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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Gumbricht, Thomas
    KTH.
    Hughes, Denis
    IWR Universitet.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    Universitet.
    Ringrose, Susan
    Universitet.
    Savenije, Hubert
    Universitet.
    Todd, Martin
    Universitet.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wolski, Piotr
    Universitet.
    Water flow dynamics in the Okavango River Basin and Delta - A prerequisite for the ecosystems of the Delta2003In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 28, no 20-27, p. 1165-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues2010In: Hydrocomplexity: New Tools for Solving Wicked Water Problems / [ed] Shahbaz Khan, Hubert Savenije, Siegfried Demuth and Pierre Hubert, 2010, p. 187-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Water-related problems are characterized by complexities, uncertainties and conflicting interests, and there is no single “optimal” way to approach these “wicked” problems. Model-assisted participatory processes have been suggested as one way to meet these challenges. However, the use of models as scenario tools for local planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies addressing environmental challenges is more often an exception than common practice. In order to assess future possibilities for successful use of participatory scenario modelling, experiences from two model-facilitated projects are presented and discussed. The participatory scenario modelling described in this paper implies modelling with people, as opposed to agent-based modelling which is based on modelling people’s behaviour and its consequences. In the first project, a participatory model-assisted process was conducted to formulate a locally proposed remedy plan to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads in local lakes and the coastal zone. In the second project, a similar process was used to formulate local adaptation strategies to climate change impacts on water allocation, farming and the environment. Based on the experiences of these projects; recommendations are made as to how model-assisted participatory processes can best be organised and conducted. A key message is that modellers need to rethink their role as “solution providers” to become “process facilitators”.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Från global klimatforskning till lokal riskanalys och klimatanpassning: Exempel på hur man kan arbeta med lokalt deltagande, kombinerat med modeller i formulering av lokal sårbarhets och anpassningsplaner vid förändrat klimat2010In: Klimatets krav på samhället / [ed] Göran Graninger & Christer Knuthammar, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 47-64Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige hör troligen inte till de regioner i världen som är mest sårbara för klimatvariabilitet och förändringar. Effekter från ett förändrat klimat kommer dock med stor sannolikhet att vara märkbara även lokalt i Sverige, vilket diskuteras mer ingående i Sten Bergströms artikel.

    Denna artikel syftar till att bidra med erfarenheter runt hur man kan arbeta med att ta fram lokalt förankrade anpassningsstrategier. Med tanke på osäkerheter om detaljer i det framtida klimatet, kan det ibland ifrågasättas om det är rimligt att göra stora investeringar på så osäkra grunder. I detta sammanhang är det viktigt att tänka på att anpassningsstrategier för att möta framtida förändringar även gör oss bättre rustade att möta den klimatvariabilitet som vi redan lever med.

    Att välja rätt strategier för framtiden bör därför baseras på identifikation och fokus på de klimatrelaterade problem som vi har redan idag, med fokus på de problem som ger allvarligast effekter för olika sektorer i samhället, samt, baserad på regionalt nedskalade modellberäkningar, identifikation av sannolikheten för att dessa problem kommer att öka i framtiden.

    I denna artikel ges ett exempel på hur man genom aktörsamverkan kan ta fram lokala och regionala åtgärdsplaner. Samverkan har assisterats av klimat och vattenmodellerare, som i dialog med lokala aktörer tagit fram det material som behövts för att föra diskussionerna vidare. Exempel ges från ett pågående projekt i Sydafrika, men metoderna är lika relevanta i Sverige. Liknande metoder har, t.ex. använts för att ta fram en lokalt föreslagen åtgärdsplan mot övergödning i Kaggebofjärden, med medverkan från bl.a. lantbrukare, sommarstugeägare och kommuner (rapport kan beställas från lotta.andersson@smhi.se) .

    Dessutom beskrivs kortfattat ett nystartat INTERREG-projekt, ”Baltic Climate” som bl.a. syftar till att ge kommuner och lokala aktörer runt Östersjön möjlighet att möta klimatförändringarna på ett hållbart sätt..

