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  • 1.
    Aminoff, Hedviq
    et al.
    Infocentret Ankaret.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Understanding Coordination in Emergency Response2007In: European Annual Conference on Human Decision-Making and Manual Control,2007, Lyngby, Denmark: Technical University of Denmark , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses analysis of an emergency management exercise. In the exercise scenario, different emergency management organizations jointly try to cope with a forest fire and related incidents. The Extended Control Model is utilized for examination of the establishment of en emergent emergency response organization. Ambiguity in how functions are to be handled in a large event, indicating vulnerabilities in face of larger crises; functions moving across roles during the evolving event; and recognizable phases of a response are uncovered. This is assessed by utilizing episodic analysis of the communication between different functions and roles in the participating emergency management organizations. The results indicate requirements for future information and communication technologies, and occurrences that can be explored in future studies.

  • 2.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI).
    Dialogical Emergency Management and Strategic Awareness in Emergency Communication2011In: Proceedings of the 8th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] Maria A. Santos, Julie Dugdale, David Mendonça, Lissabon, 2011, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper introduces two concepts—dialogical emergency management and strategic awareness—as means to use and understand the content of social media for the purpose of emergency communication. Dialogical emergency management denotes that the emergency management organizations follow what people publish in various social media on emergencies and ongoing emergency response, and then adjust their information strategies in a way that matches the expectations and needs for emergency information of ..

  • 3.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Developing an instrument for measuring shared understanding2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International ISCRAM Conference: Defining Crisis Management 3.0 / [ed] Simon French Brian Tomaszewski Christopher Zobel, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the need for an easy-to-use, easy-to-administer measure that can capture shared understanding in a team of professionals working together towards a successful performance. In the paper the development of such a measure is described using two empirical studies. Command-and-Control tasks are complex and often dynamic, and a way of capturing the degree of which a team of individuals have a common understanding of priorities in such a task is imperative.

    Two studies are presented. In the first study students participated in a microworld experiment where they tried to rank order pre-determined factors in order to measure shared understanding. In the second study officers from the Swedish Armed Forces participated in an exercise where they rank ordered self-generated factors. 

  • 4.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 128-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University, Canada.
    Tremblay, Sébastien
    Laval University, Canada.
    Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure2014In: ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings - 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, The Pennsylvania State University , 2014, p. 130-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Priorities measure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work in crisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is compared with the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency response microworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the Crew Awareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher on measures of team behaviors.

  • 6.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Svensson, Erland
    Retired.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College (FHS), Sweden.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, Vol. 58, p. 894-898Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Resaerch Agency, Sweden.
    Prytz, Erik
    Old Dominion University, United States of America.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence Resaerch Agency, Sweden.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Swedish Defence Resaerch Agency, Sweden.
    The relationship between Workload, Teamwork, Situation Awareness, and Performance in Teams A microworld study2011In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2011, Vol. 55, p. 851-855Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern military organizations teamwork performance is central, yet the underlying factors contributing to such performance are debated. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how several known teamwork measures relate to a prior model of operator performance (Nählinder et al, 2004). This study expands this model to the team level and in the command and control domain. Specifically, this paper studies the relationship between individual and team workload measures, situation awareness measures, and performance measures in 18 two-person teams.                 

    The study has two major findings: Firstly, the various team cognition measures statistically cluster into four meaningful concepts (workload, teamwork, situation awareness and performance).                 

    Secondly, a Structural Equation Model indicates that the relationship between the various individual and team measures can be described in a model resembling the model found in previous studies (Nählinder et al, 2004). In particular, the results show that the general workload in the microworld study has a negative effect on both teamwork and situation awareness. Teamwork, in turn, also affects situation awareness, which has major impact on performance.

