyl-ether azeotrope1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements for a safe standard for anaesthesia under primitiveconditions differ from those under peaceful circumstances. It is important not to blunt the reflexes that guard vital functions. Safety requirements concerning breathing, circulation, and drug interaction must be sharpened because professional surveillance of the patient may be restricted. The halothane-diethyl-ether azeotrope (HE azeotrope) has properties that could make it suitable for anaesthesia under adverse circumstances. We have re-evaluated the HE azeotrope with special reference to safety in studies on 102 patients and 19 pigs.

    The vaporizers were calibrated to guarantee their performance. Guidelines for the use of Auotec® Mark Ill and Servo® vaporizer for halothane combined with the HE azeotrope are set out. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for the HE azeotrope has not previously been published. The MAC for the HE azeotrope was determined in man (0.71 vol.%± 0.03, ± SEM) and pig (0.99 vol.%± 0.07) to allow comparison with other inhalation anaesthetics. The safety ratio defined as the ratio between fatal alveolar concentration and minimum alveolar concentration was found to be 3.1 in pig, which is about twice as high as previously reported data for halothane anaesthesia alone.

    Ventilation during surgical anaesthesia (1.1-1.2 MAC), both when resting and during challenge with raised inspiratory levels of carbon dioxide and decreased inspiratory concentration of oxygen, was measured. Ventilation was maintained during resting. Response to hypercarbia was preserved, in contrast to what was seen under isoflurane anaesthesia. Response to hypoxia was abolished.

    The central circulation was well preserved under normovolaemia in pigs during HE azeotrope anaesthesia. Haemorrhage. with a loss of30% of the blood volume was well tolerated, no matter whether the pig had received HE azeotrope or isoflurane. Isoflurane is considered in the literature to be an anaesthetic well tolerated by pigs.

    Most inhalation anaesthetics potentiate neuromuscular blockade, which is an important and sometimes dangerous component of anaesthesia. We therefore thought it important to investigate whether interaction takes place between vecuronium induced neuromuscular blockade and the HE azeotrope. Potentiation similar to that occurring during halothane anaesthesia was found.

    Early postoperative liver function was studied by tests of cellular metabolic capacity, cell integrity, cholestasis, and synthesizing capacity. No major impact on hepatic function after HE azeotrope anaesthesia was seen.

    Thus, the halothane-diethyl-ether azeotrope has properties that could make it interesting as an alternative anaesthetic drug under difficult circumstances.

  • 10.
    Kalman, Sigga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Ekbäck, Gustav
    Örebro.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Metcalf, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Ranklev Twetman, Eva
    Anestesiläkarnas arbetsmiljö kan förbättras. Slutrapport från ett arbetsmiljöprojekt2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, p. 1603-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kalman, Sigga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Linderfalk, C
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Lisander, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Differential effect on vasodilatation and pain after intradermal capsaicin in humans during decay of intravenous regional anesthesia with mepivacaine1998In: Regional anesthesia and pain medicine, ISSN 1098-7339, E-ISSN 1532-8651, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 402-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kalman, Sigga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Svensson, H
    Lisander, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Boive, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Quantitative sensory changes in humans after itravenous regional block with mepivacaine.1999In: Regional anesthesia, ISSN 0146-521X, Vol. 24, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kalman, Sigga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Österberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Boivie, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bertler, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morphine responsiveness in a group of well-defined multiple sclerosis patients: a study with i.v. morphine2002In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common than has previously been believed. About 28% of all MS patients suffer from central pain (CP), a pain that is difficult to treat. In the present study we have investigated the responsiveness of this pain to morphine. Fourteen opioid-free patients (eight woman and six men) with constant, non-fluctuating, long-lasting CP caused by MS were investigated. Placebo (normal saline), morphine and naloxone were given intravenously in a standardized manner. The study design was non-randomized, single blind and placebo controlled. Ten patients experienced less than 50% pain reduction by placebo and less than 50% pain reduction by morphine. Four patients were opioid responders, i.e. had minimal or no effect on pain by placebo, >50% pain reduction after morphine and >25% pain increase after naloxone, given intravenously following morphine. However, this response was obtained after high doses of morphine (43 mg, 47 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg; mean 41 mg). Thus, compared with nociceptive pain, only a minority of the patients with CP due to MS responded to morphine and only at high doses. The present results are in accord with experimental studies indicating that neuropathic pain is poorly responsive but not totally unresponsive to opioids. The results do not support the routine use of strong opioids in MS patients with CP.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Difficulties in Controlling Mobilization Pain Using a Standardized Patient-Controlled Analgesia Protocol in Burns2011In: JOURNAL OF BURN CARE and RESEARCH, ISSN 1559-047X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 166-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pain relief for patients with burns during rest and mobilization with morphine according to a standard protocol for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Eighteen patients with a mean (SD) burned TBSA% of 26 (20) were studied for 10 days. Using a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0 = no pain and 10 = unbearable pain), patients were asked to estimate their acceptable and worst experienced pain by specifying a number on a scale and at what point they would like additional analgesics. Patients were allowed free access to morphine with a PCA pump device. Bolus doses were set according to age, (100 - age)/24 = bolus dose (mg), and 6 minutes lockout time. Degrees of pain, morphine requirements, doses delivered and demanded, oral intake of food, and antiemetics given were used as endpoints. Acceptable pain (mean [SD]) was estimated to be 3.8 (1.3) on the NRS, and additional treatment was considered necessary at scores of 4.3 (1.6) or more. NRS at rest was 2.7 (2.2) and during mobilization 4.7 (2.6). Required mean morphine per day was 81 (15) mg, and the number of doses requested increased during the first 6 days after the burn. The authors found no correlation between dose of morphine required and any other variables. Background pain can be controlled adequately with a standard PCA protocol. During mobilization, the pain experienced was too intense, despite having the already high doses of morphine increased. The present protocol must be refined further to provide analgesia adequate to cover mobilization as well.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Goscinski, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Age and gender do not influence the ability to detect respiration by photoplethysmography2006In: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, ISSN 1387-1307, E-ISSN 1573-2614, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 431-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  The non-invasive technique photopl- ethysmography (PPG) can detect changes in blood volume and perfusion in a tissue. Respiration causes variations in the peripheral circulation, making it possible to monitor breaths using an optical sensor attached to the skin. The respiratory-synchronous part of the PPG signal (PPGr) has been used to monitor respiration during anaesthesia, and in postoperative and neonatal care. Studies addressing possible differences in PPGr signal characteristics depending on gender or age are lacking.

