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  • 1.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In former days the descriptions of personality were based on typologies, reflecting the view that people do not change over time and so have a stable, life-long personality type. Later on exclusive categories were created, but during recent times the understanding of personality has changed due to more dimensional and dynamic thinking.

    Cloninger’s personality theory integrates concepts and research findings from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology of behavior and learning, and from developmental, social and clinical psychology. It is postulated that the behavioural systems of temperament and character are related to two major neural systems for the adaptation of experiences on various levels. The continuous interaction between temperament and character affects the personality development in both directions; temperament impacts upon character and vice versa during life.

    The development of the TCI was founded on the development of the biosocial theory of personality, which in turn stimulated the further development of the theory. Unfortunately this theory-based approach is not commonly used in the development of personality measurements. The development of a personality questionnaire on the basis of the theory must be viewed as a significant challenge, and this prompted my interest in dealing with and learning more about this personality assessment method.

    The objectives of this thesis were a critical evaluation of Cloninger’s theory; a test of its applicability in psychiatric science; and an attempt to contribute to its development.

    The main findings of our investigations can be described as follows:

    The adaptation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was successful and the seven factor structure of Cloninger’s biopsychological theory of personality theory was mainly confirmed by the Swedish normative data and by cross-cultural comparisons between data from Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

    The results concerning internal consistency and factor structure further underline that the adult version of the TCI is unsuitable for use in adolescents before age of 17 years. For the adolescents the junior TCI is recommended.

    Furthermore temperament dimensions seem to be more stable over time compared to the character dimensions. The gender and age differences found suggest that both have to be taken into account in research and clinical application.

    The results from our studies suggested that the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) has to be evaluated as a useful tool within the process of validation of diagnosis of a Personality Disorder (PD), especially in clinical practice where it is often difficult to recognise all a patient’s personality disturbances during a short time. Use of the TCI is likely to improve understanding, classification, and subsequently the interpretations in clinical settings.

     

    List of papers
    1. Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory
    Show others...
    1998 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17831 (URN)10.1016/S0010-440X(98)90070-0 (DOI)9606577 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences
    2008 (English)In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TCI can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

    Keywords
    Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), age cohort, Swedish normative data, personality, gender
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17832 (URN)10.1027/1015-5759.24.1.14 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Assessing personality: The Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural comparison between Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.A.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing personality: The Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural comparison between Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.A.
    1999 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 84, p. 1315-1330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the American, Swedish, and German versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were compared based on samples of 330 healthy volunteers each, which had been carefully matched for age and sex. The analyses indicate a high agreement for scores on the temperament and character dimensions and subscales across the samples. Exceptions include minor differences that appear to be due to cultural variations, differences in sampling methods, and of some minor difficulties with two subscales (Exploratory Excitability and Self-acceptance) as well as defining the Persistence factor as an independent dimension of Temperament. The subscales yielded similar internal consistencies, correlational structure, factor structures, and high factor congruence coefficients. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. Also, the validity and stability of the seven-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, is supported.

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17833 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA
    2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 89, p. 747-758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution by age and sex of the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were assessed cross-culturally for samples in Sweden, German, and USA. The Temperament and Character Inventory is a 240-item (Sweden, 238-item), self-administered, true-false format, paper-and-pencil test developed by Cloninger and his co-workers based on his unified biosocial theory of personality. The inventory measures the Temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence as well as the Character dimensions, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. The samples consisted of 300 German subjects, 300 Swedish subjects, and 300 U.S. subjects matched by age cohort and sex. Stability of the personality dimensions was evaluated across samples as were their age and sex distributions. We found significant affects of age, sex, and culture in univariate and multivariate comparisons on the personality dimensions. However, several significant differences in the personality dimensions for both European samples appear to be similar compared with those of the U.S. sample. We have to conclude that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory are necessary given the established significant differences.