  • 8.
    Gawinowski, Gilles
    et al.
    Eurocontrol, Bretigny, F.
    Averty, Philippe
    DTI/SDER, Toulouse, F.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Wise, John A.
    Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ.
    ERASMUS: A novel human factors approach to air traffic management2006In: 27th European Association for Aviation Psychology Jubilee Conference,2006, Potsdam: EAAP , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld2004In: Scaled worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications / [ed] Samuel G. Schiflett, Linda R. Elliott, Eduardo Salas, Michael D. Coovert, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2004, p. -363Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text identifies and discusses emerging challenges and opportunities arising from advanced-technology simulation-based microworld analogues of operational environments. These "scaled worlds" have been used and advocated for many years. A major transformation is expected in research and training using new, more advanced versions of these systems. Technology now affords new capabilities using PC-based systems. Complex and distributed expert decision making and team performance can be elicited and rehearsed through affordable and easily distributed systems. These new systems will transform the nature of research and training on two fronts: (1) the content internal (i.e. laboratory control) and external validity, and (2) who can do the research and/or training, as these new systems offer more opportunities/options. Organizations and universities are rapidly building internet-based systems to train, educate and/or utilize individuals who may be distributed across the globe. Researchers across the globe will also use these new capabilities, forging new and multi-discipline research as new alliances and collaborations are enabled. Research previously restricted to highly realistic and restricted high-fidelity systems will be open to more participants and these new processes and systems will create new opportunities. Such systems will offer more realism, control and feedback to researchers and trainers. Distributed systems can link multiple nodes, allowing many participants to perform within a shared scenario. Scenarios are more easily constructed and controlled. Opportunities using these internet-based systems are clear, as evidenced by high funding and investments in advanced internet-based training systems. Universities, corporations and DoD organizations are rapidly escalating their use of such systems for collaborative research, education, distributed training and distance learning. These simulation-based systems will rapidly change the nature of research, education and training for most performance domains. Low to medium fidelity environments capture knowledge and performance requirements while retaining high levels of experimental control and generalizability. This book goes further than others on simulation-based training and research (which focus on highly realistic systems) by addressing the issues of scale, fidelity and purpose in more abstracted scaled world systems. It brings together experts who use these systems, from a variety of perspectives. Their contributions document emerging trends and issues with regard to development, utilization and validation of these emerging "scaled world" systems.

  • 10.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    Department of Operational Studies, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment2001In: Proceedings to the 42nd Conference on Simulation and Moddeling, Simutalion in Theory and Practice, SIMS 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In development of future control systems, the problem of validating design decisions has been recognised. It has been proposed that the use of simulations can bridge the gap between the more ecologically valid field studies and strictly experimental studies in developmental research. Currently, a project aimed at designing and evaluating a new command and control environment is being conducted at the Swedish National Defence College (SwNDC). Novel artefacts and concepts aimed at supporting command and control has been developed and must now be tested. For this purpose, as specialised version of the C3Fire micro-world has been developed. This paper describes the C3Fire micro-world and the properties that make it possible to use the micro-world in the examination of networked command and control concepts in the ROLF environment.

  • 11.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    Department of Operational Studies, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Artman, Henrik
    RoyInteraction and Presentation Lab, NADA, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matsson, Peter
    Department of Leadership, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making2001In: Proceedings to Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses methodological issues of micro-world research within the domain of dynamic decision-making. Using the C3Fire micro-world as an example, several studies are presented and discussed. It is concluded that there are several advantages of using micro-world simulations in the development of information systems, but also that there still exist fundamental problems, such as measuring team performance.

  • 12.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reducing workload by navigational support in dynamic situations2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z. Franco, 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By presenting continuously updated heading and distance information on a small head-mounted display (HMD), as a supplement to a GPS-receiver, we examined if workload could be reduced and performance increased, when navigating in a demanding situation. The purpose was to present limited but sufficient information to facilitate navigation. The technique was tested on ground troops, but could also be used by rescue services and police in situations that require navigation in unknown environments. The main findings were that the workload was reduced in one aspect (during navigation) but increased in another (looking for foot placement). There were no clear differences in performance, except that participants stopped fewer times to look at the GPS-receiver if they had updated heading and distance information. This suggests that a supplement display with minimal information could be useful when navigating with a GPS-receiver in an unknown environment.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Agility in Command and Control - Functional Models of Cognition2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: Dealing with a changing World / [ed] P. Berggren, S. Nählinder, E. Svensson, Ashgate, 2014, p. 177-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deciding on Using Application Service Provision in SMEs2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external providers for the provision of information and communication technology (ICT) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is expected to increase. At the end of the 1990s the concept of Application Service Provision (ASP) and Application Service Providers (ASPs) was introduced. This is described as one way for SMEs to provide themselves with software applications. However, it