    Methods  We studied three groups of 16 healthy subjects each during normal breathing; young males, old males and young females, and calculated the concordance between PPGr, derived from a reflection mode PPG sensor on the forearm, and a reference CO2 signal. The concordance was quantified by using a squared coherence analysis. Time delay between the two signals was calculated. In this process, we compared three different methods for calculating time delay.

    Results  Coherence values ≥0.92 were seen for all three groups without any significant differences depending on age or gender (p = 0.67). Comparison between the three different methods for calculating time delay showed a correlation r = 0.93.

    Conclusions  These results demonstrate clinically important information implying the possibility to register qualitative PPGr signals for respiration monitoring, regardless of age and gender.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Goscinski, Tomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Detection of breaths by photoplethysmography is independent of age and sex2005In: Congress of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and intensive care,2005, 2005, p. 19-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Goscinski, Tomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Photoplethysmography for central and obstructive apnea detection2005In: Congress of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and intensive care,2005, 2005, p. 19-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Goscinski, Tomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Lindberg, Lars-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Time relation between respiratory signals can be analysed by automated algorithms2005In: Congress of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and intensive care,2005, 2005, p. 19-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Den andningssynkrona kompenenten av den fotopletysmorgrafiska signalen hos sövda påverkas inte av övertrycksandning2004In: Programbok SFAI-veckan 2004,2004, 2004, p. 149-19Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Macrocirculation is not the sole determinant of respiratory induced variations in the reflection mode photoplethysmographic signal2003In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 925-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical technique sensitive to variations in blood volume and perfusion in the tissue. Reflection mode PPG may have clinical advantages over transmission mode PPG. To improve clinical usefulness and further development of the reflection mode PPG, studies on factors that modify the signal are warranted. We studied the coherence between the respiratory induced intensity variations (RIIV) of the PPG signal and respiratory synchronous pressure variations in central venous pressure (CVP), peripheral venous pressure (PVP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) during positive pressure ventilation on 12 patients under anaesthesia and on 12 patients with spontaneous breathing. During positive pressure ventilation the coherence between all signals was high. Inspiration was followed first by an increase in CVP, then by increases in ABP and PVP and lastly by RIIV indicating less back-scattered light. In spontaneously breathing patients the coherence was high, but the phases between the signals were changed. During inspiration, ABP decreased slightly before CVP, followed by a decrease in RIIV and PVP. The phase relation between RIIV and respiratory induced variation in macrocirculation changed with ventilatory mode, but not in a uniform way, indicating the influence of mechanisms other than macrocirculation involved in generating the RIIV signal.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Monitoring of respiratory rate in postoperative care using a new photoplethysmographic technique2000In: Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, ISSN 1387-1307, E-ISSN 1573-2614, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 309-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective.Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical technique that measures variations in skin blood volume and perfusion. The PPG signal contains components that are synchronous with respiratory and cardiacrhythms. We undertook this study to evaluate PPG for monitoring patients' respiratory rate in the postoperative care unit, using a new prototype device. We compared it with the established technique, transthoracic impedance (TTI).