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17834 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory
    2001 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 93, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger’s psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17837 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory
    2009 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maryland Heights, United States: Saunders Elsevier, 2009
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17838 (URN)10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.002 (DOI)000266820100008 ()
    Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, Jörg
    Clinical of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Rostock University, Germany.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Further development of the Temperament and Character Inventory2001In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 93, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger’s psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

  • 3.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Department of Social Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences2008In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TCI can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

  • 4.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry .
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry .
    Przybeck, T
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden Washington Univ, St Louis, MO 63130 USA Univ Rostock, D-2500 Rostock 1, Germany.
    Richter, J
    The temperament and character inventory (TCI) - A cross-cultural tool.2000In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 440-440Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Richter, Jörg
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Further development of the temperament and character inventory2003In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 93, no 3 II, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

  • 6.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, Jörg
    Department of Psychiatry and Phsycotherapy, Rostock Univeristy, Germany.
    Przybeck, Tom
    Centre for Psychobioloty of Personality, Washington University, St Louis, USA.
    Distributions by age and sex of the dimensions of Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural perspective among Sweden, Germany, and the USA2001In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 89, p. 747-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution by age and sex of the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were assessed cross-culturally for samples in Sweden, German, and USA. The Temperament and Character Inventory is a 240-item (Sweden, 238-item), self-administered, true-false format, paper-and-pencil test developed by Cloninger and his co-workers based on his unified biosocial theory of personality. The inventory measures the Temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence as well as the Character dimensions, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. The samples consisted of 300 German subjects, 300 Swedish subjects, and 300 U.S. subjects matched by age cohort and sex. Stability of the personality dimensions was evaluated across samples as were their age and sex distributions. We found significant affects of age, sex, and culture in univariate and multivariate comparisons on the personality dimensions. However, several significant differences in the personality dimensions for both European samples appear to be similar compared with those of the U.S. sample. We have to conclude that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory are necessary given the established significant differences.

  • 7.
    Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schlette, Paul
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Przybeck, Thomas R.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Thomas
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Robert C.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden/Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA/Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Departments of Psychiatry and Social Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden/Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden c Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Swedish normative data on personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory1998In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.

  • 8. Engström, C
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, S
    Cloninger, R
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Bipolar disorder. II: Personality and age of onset2003In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether personality i.e. temperament and character interacts with age of onset in bipolar disorder. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited among in- and outpatients from lithium dispensaries of northern Sweden. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I and II. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used for measuring personality. TCI was administered to 100 lithium treated bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Treatment response was significantly lower (p = 0.005) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Family history (p = 0.013) and suicide attempts (p = 0.001) were also significantly more common in patients with early onset. Further, patients with early onset were significantly higher (p = 0.045) in the temperament factor harm avoidance (HA) than patients with late onset, but the difference was weak. Patients with early onset had more fear of uncertainty (HA2, P = 0.022) and were more shy (HA3, p = 0.030). Bipolar I patients showed similar results as those in the total bipolar group (I and II), with significantly higher HA (p = 0.019, moderate difference), HA2 (p = 0.015) and HA3 (p = 0.043) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Bipolar II patients showed no differences between early and late age of onset but the groups are small and the results are therefore uncertain. Conclusions: Early age of onset in bipolar disorder was correlated to an increase in severity, family history, poorer treatment response and poorer prognosis. Early onset was also correlated to personality.

  • 9.
    Engström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Cloninger, C Robert
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Bipolar disorder. III: Harm avoidance a risk factor for suicide attempts2004In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine whether personality, i.e. temperament and character influence suicide attempts in bipolar patients. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited from lithium dispensaries. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) was administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Age of onset was significantly lower in patients with suicide attempts in the total bipolar group (I and II) and bipolar I patients compared with patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar (I and II) and bipolar I patients with suicide attempts were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence compared with patients without suicide attempts. Patients (I and II) with suicide attempts had significantly more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia than patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar I patients with suicide attempts had significantly more fatigability and asthenia and were more dependent than patients without suicide attempts. HA was lowest in patients with no suicide attempts and no family history of suicide, higher in patients with family history of suicide or patients with suicide attempts, and significantly highest in patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide. Patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide had more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia. Bipolar disorder was significantly correlated to HA and suicide attempts to HA and PS. Family history of suicide and gender were significantly correlated to suicide attempts. Conclusions: Age of onset, HA, PS, gender and family history of suicide had a moderate to very strong effect on suicide attempts in bipolar patients. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  • 10. Engström, Christer
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Cloninger, Robert
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character2004In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 131-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nature of the relationship between personality and bipolar affective disorders is an important but unanswered question. Methods: We have studied personality in bipolar patients by using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). TCI were administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls from the normal population. Results: Bipolar patients were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and lower in reward dependence (RD), self-directedness (SD), and cooperativeness (CO) than controls. Bipolar patients are more fatigable, less sentimental, more independent, less purposeful, less resourceful, less empathic, less helpful, less pure-hearted, and have less impulse control than controls. Bipolar II patients are more impulsive, more fatigable, less resourceful, and have less impulse control than bipolar I patients. Limitations: Our results are limited to euthymic bipolar patients and cannot be generalized to affective disorders. Conclusions: Even when clinically euthymic on lithium maintenance, bipolar patients continue to have a characteristic cognitive deficit. This is in agreement with cognitive theories about cognitive deficits in depression that are regarded as important vulnerability factors in mood disorders.