    can be stated that the concept has not taken off. This study examines what reasons influence the decision-making when deciding to use or not use ASP. The research question is: How do SMEs decide on using an Application Service Provider for the provision and maintenance of ICT? In order to answer the question decision-making processes in SMEs have been investigated in an interpretive case study. This study

    consisted of mainly semi-structured interviews that were done with three different ASPs and customers related to them. It also consisted of a questionnaire to the customers of one of the service providers. The analysis was then made as a withincase analysis, consisting of detailed write-ups for each site. The interviews and a literature survey of the ASP concept and theories that have been used to explain the ASP decision-making process generated seven constructs. From the presented and discussed theories, models and proposed constructs seven propositions were formulated. These propositions were used for the analysis and presentation of the findings in the study. The main conclusion of the study is the disparate view of what affects the adoption or non-adoption of the ASP concept. The service providers express the decision as a wish from the prospective customer to decrease costs and increase the predictability of costs. The customers on the other hand express it as a wish to increase accessibility; the cost perspective is found to be secondary.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feedforward Control in Dynamic Situations2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposal discusses control of dynamic systems and its relation to time. Although much research has been done concerning control of dynamic systems and decision making, little research exists about the relationship between time and control. Control is defined as the ability to keep a target system/process in a desired state. In this study, properties of time such as fast, slow, overlapping etc, should be viewed as a relation between the variety of a controlling system and a target system. It is further concluded that humans have great difficulties controlling target systems that have slow responding processes or "dead" time between action and response. This thesis proposal suggests two different studies to adress the problem of human control over slow responding systems and dead time in organisational control.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Human Control of Dynamic Slow Responding Systems - Effects of Action Regulation2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Human performance in dynamic systems - Effects of action regulation2004In: International Conference on Cognitive Systems Engineering Approaches to Process Control,2004, Sendai, Japan: Tohoku University , 2004, p. 99-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Artman, Henrik
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Media and Communication Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technology in Crisis Managment Systems - ideas and effects2001In: Document Design, ISSN 1388-8951, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents empirically based research on the use of future technology for crisis management. In particular, it sets out to challenge ideas of future technology by contrasting them with examples from current practice with new, high-tech systems in emergency rescue centers and military command and control environments. The following three dichotomies are singled out: to start with, that between commitment and information storage;secondly, that between silence and transparency; and finally, that between mimetic representation and interpretation of representa- tions. Our research points to a contradiction between current system design for crisis management systems and actual work practice. Generally speaking, it is suggested that the information technology is becoming both a burden and a saver.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feedback in Shared Digital Maps2001In: European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control, X: X , 2001, p. 65-69Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies.
    How Professionals make Expert Decisions2004In: How Professionals make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, p. -423Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making