    Methods.PPG signals from 16 patients(ASA classes 1–2, mean age 43 years) who were recovering from general anaesthesia after routine operations were recorded continuously for 60minutes/patient. The respiratory synchronous part of the PPG signal was extracted by using a band pass filter. Detection of breaths in the filtered PPG signals was done both visually and by using an automated algorithm. In both procedures, the detected breaths were compared with the breaths detected in the TTI reference.

    Results.A total of 10.661 breaths were recorded, and the mean ± SD respiratory rate was 12.3 ± 3.5breaths/minute. When compared with TTI, the rates of false positive and false negative breaths detected by PPG (visual procedure) were 4.6 ±4.5% and 5.8 ± 6.5%, respectively. When using the algorithm for breath detection from PPG, the rates of false positive andfalse negative breaths were 11.1 ± 9.7% and 3.7 ±3.8%, respectively, when compared to TTI. Lower respiratory rates increased the occurrence of false-positive breaths that were detected by the PPG using visual identification (p< 0.05). The same tendency was seen with the automated PPG procedure (p< 0.10).

    Conclusions.Our results indicate that PPG has the potential to be useful for monitoring respiratory rate in the postoperative period.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Johansson, Anders
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Phase relations between circulatory and photoplethysmographic respiratory variations2002In: Proceedings: International Federation for Medical & Biological Engineering,2002, 2002, p. 52-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Respiration can be monitored by photoplethysmography with high sensitivity and specificity regardless of anaesthesia and ventilatory mode2005In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 1157-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical technique used, for instance, in pulse oximetry. Beside the pulse synchronous component, PPG has a respiratory synchronous variation (PPGr). Efforts have been made to utilize this component for indirect monitoring of respiratory rate and volume. Assessment of the clinical usefulness as well as of the physiological background of PPGr is required. We evaluated if anaesthesia and positive-pressure ventilation would affect PPGr.

    Methods:  We recorded reflection mode PPGr, at the forearm, and the respiratory synchronous changes in central venous pressure (CVP), peripheral venous pressure (PVP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in 12 patients. Recordings for each patient were made on three occasions: awake with spontaneous breathing; anaesthetized with spontaneous breathing; and anaesthetized with positive-pressure ventilation. We analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, coherence and time relationship between the signals.

    Results:  PPGr sensitivity for breath detection was [mean (SD)] >86(21)% and specificity >96(12)%. Respiratory detection in the macrocirculation (CVP, PVP and ABP) showed a sensitivity >83(29)% and specificity >93(12)%. The coherence between signals was high (0.75–0.99). The three measurement situations did not significantly influence sensitivity, specificity or time shifts between the PPGr, PVP, ABP, and the reference CVP signal despite changes in physiological data between measurements.

    Conclusion:  A respiratory synchronous variation in PPG and all invasive pressure signals was detected. The reflection mode PPGr signal seemed to be a constant phenomenon related to respiration regardless of whether or not the subject was awake, anaesthetized or ventilated, which increases its clinical usefulness in respiratory monitoring.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Respiratory variations in the reflection mode photoplethysmographic signal: relationships to peripheral venous pressure2003In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 249-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical way of measuring variations in blood volume and perfusion in the tissue, used in pulse oximetry for instance. Respiratory-induced intensity variations (RIIVs) in the PPG signal exist, but the physiological background is not fully understood. Respiration causes variations in the blood volume in the peripheral vascular bed. It was hypothesised that the filling of peripheral veins is one of the important factors involved. In 16 healthy subjects, the respiratory synchronous variations from a PPG reflection mode signal and the peripheral venous pressure (PVP) were recorded. Variations of tidal volume, respiratory rate and contribution from abdominal and thoracic muscles gave significant and similar amplitude changes in both RIIV and the respiratory variation of PVP (p<0.01). The highest amplitudes of both signals were found at the largest tidal volume, lowest respiratory rate and during mainly thoracic breathing, respectively. The coherence between PVP and RIIV signals was high, the median (quartile range) being 0.78 (0.42). Phase analysis showed that RIIV was usually leading PVP, but variations between subjects were large. Although respiratory-induced variations in PVP and PPG showed a close correlation in amplitude variation, a causal relationship between the signals could not be demonstrated.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    The phase of the respiratory variation in the photoplethysmographic signal is not affected by sympathetic tone2004In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 21, p. 76-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Svanerudh, Johan
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Is the respiratory component of the photoplethysmographic signal of venous origin?1999In: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, Vol. 37, p. 912-913Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 26 of 26
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