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  • 1. Hatzinikolaou, DG
    et al.
    Lagesson, Verner
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Stavridou, AJ
    Pouli, AE
    Lagesson-Andrasko, L
    Stavrides, JC
    Analysis of the gas phase of cigarette smoke by gas chromatography coupled with UV-diode array detection2006In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 78, no 13, p. 4509-4516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas chromatography method, coupled with diode array photometric spectral detection in the ultraviolet region (167-330 nm), was developed for the analysis of the gas phase of cigarette smoke. The method enabled us to identify more than 20 volatiles present in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke. In that way, all major volatile organic compounds ( including aldehydes, conjugated dienes, ketones, sulfides, furans, and single-ring aromatics), as well as nitric oxide ( NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), can be analyzed in a straightforward manner through a single chromatographic run of < 50-min duration. The method can easily be applied by the introduction of a small volume of the gas-phase stream into the GC injection loop directly through the smoking apparatus exhaust circuit, thus providing an excellent alternative to available methods, which usually require extraction or concentration steps prior to any chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, all problems concerning aging of the gas phase are eliminated. Twelve compounds ( including NO) were chosen for quantification through the use of appropriate calibration standards. Comparison of the vapor phase yields of these compounds for the reference cigarette Kentucky 1R4F with already reported data indicates that this method is very reliable as far as accuracy and reproducibility of the results are concerned. Finally, the proposed methodology was used to compare the concentration of these cigarette smoke gas-phase constituents among individual puffs.

  • 2.
    Lagesson, Verner
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Qualitative determination of compounds adsorbed on indoor dust particles using GC-UV and GC-MS after thermal desorption2000In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, Vol. 52, no 9-10, p. 621-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifteen indoor dust samples were analysed qualitatively to determine the compounds adsorbed on the surfaces of the particles. The analyses were performed by GC-MS and GC-UV after thermal desorption at 150°C. A total of 192 different compounds with boiling points from about 50°C to 250°C were identified or classified. The results from the two methods, which were carried out under similar conditions of thermal desorption and gas chromatographic separation, were complementary. GC-MS clearly showed better results for non-aromatic compounds such as alkanes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, acids, esters and alcohols, but for aldehydes and compounds containing unconjugated double bonds the two methods were about equally successful. However, for aromatic or conjugated compounds, the GC-UV method had a clear advantage. Also two iodonated compounds were determined only by the GC-UV technique. These findings indicate that the combined use of GC-UV and GC-MS is appropiate for the analysis of chemical compounds adsorbed on indoor dust particles.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagesson, Verner
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Testing and Research Institute.
    Sundell, Jan
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor dust using Gas Chromatography – UV spectrometry2005In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1141-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel technique, gas chromatography-UV spectrometry (GC-UV), was used to quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in settled dust from 389 residences in Sweden. The dust samples were thermally desorbed in an inert atmosphere and evaporated compounds were concentrated by solid phase micro extraction and separated by capillary GC. Eluting compounds were then detected, identified, and quantified using a diode array UV spectrophotometer. Altogether, 28 compounds were quantified in each sample; 24 of these were found in more than 50% of the samples. The compounds found in highest concentrations were saturated aldehydes (C5–C10), furfuryl alcohol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2-furaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Alkenals were also found, notably 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde), 2-methyl-propenal (methacrolein), hexenal, heptenal, octenal, and nonenal. The concentrations of each of the 28 compounds ranged between two to three orders of magnitude, or even more. These results demonstrate the presence of a number of VOCs in indoor dust, and provide, for the first time, a quantitative determination of these compounds in a larger number of dust samples from residents. The findings also illustrate the potential use of GC-UV for analysing volatile compounds in indoor dust, some of which are potential irritants (to the skin, eyes or respiratory system) if present at higher concentrations. The potential use of GC-UV for improving survey and control of the human exposure to particle-bound irritants and other chemicals is inferred.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lagesson, Verner
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Wessén, B.
    Pegasus Laboratory, Uppsala.
    Szponar, B.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology and Infection, Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, L.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology and Infection, Lund University, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Microorganisms and volatile organic compounds in airborne dust from damp residences2004In: Indoor Air. International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, ISSN 0905-6947, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne dust samples from damp (n = 9) and control (n = 9) residences were analyzed for microorganisms (molds and bacteria), bacterial markers (3-hydroxy fatty acids and muramic acid), and adsorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The number of mold species was greater in the damp residences than in the controls (23 vs.18) and nine mold species were found only in damp residences. The levels of 3-hydroxy fatty acids and muramic acid correlated better in damp residences than in controls, indicating that damp conditions affect the bacterial flora of airborne dust. Identifications made by culture and microscopy of the major molds found, i.e. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillum, coincided with the identification of VOCs known to be produced by these species. A number of additional VOCs irritating to the skin, eyes, or respiratory tract were also found. The results from this pilot study illustrate the diversity of microorganisms and VOCs present in the indoor environment and suggest that analysis of airborne dust may help to assess human exposure to microorganisms and chemical compounds.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nosratabadi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagesson, Verner
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Murgia, Nicola
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Novel technique for measuring low molecular weight chemicals in indoor dust2002In: Indoor and Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique is described which can measure low molecular weight compounds adsorbed onto dust particles in a simple yet accurate way. The technique, gas chromatography-ultraviolet spectrometry (GC-UV), comprises a one-stage thermal desorption oven, a gas flow cell with a miniaturised GC column, and a nitrogen-flushed photo diode array (PDA) detector for fast UV spectra recording. The dust sample is thermally desorbed in the oven and the compounds released are flushed onto the GC column by means of a carrier gas stream. The separated compounds are then registered by the PDA detector and identified by their characteristic gas-phase UV spectra. This method enables the analysis of volatile organic as well as inorganic compounds adsorbed onto dust particles, many of which are difficult to analyse together in one single analysis using conventional methods. For example, both nitric oxide and ammonia can be analysed, as well as hydrogen sulphide, pyridine, 2-furaldehyde, 2-methylfuran, and isoprene. It is concluded that GC-UV may be used as an alternative or to complement other methods for measuring chemicals in indoor dusts, thus improving survey and control of the human exposure to particle-bound irritants and other chemicals.

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