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Institute, Sweden .
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Graham, Phil L.
    Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Institute, Sweden .
    Warburton, Michele
    University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa .
    Design and test of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local climate adaptation plan2013In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design and testing of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local adaptation plan to climate change. The pilot study focused on small-scale and commercial agriculture, water supply, housing, wildlife, livestock and biodiversity in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The methodology was based on stakeholders identifying and ranking the severity of climate-related challenges, and downscaled stakeholder-identified information provided by modellers, with the aim of addressing possible changes of exposure in the future. The methodology enables the integration of model-based information with experience and visions based on local realities. It includes stakeholders own assessments of their vulnerability to prevailing climate variability and the severity, if specified, of climate-related problems that may occur more often in the future. The methodology made it possible to identify the main issues to focus on in the adaptation plan, including barriers to adaptation. We make recommendations for how to design a model-assisted participatory process, emphasizing the need for transparency, to recognize the interests of the stakeholders, good advance planning, local relevance, involvement of local champions, and adaptation of Information material to each groups previous experience and understanding.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wilk, Julie
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Graham, Phil
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Warburton, Michele
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, South Africa.
    Participatory modelling for locally proposed climate change adaptation related to water and agriculture in South Africa2010In: Global change: Facing Risks and Threats to Water Resources / [ed] Eric Servat, Siegfried Demuth, Alain Dezetter & Trevor Daniell, International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) , 2010, p. 214-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The participatory modelling project (PAMO) carried out in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa assessed vulnerability to climate variability and change on water resources through direct involvement of affected groups. The aim was to increase stakeholder confidence and ownership, and create a local adaptation plan. Meetings were held with three stakeholder groups: (a) government authorities, research nstitutes, NGOs, (b) commercial farmers, and (c) small-scale farmers, and complemented with interviews. Based on participants’requests, modellers compiled regionally dynamically downscaled climate change projections, as well as their hydrological consequences. The project focused on agriculture, water resources/infrastructure and biodiversity. Though many future problems were shared, their pre-conditions for dealing with these were vastly different. Knowledge transfer within and across the farming communities and with government agencies on climate change, adaptation measures, and means to procure financing and permits for measures will aid local initiatives to prepare for climate variability and change.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Todd, Martin
    University College of London.
    Hughes, Denis
    Research Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Earle, Anton
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Layberry, Russel
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Savenije, Hubert
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River2006In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 331, no 1-2, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper lays the foundation for the use of scenario modelling as a tool for integrated water resource management in the Okavango River basin. The Pitman hydrological model is used to assess the impact of various development and climate change scenarios on downstream river flow. The simulated impact on modelled river discharge of increased water use for domestic use, livestock, and informal irrigation (proportional to expected population increase) is very limited. Implementation of all likely potential formal irrigation schemes mentioned in available reports is expected to decrease the annual flow by 2% and the minimum monthly flow by 5%. The maximum possible impact of irrigation on annual average flow is estimated as 8%, with a reduction of minimum monthly flow by 17%. Deforestation of all areas within a 1 km buffer around the rivers is estimated to increase the flow by 6%. However, construction of all potential hydropower reservoirs in the basin may change the monthly mean flow distribution dramatically, although under the assumed operational rules, the impact of the dams is only substantial during wet years. The simulated impacts of climate change are considerable larger that those of the development scenarios (with exception of the high development scenario of hydropower schemes) although the results are sensitive to the choice of GCM and the IPCC SRES greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The annual mean water flow predictions for the period 2020-2050 averaged over scenarios from all the four GCMs used in this study are close to the present situation for both the A2 and B2 GHG scenarios. For the 2050-2080 and 2070-2099 periods the all-GCM mean shows a flow decrease of 20% (14%) and 26% (17%), respectively, for the A2 (B2) GHG scenarios. However, the uncertainty in the magnitude of simulated future changes remains high. The simulated effect of climate change on minimum monthly flow is proportionally higher than the impact on the annual mean flow. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Cassidy, Lynn
    et al.
    University of Botswana.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kgathi, Donald
    University of Botswana.
    Bendsen, Hannelore
    University of Botswana.
    Ngwenya, Barbara
    University of Botswana.
    Indigenous Knowledge, Livelihoods and Government Policy2011In: Rural Livelihoods, Risk and Political Economy of Access to Natural Resources in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / [ed] Kgathi, D.L., Ngwenya, B.N. and Darkoh, M.K.B., Nova Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango Delta, a globally renowned wetland, is characterized by a mosaic of meandering watercourses, floodplains and islands, and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation species. It is a major source of livelihoods for the local communities and also an important attraction for tourism, the second most important economic activity in Botswana after diamonds, contributing 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP). As a globally renowned Ramsar Site and major tourist attraction, the Okavango Delta is a resource of national, regional and international importance. This book examines the results of empirical micro-level studies undertaken in the Okavango Delta and contributes to the formulation of relevant policies for sustainable development in the Okavango Delta. (Imprint: Nova Press)