  • 11. Pettersson, K
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry .
    Toolanen, G
    Hildingsson, C
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry .
    Temperament and character: prognostic factors in whiplash patients?2004In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the relationship between whiplash injury and personality in 40 whiplash patients who admitted the hospital within 8 h from the car accident and 80 age- and gender-matched controls. For this purpose we used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We found that personality dimensions in whiplash patients both in the acute phase and at follow-up 2 years later showed the same results, i.e., significantly less Harm Avoidant (less anxious, low HA) than controls, but when dividing patients into groups depending on severity of outcome from whiplash injury 2 years after, no differences were found. According to our results personality symptoms related to whiplash injury is probably not a secondary phenomenon. Whiplash patients were normally developed in character, i.e., self-directedness (SD), and CO (cooperativeness) and therefore in general are capable of coping with their somatic problems.

  • 12.
    Richter, J.
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Norway, Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Uslo. Postboks 23 Tåsen, N-0801 Oslo, Norway.
    Brandstrom, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Emami, H.
    University of Rehabilitation and Welfare, Tehran.
    Ghazinour, M.
    Department of Clinical Science, WHO Collaborating Centre, Umeå University.
    An Iranian (Farsi) version of the temperament and character inventory: A cross-cultural comparison2007In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 100, no 3 II, p. 1218-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory is a widely used personality questionnaire. It was developed to measure the four temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, as well as three character dimensions, such as Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence, described in Cloninger's unified biosocial theory of personality. In a sample of 300 Germans, 300 Swedes, and 316 Iranian subjects, a factorial structure analysis using the Procrustes rotation method showed the structure of personality to be generally equivalent across cultures. Noteworthy cultural differences between the overall Asian and European subjects reflected by the data were observed in various Temperament and Character dimensions. Seemingly, there are cultural differences in the expression of the various personality facets that require a replacement of many items in the Iranian version. The Temperament and Character Inventory is sensitive to age, sex, and cultural differences in personality. © Psychological Reports 2007.

  • 13. Richter, J
    et al.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Emami, H
    Ghazonour, M
    Temperament and character in cross-cultural comparisons between Swedish and Iranian people and Iranian refugees in Sweden - Personality in transition?2004In: Collegium Antropologicum, ISSN 0350-6134, E-ISSN 1848-9486, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 865-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was a cross-cultural comparison of personality traits between individuals from two very different cultures and refugees who resettled several years before from one to the other. Four hundred forty four Swedish individuals of the normal population, and 100 Iranian refugees in Sweden, and a group of 335 individuals from Tehran, capital of Iran, were investigated by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory, a questionnaire to assess temperament and character. Iranians are those that are most frequently correctly classified followed by the Swedish based on temperament scores by means of a Discriminance analyses. Iranian refugees in Sweden were classified to about 50 per cent as Swedish and to slightly more then one-third as Iranians. Especially concerning character, 4 per cent only could be correctly classified as refugees. The results give some perspective on the adaptation process and personality changes in refugees several years after resettlement in another country with a complete different culture.

  • 14.
    Richter, Jörg
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescents Mental Health, Regions East and South, N-0405 Oslo, Norway.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory2009In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.

  • 15.
    Richter, Jörg
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Rostock University, Germany.
    Brändström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Przybeck, Tom
    Centre for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University, St. Louis, USA.
    Assessing personality: The Temperament and Character Inventory in a cross-cultural comparison between Germany, Sweden, and the U.S.A.1999In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 84, p. 1315-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the American, Swedish, and German versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory were compared based on samples of 330 healthy volunteers each, which had been carefully matched for age and sex. The analyses indicate a high agreement for scores on the temperament and character dimensions and subscales across the samples. Exceptions include minor differences that appear to be due to cultural variations, differences in sampling methods, and of some minor difficulties with two subscales (Exploratory Excitability and Self-acceptance) as well as defining the Persistence factor as an independent dimension of Temperament. The subscales yielded similar internal consistencies, correlational structure, factor structures, and high factor congruence coefficients. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. Also, the validity and stability of the seven-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, is supported.

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