  • 21.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment2000In: In the 5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing development of the ROLF 2010 Joint Mobile Command and Control concept has led to several research questions about the usage of new technology in distributed decision making (see for example Artman & Persson, forthcoming). The ROLF-environment provides the decisionmakers with public as well as private representations (e.g. computer screens) and a wide range of communication tools. The focus of this article is the way in which the participants in such decision making should use the main public screen, the Visioscope™. The "more is more"-thought implies that the commander should benefit from getting as much information as possible. This means, for instance that direct updating without intervention of the commanders should give them a better view of the situation than if they were forced to update the Visioscope™ themselves. This latter approach would enforce a processing of the sequential and spatial organisation of the objects with which they are working. A series of tests are therefore being performed at the National Defence College in order to study the effects of the two conditions.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Hand-Held Support for Spatial Awareness for the Dismounted Soldier2014In: HCI Posters 1 / [ed] C. Stephanidis, 2014, Vol. 1, p. 335-340Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents a summary of activities performed in an ongoing military research project aiming at investigating the impact of navigational support on spatial awareness. Investigated tasks are e.g. indication of direction to objects beyond visual range with and without navigational support, display size, performance time, and use of GPS device in darkness. The results indicate that the ability to keep track of targets in the terrain without a technical aid is very poor, but with a GPS device targets can be indicated with relatively high precision. Precision on target indication is slightly better with a larger display, it seems possible to indicate as fast as 5 seconds with a GPS device without impairments of precision, and a GPS device can be used for target indication in darkness. Spatial ability measured by PTSOT can discriminate important aspects of spatial ability with direct relevance for navigation and target indication.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut.
    Supporting situation awareness on the move - the role of technology for spatial orientation in the field2013In: Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann, T. Müller, 2013, p. 442-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper has investigated how technology can support spatial awareness when moving in wooded terrain. By “spatial awareness”, we refer to the ability to point in the approximate direction of several objects while navigating in unknown terrain. The ability to localize objects in the terrain has importance for emergency operations, for example firefighting and search and rescue operations. A field experiment was conducted with two conditions, one with technical support and one without. The results show that technical support in terms of GPS, digital maps and electronic compass can dramatically improve the ability to accurately indicate directions to objects. Further, findings concerning use of tests on spatial orientation to predict the ability to indicate directions to objects in the terrain when having no technical support are presented.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Hollnagel, E.
    École des Mines de Paris-Pôle Cindyniques, Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Pre-requisites for large scale coordination2007In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is in this paper seen as the foundation for purposeful human-human activity in dynamic environments. Coordination is a central issue in large systems such as military organisations, enterprises, or rescue organisations, and communication is needed in order to achieve coordination in such systems. This paper suggest a holistic approach to control, where control in a large system is seen as an emergent product of human interaction, focusing on human-human communication from a technical, organisational, temporal, and social perspective. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Control of Unpredictable Systems2002In: European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control, X: X , 2002, p. 198-204Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engineering safe aviation systems: balancing resilience and stability2009In: Handbook of Aviation human Factors / [ed] Wise, J. A., Hopkin, V. D., & Garland, D. J., CRC Press, 2009, 2, p. 6-1-6-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response2017In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about ‘timely response’, and control versus the temporal organisation of a controlling system. By three empirical examples, we show how a controlling system can be described in terms of perception points, decision points and action points. Our conclusions are that (1) temporal expectancies shape our ability to exercise control at least as much our ability to understand relations and causality, but temporality is rarely part of approaches to modelling human or system performance, (2) temporal organisation of activities shape our ability to exercise control, (3) by utilising the temporal control framework, we can describe important properties of the temporal organisation of a socio-technical system, and (4) the capacity of modelling is limited to what can be known or imagined. Therefore, models describing resilience or stability should include temporality and be based on frameworks generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of situations.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pearce, Paul
