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  • 1.
    Al-Hilli, Safa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The pH Response and Sensing Mechanism of n-Type ZnO/Electrolyte Interfaces2009In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 7445-7480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the discovery of the pH-sensing properties of ZnO crystals, researchers have been exploring their potential in electrochemical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification methods has made it possible to generate a new class of electrochemically active ZnO nanorods. This reduction in size of ZnO (to a nanocrystalline form) using new growth techniques is essentially an example of the nanotechnology fabrication principle. The availability of these ZnO nanorods opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of electrochemical sensing. This review covers the latest advances and mechanism of pH-sensing using ZnO nanorods, with an emphasis on the nano-interface mechanism. We discuss methods for calculating the effect of surface states on pH-sensing at a ZnO/electrolyte interface. All of these current research topics aim to explain the mechanism of pH-sensing using a ZnO bulk- or nano-scale single crystal. An important goal of these investigations is the translation of these nanotechnology-modified nanorods into potential novel applications.

  • 2.
    Al-Hilli, Safaa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander , Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Membrane potential measurements across a human fat cell using ZnO nanorods2009In: NANOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0957-4484 , Vol. 20, no 17, p. 175103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ZnO nanorod probe was employed to determine the resting membrane potential of a human fat cell. The distribution of protons associated with the cell versus the extracellular distribution is proportional to changes in membrane potential. The membrane potential determines the concentration gradient of the protons with dominant permeability according to the Nernst equation. A ZnO nanorod probe was successfully used to find the resting membrane potential for a human fat cell: 34 +/- 2.6 mV.

  • 3.
    Al-Hilli, Safaa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ionic current flow through ZnO nanotubes2009In: NANOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 20, no 50, p. 505504-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control of ionic current (electrolyte) flow through zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes is investigated. We studied a structure operating like a field effect transistor with a tunable ionic flow. The main investigation tool used was molecular dynamics simulation. We complemented the molecular dynamics simulation with the site binding method in order to study the effect of the double layer on the ionic current flowing through the nanotube. We achieved this by considering the electrolyte solution as a virtual semiconductor wire. The double layer capacitance and surface charge of the inner walls of the ZnO nanotube have been calculated. The results indicate that ZnO nanotubes can be tuned to operate as ion selectors. ZnO nanotubes exhibit enhanced functionality with characteristics similar to those of the nanopore membrane.

  • 4.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Al-Hilli, Safaa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of biomolecules using surface plasmons.2009In: Micro and Nano Technologies in Bioanalysis / [ed] Robert S. Foote and James Weifu Lee, Springer , 2009, Vol. 544, p. 201-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are optical sensors that use special electromagnetic waves (surface plasmon-polaritons) to probe interactions between an analyte in solution and a biomolecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface. Major application areas include the detection of biological analytes and analysis of biomolecular interactions, where SPR biosensors provide benefits of label-free real-time analytical technology. The information obtained is both qualitative and quantitative and it is possible to obtain the kinetic parameters of the interaction. This new technology has been used to study a diverse set of interaction partners of biological interest, such as protein-protein, protein-lipids, protein-nucleic acids, or protein and low molecular weight molecules such as drugs, substrates, and cofactors. In addition to basic biomedical research, the SPR biosensor has recently been used in food analysis, proteomics, immunogenicity, and drug discovery. This chapter reviews the major developments in SPR technology. The main application areas are outlined and examples of applications of SPR sensor technology are presented. Future prospects of SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  • 5.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Al-Hilli, Safaa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZnO Nanorods as an Intracellular Sensor for pH Measurements.2009In: Micro and Nano Technologies in Bioanalysis / [ed] Robert S. Foote and James Weifu Lee, Springer , 2009, Vol. 544, p. 187-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-density ZnO nanorods of 60-80 nm in diameter and 500-700 nm in length grown on the silver-coated tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 mum in diameter) demonstrate a remarkable linear response to proton H(3)O(+) concentrations in solution. These nanorods were used to create a highly sensitive pH sensor for monitoring in vivo biological process within single cells. The ZnO nanorods exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl microelectrode. The potential difference was linear over a large dynamic range (pH, 4-11) and had a sensitivity equal to 51.88 mV/pH at 22 degrees C, which could be understood in terms of changes in surface charge during protonation and deprotonation. Vertically grown nanoelectrodes of this type can be smoothly and gently applied to penetrate a single living cell without causing cell apoptosis.

  • 6.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asif, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaman, Siama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zainelabdin, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Al-Hilli, Safaa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Different interfaces to crystalline ZnO nanorods and their applications2009In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 2683-2694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will demonstrate the growth of crystalline ZnO nanorods on different substrates including some of crystalline as well as amorphous nature. The application of these ZnO nanorods to optoelectronics and to bioelectronics will be highlighted. We demonstrate the fabrication of n-ZnO nano-rods/p-type substrates and fabricated light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on these structures. Among the presented LEDs, a hybrid configuration based on the integration of p-type polymers on flexible plastic provides a potential for developing large area white LEDs. Moreover, ZnO nanorods based intracellular measurements using bare and functionalized ZnO surfaces were demonstrated to be a valuable non-destructive tool for obtaining intracellular measurements paving the way for a wealth of intracellular information.

  • 7.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Nour, Omer
    Göteborg University.
    Lozovik, YE
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Al-Hilli, SM
    Göteborg University.
    Chiragwandi, Z
    Göteborg University.
    Hu, QH
    Göteborg University.
    Zhao, QX
    Göteborg University.
    Klason, P
    Göteborg University.
    Solid and soft nanostructured materials: Fundamentals and applications2005In: MICROELECTRONICS JOURNAL, ISSN 0026-2692, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 940-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific work worldwide on nanostructured materials is extensive as well as the work on the applications of nanostructured materials. We will review quasi two-, one- and zero-dimensional solid and soft materials and their applications. We will restrict ourselves to a few examples from partly fundamental aspects and partly from application aspects. We will start with trapping of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures. The subjects are: physical realizations, phase diagrams, traps, local density approximations, and mesoscopic condensates. From these fundamental questions in solid nanomaterials we will move to trapping of molecules in water using nanostructured electrodes. We will also discuss how to manipulate water (create vortices) by nanostructure materials. The second part deals with nanorods (nano-wires). Particularly we will exemplify with ZnO nanorods. The reason for this is that ZnO has: a very strong excitons binding energy (60 meV) and strong photon-excitons coupling energy, a strong tendency to create nanostructures, and properties which make the material of interest for both optoelectronics and for medical applications. We start with the growth of crystalline ZnO nanorods on different substrates, both crystalline (silicon, silicon carbide, sapphire, etc) and amorphous substrates (silicon dioxide, plastic materials, etc) for temperatures from 50 degrees C up to 900 degrees C. The optical properties and crystalline properties of the nanorods will be analyzed. Applications from optoelectronics (lasers, LEDs, lamps, and detectors) are analyzed and also medical applications like photodynarnic cancer therapy are taken up. The third part deals with nano-particles in ZnO for sun screening. Skin cancer due to the exposure from the sun can be prevented by ZnO particles in a paste put on the exposed skin.

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