  • 10.
    Glaas, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Friman (Fridahl), Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Scientific Knowledge and knowledge production: How do different traditions inform climate science and policy research?2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Graham, P
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Horan, M
    Kunz, R
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Lumdsen, T
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Schulze, R
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Warburton, M
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Wilk, Julie
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Yang, W
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping.
    Using multiple climate projections for assessing hydrological response to climate change in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa2011In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 36, no 14-15, p. 727-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used climate change projections from different regional approaches to assess hydrological effects on the Thukela River Basin in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Projecting impacts of future climate change onto hydrological systems can be undertaken in different ways and a variety of effects can be expected. Although simulation results from global climate models (GCMs) are typically used to project future climate, different outcomes from these projections may be obtained depending on the GCMs themselves and how they are applied, including different ways of downscaling from global to regional scales. Projections of climate change from different downscaling methods, different global climate models and different future emissions scenarios were used as input to simulations in a hydrological model to assess climate change impacts on hydrology. A total of 10 hydrological change simulations were made, resulting in a matrix of hydrological response results. This matrix included results from dynamically downscaled climate change projections from the same regional climate model (RCM) using an ensemble of three GCMs and three global emissions scenarios, and from statistically downscaled projections using results from five GCMs with the same emissions scenario. Although the matrix of results does not provide complete and consistent coverage of potential uncertainties from the different methods, some robust results were identified. In some regards, the results were in agreement and consistent for the different simulations. For others, particularly rainfall, the simulations showed divergence. For example, all of the statistically downscaled simulations showed an annual increase in precipitation and corresponding increase in river runoff, while the RCM downscaled simulations showed both increases and decreases in runoff. According to the two projections that best represent runoff for the observed climate, increase runoff would generally be expected for this basin in the future. Dealing with such variability in results is not atypical for assessing climate change impacts in Africa and practitioners are faced with how to interpret them. This work highlights the need for additional, well-coordinated regional climate downscaling for the region to further define the range of uncertainties involved.

  • 12.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework: Introduction and Guidelines2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed and tested within a number of other research projects within the Key Research Area Vulnerability & Adaptation at the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR). The projects Enhancing Cities’ Capacity to Manage Vulnerability to Climate Change (financed by FORMAS), Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Climate Change– impacts on Water Resources in Southern Africa (financed by SIDA/Sarec), and the Swedish Research Programme on Climate, Impacts and Adaptation (financed by MISTRA) are the most important and we acknowledge the sharing of results made possible by those financing agencies. Apart from the authors, the following persons have contributed to the design of individual exercises: Lotta Andersson, Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Karin André, Åsa Gerger-Swartling, Erik Glaas, Anna Jonsson and Louise Simonsson. These people all have been generous to share their expertise and are gratefully acknowledged. We are also grateful for all stakeholders that by their participating in the exercises have helped us in developing them. Please refer to any individual exercise use according to the following example: André, K. and Å. Gerger-Swartling, 2010. Exercise VI – Identification of Key Actors and Mapping of their Responsibilities. In Hjerpe and Wilk, 2010. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework: Introduction and Guidelines. CSPR Briefing No 5. 2010.

    At the time of publishing, results based on the methods described in this briefing have still not been published and are still work in progress. The exercises are in a process of modification and adjustment, both within the Baltic Climate project and other initiatives. If you wish to use any of these exercises, please contact Mattias Hjerpe or Julie Wilk at CSPR. The Briefing in an earlier version was primarily intended for use in regional and local applications in the Baltic Sea Region starting December 2009 and forward. Any suggestions for improvement and tests of the VAF pilot version will be of pertinent importance to develop the final version.

    This Briefing consists of three sections and one appendix.

    Section 1 "Introducing Vulnerability to Climate Change" describes the main elements in an assessment of vulnerability to climate variation and climate change. It intends to familiarize project participants within the vulnerability assessment process in the TAs.