    DSTL.
    Organizational agility - an overview2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness - dealing with a changing world / [ed] P. Berggren, S. Nählinder, E. Svensson, Ashgate, 2014, p. 71-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Matsson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    C3Fire in Command and Control Research2003In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New and envisioned technological means and abilities for exerting command and control have increased the interest of man-machine research in a military context. Although there are many current proposals for how new command and control systems should be designed, many of the proposed properties that are considered advantageous have never been tested or could even be impossible to test in real-world situations. In spite of that, proposed design solutions are generally held valid in many Western countries where developments of major command and control system projects are in progress. An important question is how microworlds can be used for research on team decision-making. The use of microworlds gives us the possibility to create controlled settings and the opportunity to use advanced monitoring tools to study the subjects. Our studies indicate that the microworld concept, even though the simulation is fairly simple, reflects some of the crucial aspects of team-work in dynamic settings. The article presents results from a study in command and control using the C3Fire microworld (http://www.c3fire.org). Results and methodological issues are discussed.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Rigas, G.
    Functional Failures, Time and Control2004In: the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man Cybernetics,2004, The Hague, The Netherlands: Omnipress , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Stenius, Charlotte
    Totalförsvarets Forskningssinstitut.
    Navigation support for dismounted soldiers using minimal information as a supplement to a digital map2015In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By presenting continuously updated heading and distance information on a small head-mounted display, as a supplement to a GPS-receiver, the authors examined if workload could be reduced and performance increased when navigating in a demanding situation. The purpose was to present as limited, but sufficient, information as possible to facilitate navigation. The technique was tested on ground troops, but could also be used by rescue services and police in situations that require navigation in unknown environments. The main findings were that the workload was reduced in two aspects (during navigation and handling personal equipment) but increased in another (looking for foot placement). When using the head mounted display, it was found that participants stopped fewer times to look at the GPS-receiver if they had continuous updated heading and distance information. This suggests that a supplement with minimal information on a head mounted display could be useful when navigating with a GPS-receiver in an unknown environment.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datortjänster, Rimforsa.
    The Effect of Geographical Information Systems on a Collaborative Command and Control Task2007In: Proceedings ISCRAM2007 / [ed] B. Van de Walle, P. Burghardt and C. Nieuwenhuis, Delft, Nederland: Delft University of Technology , 2007, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the claimed benefits of using geographical information systems (GIS) in emergency response operations. An experimental study comparing command teams using GIS and paper-based maps is presented. The study utilized a combined approach using microworld simulations together with physical artefacts. Participants in the experiment took the role of command teams, facing the task of extinguishing a simulated forest fire. A total of 132 persons, forming 22 teams, participated in the study. In eleven of the teams, the participants were given access to GIS with positioning of fire-brigades as well as sensor data about the fire outbreak. In the other eleven teams, the participants were using paper-based maps. The result shows that teams using GIS performed significantly better than teams with paper-based maps in terms of saved area. Communication volume was considerably reduced in the case of GIS teams. Implications of these results on GIS are discussed as well as methodological considerations for future research.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Research on Decision Making and New Technology - Methodological Issues2004In: How Professionals Make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Mahaw, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 2004, p. -423Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making.

