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  • 1.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estrogen-induced alterations of spinal cord enkephalin gene expression1999In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enkephalin-synthesizing neurons in the super®cial laminae of the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn are critical components of the endogenous pain-modulatory system. We have previously demonstrated that these neurons display intracellular estrogen receptors, suggesting that estrogen can potentially influence their enkephalin expression. By using Northern blot, we now show that a bolus injection of estrogen results in a rapid increase in spinal cord enkephalin mRNA levels in ovariectomized female rats. Thus, 4 h after estrogen administration the enkephalin mRNA-expression in the lumbar spinal cord was on average 68% higher (P , 0:05) than in control animals injected with vehicle only. A small increase in the amount of enkephalin mRNA was also seen after 8 h (P , 0:05), whereas no difference between estrogen-injected and control animals was found after 24 h or at time periods shorter than 4 h. Taken together with the previous anatomical data, the present findings imply that estrogen has an acute effect on spinal opioid levels in areas involved in the transmission of nociceptive information.

  • 2.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Colocalization of oestrogen receptor immunoreactivity and preproenkephalin mRNA expression to neurons in the superficial laminae of the spinal and medullary dorsal horn of rats1996In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 2440-2445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A double-labelling procedure combining immunohistochemical staining with in situ hybridization using a radiolabelled cRNA probe was employed to demonstrate oestrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity and preproenkephalin-A mRNA in the medullary and spinal dorsal horn of female rats. Both markers labelled large numbers of neurons in the substantia gelatinosa and its trigeminal homologue. Many of these neurons were double-labelled, displaying both oestrogen receptor-like-immunoreactivity and preproenkephalin-A mRNA; cell counts showed that 40-60% of the of the oestrogen receptor-like-immunoreactive cells in the superficial laminae also were labelled for preproenkephalin-A mRNA, and that 60-70% of the preproenkephalin-A mRNA-labelled neurons in the same laminae displayed oestrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity. Previous studies have shown that oestrogen receptors can bind to the promoter region of the preproenkephalin-A gene, and studies on the hypothalamus have demonstrated that oestrogen regulates enkephalin expression in select neuronal populations. The present results demonstrate that enkephalinergic neurons in the superficial dorsal horn contain oestrogen receptors and suggest that oestrogen may play an important role in the modulation of sensory and nociceptive processing in the lower medulla and spinal cord.

  • 3.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity in the medullary and spinal dorsal horn of the female rat1995In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 196, no 1-2, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an immunohistochemical technique, we demonstrate that large numbers of neurons in the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal gray matter of the female rat express estrogen receptors (ER). Densely packed ER-immunoreactive neurons were present in lamina II, but labeled neurons were also present in lamina I, the neck of the dorsal horn, and in lamina X. Labeling was present throughout the length of the spinal cord, with the exception of segments caudal to S1, which were unlabeled. The distribution of ER-containing neurons to areas that are involved in processing of primary afferent nociceptive information suggests that the pain modulatory effects of estrogen may be exerted at the spinal level.

  • 4.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermanson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preprovasopressin mRNA is not present in dorsal root ganglia of the rat1996In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 209, no 10, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunohistochemical studies on colchic ine-treated rats have suggested that more than half of the neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain vasopressin. Thus, vasopressin would be the most commonly found peptide in DRG neurons. In the present study we have reexamined the presence of vasopressin in DRG neurons, using a sensitive in situ hybridization method employing long riboprobes that will detect very small amounts of mRNA. The C3, C6, T2, T12, L2 and L5 DRG were studied. None of these ganglia contained any preprovasopressin mRNA. Yet, dense labeling for preprovasopressin mRNA was seen on simultaneously processed hypothalamic sections and a heavy preprotachykinin mRNA expression was seen in adjacent DRG sections. These findings demonstrate that vasopressin is not produced in DRG in normal rats.

  • 5.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Distribution of preprovasopressin mRNA in the rat central nervous system1999In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 411, no 2, p. 181-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasopressin released in the central nervous system has been shown to be involved both in homeostatic mechanisms (e.g., water balance, thermoregulation, cardiovascular regulation, metabolism, and antinociception) and in higher brain functions (e.g., social recognition and communication, and learning and memory). Many nuclear groups have been proposed to synthesize vasopressin, but available data are conflicting. We have used a sensitive in situ hybridization technique to identify the distribution of the neurons that may be the origin of the vasopressin in the central nervous system of the male Sprague-Dawley rat. Vasopressin mRNA-expressing neurons were most abundant in the hypothalamus (e.g., the paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic nuclei) but were also seen in the medial amygdaloid nucleus, the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the nucleus of the horizontal diagonal band. Previously unreported vasopressinergic neurons were seen in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, the ventral lateral portion of the parabrachial nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus, and the rostral part of the ventral periaqueductal gray matter and the adjacent portion of the mesencephalic reticular nucleus. Vasopressin mRNA expression suggestive of neuronal labeling was seen in the pyramidal layer of the CA1–3 fields and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In addition, vasopressin mRNA expression, probably representing axonal mRNA, was detected over the hypothalamopituitary tract. No or insignificant preprovasopressin mRNA expression was present in the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus, or the spinal cord. These findings provide novel information on the distribution of vasopressin neurons that are important for our understanding of how vasopressin acts in the brain.

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