    Section 2 "BalticClimate Vulnerability Assessment Framework" presents the VAF and explains the idea of using exercises to systematically discuss the main elements shaping vulnerability to climate change in your TA. It also presents how the WP3 researchers can support the TAs.

    Section 3 "Exercises for analysis of vulnerability and adaptation" contains the aims, outputs, and description of the eight exercises, and the exercises Identification of Challenges & Chances of Climate Change and Introducing Climate Adaptation undertaken during the Inventory phase. The appendix contains a more elaborated description of adaptation and vulnerability to climate change.

     

     

    Mattias Hjerpe, Assistant Professor, BalticClimate Work Package 3 Leader Email: mattias.hjerpe@liu.se, Phone: +46-11-36 34 38, Fax: +46-11-36 32 92

    Julie Wilk, Associate Professor, BalticClimate Work Package 3 Co-leader Email: julie.wilk@smhi.se, Phone: +46-13-28 44 63, Fax: +46-11-36 32 92

  • 13.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Practical guidance for vulnerability assessments at the regional and local scale (BalticClimate)2014In: Climate change adaptation manual: lessons learned from European and other industrialised countries / [ed] Andrea Prutsch, Torsten Grothmann, Sabine McCallum, Inke Schauser, Rob Swart, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 50-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hughes, Denis
    et al.
    Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Savenije, Hubert
    Delft University of Technology.
    Regional calibration of the Pitman model for the Okavango River2006In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 331, no 1-2, p. 30-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the application of a monthly rainfall-runoff model for the Okavango River Basin. Streamflow is mainly generated in Angola where the Cuito and Cubango rivers arise. They then join and cross the Namibia/Angola border, flowing into the Okavango wetland in Botswana. The model is a modified version of the Pitman model, including more explicit ground and surface water interactions. Significant limitations in access to climatological data, and lack of sufficiently long records of observed flow for the eastern sub-basins represent great challenges to model calibration. The majority of the runoff is generated in the wetter headwater tributaries, while the lower sub-basins are dominated by channel loss processes with very little incremental flow contributions, even during wet years. The western tributaries show significantly higher seasonal variation in flow, compared to the baseflow dominated eastern tributaries: observations that are consistent with their geological differences. The basin was sub-divided into 24 sub-basins, of which 18 have gauging stations at their outlet. Satisfactory simulations were achieved with sub-basin parameter value differences that correspond to the spatial variability in basin physiographic characteristics. The limited length of historical rainfall and river discharge data over Angola precluded the use of a split sample calibration/validation test. However, satellite generated rainfall data, revised to reflect the same frequency characteristics as the historical rainfall data, were used to validate the model against the available downstream flow data during the 1990s. The overall conclusion is that the model, in spite of the limited data access, adequately represents the hydrological response of the basin and that it can be used to assess the impact of future development scenarios. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Hughes, Denis
    et al.
    Universitet.
    Mwelwa, Ellen
    Myndighet.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Regional water resources and river flow modelling2002Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Rydhagen, B.
    Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Feroz, A. R.
    SMEC Bangladesh Ltd, Bangladesh.
    Rani, A.
    University of Kota, India.
    Kumar, A.
    Govt Coll, India.
    CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN URBAN INDIA: THE INCLUSIVE FORMULATION OF LOCAL ADAPTATION STRATEGIES2015In: GLOBAL NEST JOURNAL, ISSN 1790-7632, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kota, the third largest city of Rajasthan, poverty levels are high in many areas and there is a great need to assess the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of different societal groups and sectors to the impacts of climatic variability and change, and to formulate sustainable planning strategies. The city is a large rapidly growing centre (but not a megacity), facing a varied and challenging water situation and anticipated harmful effects of climate change. The methodological approach involves participatory workshops with key stakeholders in urban administration to identify vulnerabilities, and discuss concrete strategies for increasing the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable areas and sectors. The paper focuses on water resource planning (storm, potable, and wastewater), since it is already a challenging societal issue and one which will become even more critical in the future with climate change. We aim to contribute to improved urban water management for sustainable climate change adaptation in developing countries through an improved methodology of vulnerability assessments, capacity building and social learning, and a deeper empirical understanding of an urban context in Central India.