  • 34.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Mats
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Rigas, Georgios
    National Defence College, Sweden.
    Development of Critiquing Systems in Networked Organizations2004In: Human Error, Safety and Systems Development, Springer US , 2004, p. 31-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, network organizations have been suggested as a solution for future crisis management and warfare. This will, however, have consequences for the development of decision support and critiquing systems. This paper suggests that there are special conditions that need to be taken into account when providing the means for decision-making in networked organizations. Hence, three research problems are suggested that need to be investigated in order to develop useful critiquing systems for future command and control systems.

  • 35.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Rigas, Georgios
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    KVI Försvarshögskolan.
    Developing critiquing systems for network organizations.2004In: IFIP 13.5 Working Conference on Human Error, Safety and Systems Development,2004, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag , 2004, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systemic resilience model2015In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, ISSN 0951-8320, Vol. 141, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A Cognitive Systems Engineering Perspective on the Design of Mixed Reality Systems2006In: 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics,2006, Zürich, Schweiz: ETH Zurich , 2006, p. 154-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines usability issues in Mixed Reality (MR) systems from a Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) (Hollnagel & Woods 1983; 2005) perspective with the purpose of finding an alternative approach to usability in MR-systems. A qualitative user study has been performed at a Swedish hospital where professionals have tested an MR prototype providing instruction of the use of advanced medical equipment. The results indicate that the participants in this study do not consider the MR system as a traditional computer based manual, but rather as an interactive personal instructor. The fact that users work through the MR system rather than with the MR system raises some fundamental design issues regarding usability and the perspective on usability. This suggests that there may be a need to utilize a different approach for usability concerning MR systems, instead of transferring traditional human-computer usability guidelines to the MR domain.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A Systemic Approach to Usability in Mixed Reality Systems2007In: Australia and New Zealand Systems Conference,2007, Auckland, NZ: ANZSYS , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Acceptance of augmented reality instructions in a real work setting2008In: ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,2008, New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2008, p. 2025-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences between Augmented Reality (AR) systems and computer display based systems create a need for a different approach to the design and development of AR systems. To understand the potential of AR systems in real world tasks the technology must be tested in real world scenarios. This case study includes two qualitative user studies where AR was used for giving instructions to users in a hospital. The data show that the users in the context of medical care are positive towards AR systems as a technology and as a tool for instructions in terms of usefulness and social acceptance. The results indicate that AR technology, should it be introduced as technical support in this context, may become an accepted, and appreciated, part of every day work.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Fun and Usable: Augmented Reality Instructions in a Hospital Setting.2007In: Australasian Computer-Human Interaction Conference,2007, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2007, p. 123-130Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Social acceptance of Augmented Reality in a Hospital Setting2007In: 7th Berlin Workshop on Human-Machine Systems,2007, VDI-Verlag , 2007, p. 59-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a report on the results of a usability study where Augmented Reality (AR) was used for giving instructions on how to start up a diathermy apparatus (DA). The main question in focus was if the AR system would be accepted as part of the technological support by a user group consisting of professional medical personnel. It was found that all users but one could solve the task at hand when aided by the instructions given in the AR system. The interviewed responded that they preferred personal instructions from an experienced user, sometimes in combination with short, written instructions, but also that they appreciated the objective instructions given by the AR system. Despite the reported problems, the users were positive towards AR systems as a technology and as a tool for instructions in this setting. This indicates that AR could be part of a future training resource for new staff, which does not demand the time of a trained professional.

  • 42.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    User Experience and Acceptance of a Mixed Reality System in a Naturalistic Setting - a case study2006In: International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR,2006, Los Alamitos, California: IEEE , 2006, p. 247-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Holistic Approach to Design and Evaluation of Mixed Reality Systems2010In: The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems / [ed] Emmanuel Dubois, Philip Gray, Laurence Nigay, London: Springer London, 2010, 1, p. 33-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses issues related to usability and user experience of mixed reality (MR) systems based on a naturalistic iterative design approach to the development of MR applications. Design and evaluation of MR applications are still mostly based on methods used for development of more traditional desktop graphical user interfaces. MR systems are in many aspects very different from desktop computer applications, so these traditional methods are not sufficient for MR applications. There is a need for new approaches to user-centred design and development of MR systems. One such approach is based on the concepts of cognitive systems engineering (CSE). In this chapter we show how this approach can be applied to the development of MR systems. Two case studies are described, where a holistic CSE approach to design, implementation and evaluation has been used. The results show that allowing real end users (field/domain experts) to interact in a close to naturalistic setting provides insights on how to design MR applications that are difficult to attain otherwise. We also show the importance of iterative design, again involving real end users.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defense Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cross-Organizational Collaboration Supported by Augmented Reality2011In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1380-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study where Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been used as a tool for supporting collaboration between the rescue services, the police and military personnel in a crisis management scenario. There are few studies on how AR systems should be designed to improve cooperation between actors from different organizations while at the same time supporting individual needs. In the present study, an AR system was utilized for supporting joint planning tasks by providing organization specific views of a shared map. The study involved a simulated emergency event conducted in close to real settings with representatives from the organizations for which the system is developed. As a baseline, a series of trials without the AR system was carried out. Results show that the users were positive toward the AR system and would like to use it in real work. They also experience some performance benefits of using the AR system compared to their traditional tools. Finally, the problem of designing for collaborative work as well as the benefits of using an iterative design processes is discussed.

  • 45. Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Target Designation and Indication with GPS Map in Night-Op Conditions2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] C.Stary, ACM Digital Library, 2014, Vol. 28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous experiments have shown that target indication supported by satellite-guided positioning with map on a GPS device can be made with high precision in daylight. Since the ability of military units to operate in night-op conditions is vital, the possibilities of using such equipment with night vision goggles was tested in a night-time experiment with ten officers. Their tasks were 1) to designate direction and distance to targets visible in the terrain, and 2) to identify target positions in the terrain. They performed the tasks both with GPS device and with conventional verbal target designation. Precision was approximately equal whether the tasks were performed with the GPS device or verbally, but performance time was longer with GPS device. To elicit more information the officers also participated in focus group discussions. This provided important information on design and usage of a GPS device in night-op conditions, e.g. concerning compatibility with other systems and usability in cold weather.

