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  • 1.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey2016In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the extent to which children are exposed to victimizing events is important to fully understand the effect of such exposure in shaping them as adults. The aim of this study was to use self-report by adolescents to measure the prevalence of victimizing events and of poly-victimization. A representative sample of 5,960 students (aged 17) from high schools in Sweden was given the self-administrated version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) along with questions concerning gender, birthplace, parents birthplace and employment, residence, educational program, and municipality size. The results show that 84.1% (83.0% young men and 85.2% young women) of the students had experienced victimization during their lifetime, and 10.3% were categorized as poly-victims (8.1% young men and 12.5% young women; OR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.35, 1.94]). Adolescents living with both parents were at lower risk of any form of victimization for both genders, while females were at higher risk of maltreatment, peer victimization, and, most significantly, sexual victimization. In conclusion, the vast majority of young people have been victimized during their lifetime. A greater awareness of the impact of these victimizing events on children and adolescents is important as a basis for providing a safer milieu and establishing better interventions, especially for those that have been victimized on multiple occasions. The high-exposure group was determined by using 10 events as a cutoff. Findings on this group corresponded with findings in other international studies regarding distribution, elevated risk for females, and the possibility of limiting the effects of victimization by modifying living conditions.

  • 2.
    Green Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Dept. of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences Örebro University.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Dept. of Psychology Uppsala University.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Dept. of Psychology Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Göran Svedin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social phobia in Swedish adolescents: Prevalence and gender differences2009In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported social phobia in a community sample of Swedish adolescents in junior high school, at the risk-period for developing social phobia. Of particular interest was to investigate gender differences in prevalence across ages. Prevalence of sub-threshold social phobia was also studied. Methods Students in grades 6-8 (aged 12-14) from seventeen schools in five Swedish municipalities were screened by means of a self-report questionnaire, the social phobia screening questionnaire-for children (SPSQ-C). Results Data from a sample of 2,128 students were analysed and showed a point-prevalence rate of 4.4% (95% CI 3.5-5.2) and a significant gender difference (6.6% girls vs. 1.8% boys, P < 0.001). No significant differences in prevalence of probable cases emerged across the ages. At sub-threshold level, marked social fear of at least one social situation was reported by 13.8% of the total group. "Speaking in front of class and "calling someone unfamiliar on the phone were the most feared social situations. In the social phobia group, 91.4% reported impairment in the school-domain due to their social fear. Conclusion Social phobia is a common psychiatric condition in Swedish adolescents, especially in girls. As impairment in the school-domain is reported to a high degree, professionals and teachers need to recognize social phobia in adolescents so that help in overcoming the difficulties can be offered.

  • 3.
    Green-Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social Anxiety Disorder in Swedish Adolescents: Prevalence, Victimization & Development2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings are social creatures. Accordingly, fear of social situations can be severely disabling. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive fear of negative evaluation in social or performance situations. SAD has an early onset and often goes undetected an untreated. Descriptive studies on non‐clinical samples are required in order to find ways to prevent SAD and associated consequences. This thesis aimed at examining epidemiological variables of SAD in adolescence which is the critical period for onset of SAD. More exactly, issues of detection and prevalence, victimization and developmental course were addressed.

    Data was collected in four different community samples, using cross‐sectional and longitudinal designs. In the first study (n=169), psychometric evaluation of a screening questionnaire for use with adolescents was conducted. The second study (n=2128) investigated prevalence of SAD in students in grade 6‐8 (age 12‐14 years). In the third study (n=3211), the association between SAD and victimization in high‐school students (aged 17) was investigated. Finally, in the fourth study (n=350), longitudinal associations between social anxiety and depressive symptoms were investigated, with 4 waves of data from grade 7 to grade 11.

    Self‐reported SAD was found among 4.4% of students in grade 6‐8 and among 10.6% of high‐school students. Females reported SAD to a significantly higher degree than males in all age groups. Experiences of peer victimization, maltreatment and sexual victimization were significantly more common in those reporting SAD than in non‐cases. Social anxiety was stable over adolescence. Further, peer victimization in grade 7 predicted social anxiety that mediated subsequent depressive symptoms. In conclusion, self‐reported SAD is common in Swedish adolescents and especially in girls and older adolescents. Social anxiety is stable over adolescence and correlated with depressive symptoms over course. The high prevalence rates, stable course and mediation of depressive symptoms call for early detection and prevention of social anxiety. The relationship between victimization and SAD needs to be investigated further in controlled prospective studies on children and adolescents.