  • 17.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opening up the Water Poverty Index: co-producing knowledge on the capacity for community water management using the Water Prosperity Index2014In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, ISSN ISSN 0894-1920, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 265-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Poverty Index is a tool enabling a multisectoral description of the watersituation in an area or region. Many aspects of a society’s capacity to manage water,however, require qualitative and explorative approaches. Additionally, the perceptionsof ‘‘the water poor’’ themselves may differ substantially from expert valuationsbuilt into the Water Poverty Index. The aim of this article is to open up the WaterPoverty Index with a special focus on the capacity to manage water in a robust way.This is done through a process of participatory research and by transforming theWater Poverty Index into a Water Prosperity Index using a local community incentral India as example. By opening up the assessment process, issues empiricallyidentified by community members, researchers, and local nongovernmental organization(NGO) staff can be discussed and qualitatively assessed, resulting in animproved knowledge of the water situation and an approach for participatoryplanning.

  • 18.
    Kgathi, Donald L
    et al.
    University of Botswana, Botswana.
    Ngwenya, Barbara N
    University of Botswana, Botswana.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shocks and rural livelihoods in the Okavango Delta, Botswana2007In: Development Southern Africa, ISSN 0376-835X, E-ISSN 1470-3637, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 289-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the impacts that three shocks in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, have had on rural livelihoods: the desiccation of river channels, animal diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Primary data was collected from five study areas, using formal questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions. The paper reveals the adverse effects on rural livelihoods. It describes the way households have been exposed to poverty and vulnerability and the various ways they have coped or adapted, such as by re-allocating their labour, liquidating their assets to cover medical expenses and funeral costs, reducing the area ploughed for crops, hiring labour, digging wells and switching from flood recession agriculture to dryland farming. The Botswana government has provided safety nets to help households cope, but this paper recommends that people’s responses to these shocks should be taken into account in future policy and programme formulation.

  • 19.
    Kgathi, Donald
    et al.
    University of Botswana.
    Ngwenya, Barbara
    University of Botswana.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shocks and Rural Livelihoods in The Okavango Delta, Botswana2011In: Rural Livelihoods, Risk and Political Economy of Access to Natural Resources in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / [ed] Kgathi, D.L., Ngwenya, B.N. and Darkoh, M.K.B., Nova Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango Delta, a globally renowned wetland, is characterized by a mosaic of meandering watercourses, floodplains and islands, and is home to a variety of wildlife and vegetation species. It is a major source of livelihoods for the local communities and also an important attraction for tourism, the second most important economic activity in Botswana after diamonds, contributing 5% to the gross domestic product (GDP). As a globally renowned Ramsar Site and major tourist attraction, the Okavango Delta is a resource of national, regional and international importance. This book examines the results of empirical micro-level studies undertaken in the Okavango Delta and contributes to the formulation of relevant policies for sustainable development in the Okavango Delta. (Imprint: Nova Press)

  • 20.
    Lundqvist, Jan Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI.
    Okavango River Basin - a near pristine river under increasing pressure2005In: Groundwater under threat, Stockholm: The Swedish Research Council Formas , 2005, p. 29-36Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Todd, Martin
    et al.
    n/a.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hughes, Denis
    n/a.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    n/a.
    Layberry, Russell
    n/a.
    Murray-Hudson, Mike
    n/a.
    Savenije, Hubert
    n/a.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wolski, Piotr
    n/a.
    Simulating climate impacts on water resources: Experiences from the Okavango River, Southern Africa2008In: Hydrological Modelling and the Water Cycle / [ed] Soroosh Sorooshian,Kuo-lin Hsu ,Erika Coppola ,Barbara Tomassetti, Berlin Heidelburg: Springer , 2008, 1, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This collected work reports on the state of the art of hydrological model simulation, as well as the methods for satellite-based rainfall estimation. Mainly addressed to scientists and researchers, the contributions have the structure of a standard paper appearing in most cited hydrological, atmospheric and climate journals. Several already-known hydrological models and a few novel ones are presented, as well as the satellite-based precipitation techniques. As the field of hydrologic modeling is experiencing rapid development and transition to application of distributed models, many challenges including overcoming the requirements of compatible observations of inputs and outputs are addressed.

    The many contributing authors, who are well established in this field, provide readers with a timely overview of the ongoing research on these topics. The level of interest and active involvement in the discussions clearly demonstrate the importance the scientific community places on challenges related to the coupling of atmospheric and hydrologic models.