  • 46. Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Indication of Direction with Digital Map–Effects of Display Size and Time Constraints2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, Vol. 58, p. 360-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dismounted soldiers today use digital support for navigation and presentation of direction, and most likely such support will become standard equipment. Therefore, it is important to investigate how factors such as display size and performance time influence the ability to transform information on the map to positions in the terrain. An experiment was performed with two display sizes (3.5-inch and 9.7-inch). The participants’ task was to indicate direction to positions in the terrain represented by target symbols on a digital map with four different time limits (5s, 10s, 15s, and 20s). Participants with low spatial ability (measured by PTSOT) had lower precision with the small display, whereas participants with medium and high spatial ability performed equally well with both displays. When the time limit was shortened, task load increased, but performance was not affected. The results also confirm that important aspects of spatial ability can be discriminated by PTSOT.

  • 47.
    Prytz, Erik G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rybing, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Petterson, Albin
    Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An exploratory study of a low-level shared awareness measure using mission-critical locations during an emergency exercise2015In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2015, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 1152-1156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shared awareness of other teams’ roles and tasks has been linked to successful performance in joint ventures. However, emergency management organizations responding to incidents do not always share critical information necessary for maintaining shared awareness. An instrument called Shared Priorities has previously been applied to measure aspects of shared situation awareness at level 2 and 3 in Endsley’s (1995) model. This paper reports on a shared awareness instrument focused on level 1 situation awareness and its associated level of team shared awareness. Participants in a large emergency response exercise were asked to locate and rank geographical locations based on importance for overall mission success. The results show that organizations tended to rank locations relevant for their own work higher than positions relevant to other organization’s tasks. The different organizations displayed different levels of inter-rater agreement within themselves concerning the ranking of these positions.

  • 48.
    Renner, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driver Coordination in Complex Traffic Environments2006In: ECCE '06 Proceedings of the 13th Eurpoean conference on Cognitive ergonomics: trust and control in complex socio-technical systems / [ed] Antonio Rizzo; Gudela Grote; William B L Wong, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2006, p. 35-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though many situations in driving involve more than one road user and interaction between those road users, most car driving models utilize a single driver perspective. Collisions between cars constitute a significant part of the total number of crashes each year. A consequence is that driver modeling should move beyond single driver behavior and aim at explaining interaction between drivers. In this paper we will present an approach that merges Hollnagel's Extended Control Model with Clark's Joint Action perspective on coordination. The purpose is to suggest a basic model to help explain coordination in traffic.

  • 49.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resilient Emergency Response: Supporting Flexibility and Improvisation2013In: Crisis Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, IGI Global, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this chapter is the design and development of Information and Communication Technologies that support collaborative work and processes in command and control teams, more specifically, in joint emergency response operations. The unique contexts and varying circumstances of response operations have an impact on how collaborative work and interactions among commanders emerge, as well as on the extent to which Information and Communication Technologies are used. 

  • 50.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Rationella Datortjänster HB.
    Information Support in Collaborative Command and Control Work - An Empirical Research Using a Role-Playing Exercise Approach2006In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims at improving knowledge on design of computer-supported command and control systems. In particular, aspects of communication and information seeking are investigated. The method of role-playing exercises is presented and some empirical data from a study using that method is presented. A role-playing exercise is a real-time approach where participants act in their professional roles to manage various situations in a collaborative matter. In this case, a forest-fire together with additional incidents was used in order to study collaborative command and control work between commanding officers from different organizations, such as police, fire & rescue and emergency call-centers. Commanders- local knowledge and experience from similar events are factors influencing information seeking. Other types of information are seen as additional, and further information seeking depends on the dynamics of the events and the workload. The essential contribution of the role-playing exercise approach lays in its possibilities to document and identify differences between planned and intended command and control processes and real command and control work.

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