    List of papers
    1. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents.
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD) is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C). METHODS: The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127) and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I), as gold standard (n = 51). RESULTS: A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P < .01), and a satisfactory alpha coefficient of .78 was found. Values of sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 86% respectively, and area under the curve (AUC) was .79. Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) showed that a positive screening result was five times more likely to be correct than to reflect a non-case. Negative likelihood ratio (LR -) was .34. In addition, positive predictive value was 45% and negative predictive value was 95%. The prevalence of self-reported SAD was found to be 7.2% at the first assessment. CONCLUSION: The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2009
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53087 (URN)10.1186/1753-2000-3-36 (DOI)19906313 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Original Publication: Malin Green-Landell, Andreas Björklind, Maria Tillfors, Tomas Furmark, Carl Göran Svedin and Gerhard Andersson, Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents., 2009, Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, (3), 1, 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-3-36 Licensee: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Postprint available at: Linköping University Electronic Press http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53087

    Available from: 2010-01-15 Created: 2010-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Social phobia in Swedish adolescents: Prevalence and gender differences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social phobia in Swedish adolescents: Prevalence and gender differences
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported social phobia in a community sample of Swedish adolescents in junior high school, at the risk-period for developing social phobia. Of particular interest was to investigate gender differences in prevalence across ages. Prevalence of sub-threshold social phobia was also studied. Methods Students in grades 6-8 (aged 12-14) from seventeen schools in five Swedish municipalities were screened by means of a self-report questionnaire, the social phobia screening questionnaire-for children (SPSQ-C). Results Data from a sample of 2,128 students were analysed and showed a point-prevalence rate of 4.4% (95% CI 3.5-5.2) and a significant gender difference (6.6% girls vs. 1.8% boys, P < 0.001). No significant differences in prevalence of probable cases emerged across the ages. At sub-threshold level, marked social fear of at least one social situation was reported by 13.8% of the total group. "Speaking in front of class and "calling someone unfamiliar on the phone were the most feared social situations. In the social phobia group, 91.4% reported impairment in the school-domain due to their social fear. Conclusion Social phobia is a common psychiatric condition in Swedish adolescents, especially in girls. As impairment in the school-domain is reported to a high degree, professionals and teachers need to recognize social phobia in adolescents so that help in overcoming the difficulties can be offered.

    Keywords
    prevalence, social phobia, adolescents, gender
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18017 (URN)10.1007/s00127-008-0400-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-04 Created: 2009-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Social anxiety disorder and victimization in a community sample of adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social anxiety disorder and victimization in a community sample of adolescents
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 569-577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3211 Swedish high-school students. The prevalence rate of self-reported SAD was 10.6% (n=340). Significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization was found in subjects with self-reported SAD compared to non-cases, on the total score on the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and on the subscales maltreatment, sexual victimization and victimization from peer/siblings. Different results emerged due to gender. In females, maltreatment and sexual victimization was associated with an increased risk of SAD and, in males sexual victimization increased the risk of reporting SAD. Further studies are needed to elaborate developmental models on SAD and to add to modification of prevention- and treatment interventions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Social anxiety disorder, Adolescents, Victimization, Gender
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57936 (URN)10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.03.007 (DOI)20416944 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-07-09 Created: 2010-07-09 Last updated: 2018-02-21
    4. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety, depressive symptoms and peer victimization in adolescence: A prospective community study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal associations between social anxiety, depressive symptoms and peer victimization in adolescence: A prospective community study
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported social anxiety, depressive symptoms and peer victimization was investigated in 350 students in grade 7 and then in grade 8, 9 and 11. Using latent growth modeling, social anxiety was found to be stable over time and to have a time-invariant association with depressive symptoms. Further, social anxiety predicted subsequent depressive symptoms but not vice versa. Support was found for a meditational model. That is, peer victimization in grade 7 was related to higher level of social anxiety, which in turn was associated with more depressive symptoms in grade 8, 9 and 11. The development of social anxiety and depression symptomatology among adolescents can thus be described as one sequential longitudinal process initiated by peer victimization.

    Keywords
    Social anxiety, adolescents, developmental course, depressive symptoms, peer victimization, latent growth modeling
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57937 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-07-09 Created: 2010-07-09 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Green-Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björklind, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social work, Örebro, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents.2009In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD) is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C). METHODS: The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127) and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I), as gold standard (n = 51). RESULTS: A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P < .01), and a satisfactory alpha coefficient of .78 was found. Values of sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 86% respectively, and area under the curve (AUC) was .79. Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) showed that a positive screening result was five times more likely to be correct than to reflect a non-case. Negative likelihood ratio (LR -) was .34. In addition, positive predictive value was 45% and negative predictive value was 95%. The prevalence of self-reported SAD was found to be 7.2% at the first assessment. CONCLUSION: The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.

  • 5.
    Green-Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Stefan
    3Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social work, Örebro, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social work, Örebro, Sweden.
    Longitudinal associations between social anxiety, depressive symptoms and peer victimization in adolescence: A prospective community studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported social anxiety, depressive symptoms and peer victimization was investigated in 350 students in grade 7 and then in grade 8, 9 and 11. Using latent growth modeling, social anxiety was found to be stable over time and to have a time-invariant association with depressive symptoms. Further, social anxiety predicted subsequent depressive symptoms but not vice versa. Support was found for a meditational model. That is, peer victimization in grade 7 was related to higher level of social anxiety, which in turn was associated with more depressive symptoms in grade 8, 9 and 11. The development of social anxiety and depression symptomatology among adolescents can thus be described as one sequential longitudinal process initiated by peer victimization.

  • 6.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jones, Annica
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings from studies on adults show similarities between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress in the form of recurrent memories and intrusive and distressing images of earlier aversive events. Further, treatment models for SAD in adults have been successfully developed by using transdiagnostic knowledge on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Studies on adolescents are though missing. The present study aimed at exploring the association between PTSS and SAD in Swedish adolescents. A second aim was to study mental health services utilization in relation to these conditions. A total of 5,960 high-school students participated and reported on SAD, life time victimization, PTSS and mental health service utilization. Socially anxious adolescents reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than adolescents not reporting SAD and this difference was seen in victimized as well as non-victimized subjects. Contact with a school counselor was the most common mental health service utilization in subjects with SAD and those with elevated PTSS. In the prediction of contact with a CAP-clinic, significant odds ratios were found for a condition of SAD and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 3.53–6.73) but not for SAD only. Screening of PTSS in adolescents with SAD is recommended. The service of school counselors is important in detecting and helping young people with SAD and elevated PTSS. Clinical studies on SAD and PTSS in adolescents could aid in modifying treatment models for SAD.

  • 7.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bradely, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teachers' views on risk factors for problematic school absenteeism in Swedish primary school students2015In: Educational Psychology in Practice, ISSN 0266-7363, E-ISSN 1469-5839, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 412-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years. Teachers viewed school absenteeism as a multifactorial problem. Family factors were considered to contribute most and low mood or depression were rated as one of the five most contributing factors. Teachers in special education viewed school factors as more influential than teachers in mainstream education did (t156 = −3.94, p < 0.05). The current findings stress the importance of collaboration between the school, parents and the student to be able to address all factors that may lead to problematic school absenteeism.

  • 8.
    Gren-Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social anxiety disorder and victimization in a community sample of adolescents2011In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 569-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3211 Swedish high-school students. The prevalence rate of self-reported SAD was 10.6% (n=340). Significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization was found in subjects with self-reported SAD compared to non-cases, on the total score on the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and on the subscales maltreatment, sexual victimization and victimization from peer/siblings. Different results emerged due to gender. In females, maltreatment and sexual victimization was associated with an increased risk of SAD and, in males sexual victimization increased the risk of reporting SAD. Further studies are needed to elaborate developmental models on SAD and to add to modification of prevention- and treatment interventions.

  • 9.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Emanuelsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Carlbring, Per
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A pilot effectiveness study2015In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first study of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorder in Sweden to receive individually tailored internet-based treatment within a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. The primary aim of this effectiveness study was to examine the effects of tailored internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents.

    11 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, were allocated to treatment after assessment. Screening consisted of online questionnaires followed by a diagnostic face-to-face interview at the clinic. Treatment consisted of individually prescribed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) text modules adapted for the age group. Therapist guidance was via an online platform along with telephone support and face-to-face sessions if needed.

    Statistically significant improvements were found on all dependent measures immediately following treatment for the 8 adolescents who completed treatment. The within-group effect size on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the primary outcome measure, was d = 2.51 at post-treatment and 80 percent (4/5) adolescents no longer met DSM-IV criteria for their primary anxiety disorder as measured by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM- IV: Child and Parent Versions.

    Based on the results from this pilot study the tentative conclusion might be that tailored internet delivered CBT could be useful for adolescents with anxiety disorders along with standard treatment delivered in child and adolescent psychiatric clinics.

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