  • 22.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Do forests have an impact on water availability?: Assessing the effects of heterogeneous land use on streamflow in two monsoonal river basins2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the effects of land use changes on streamflow in two river basins, the upper Bhavani in south India and the upper Nam Pang in northeast Thailand. In the Nam Pang basin, the forest cover has decreased from 80% to 27% in the last 30 years. Despite this, almost no changes in streamflow patterns or amountswere found. The figures depicting a drastic reduction of indigenous forest are partly misleading. In areas, where swidden agriculture has been the cause of forest encroachment, large numbers of shade trees were retained thus the density of trees in the catchment has not been as radically reduced (219 trees ha·1 to 104 trees ha-1 ) as the amount of forest cover indicates. Many abandoned plots of land, have also been rapidly replaced with secondary vegetation, which attain evapotranspiration rates close to that of mature forests in only a few years. This would indicate that substituting indigenous forest witha mosaic of open land and mixed trees does not affect the streamflow amounts as drastically as has been observed in small catchments where an area of forest is cleared simultaneously and replaced with homogeneous cropland.

    People in both catchments valued trees highly for productivity functions such as firewood, food items, medicines and aesthetic reasons. Forests were also believed very closely linked with a sustained water availability in terms of rain and streamflow. Because of how highly forests are valued, there was a strong interest in both conserving the indigenous forests that still exist today as well as retaining and planting scattered trees. This would aid the maintenance of a landscape mosaic that should according to the results presented in this thesis, not drastically affect streamflow regimes from more heavily forested conditions.

    Study work in the upper Bhavani catchment, India, was riddled with data uncertainties that made modelling work wrought with extra challenges. Even in areas such as this, where data is insufficient in relation to the area's hydrological and climatological complexities, people have an interest in understanding their local hydrological regime. It is therefore justifiable to model these areas, if the available data is assessed until an acceptable level of reliability is obtained. Results should then be presented and interpreted in light of these data uncertainties. Results from the modelling of different land use scenarios supported the results from the upper Nam Pang catchment, Thailand where more heterogeneous land use conditions, showed little changes in streamflow regimes compared to a hypothetical indigenous scenario. Most extreme changes in annual water yield were caused by the scenarios representing total conversion of the catchment to agriculture (+19%) and plantations (-33%) while changes in assured yield at the Bhavanisagar reservoir, a measurement indicating downstream water sustainability, were more modest.

    In summary, the retention of heterogeneous land use can buffer the effects of large changes in streamflow as found in small-scale catchment studies. It is very likely that people that enter a forested area to undertake small-scale agriculture will maintain existing forests and plant scattered tree groves for the many products and services that trees are perceived to provide, thus propagating a landscape mosaic.

    List of papers
    1. GIS-supported modelling of areal rainfall in a mountainous river basin with monsoon climate in southern India
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>GIS-supported modelling of areal rainfall in a mountainous river basin with monsoon climate in southern India
    2000 (English)In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial rainfall patterns and seasonal variability were assessed for a mountainous river basin with monsoon climate. Factors were identified that could explain this variability, and a GIS-supported method to determine the areal distribution of precipitation was developed. To find acceptable regression equations, a division had to be made between rainfall stations dominated by the southwest-monsoons and the northeast-monsoons, respectively. Distance to the southwestern border was the main explaining factor for precipitation at southwest-monsoon dominated stations. For northeast-monsoon dominated stations, altitude and slope were the most important factors. The basin was divided into pixels with characteristics typical for northeast- or southwest-monsoon dominated rainfall stations to allow calculation of spatial rainfall. The difference when comparing regression-based estimates with Thiessen-based estimates was small when considering the annual estimates for the whole basin. However, when analysing seasonal rainfall or sub-catchments, the differences between Thiessen-based and regression-based estimates were significant.

    Abstract [fr]

    La structure spatiale et la variabilité saisonnière de la pluviosité ont été déterminées pour un bassin versant montagneux soumis à un climat de mousson. Les facteurs susceptibles d'expliquer cette variabilité ont été identifiés et une méthode assistée par SIG de détermination de la distribution spatiale des précipitations a été développée. Afin d'obtenir des équations de régression acceptables nous avons dû distinguer les stations pluviométriques soumises à la mousson du SO de celles soumises à la mousson du NE. La distance à la frontière SO s'est révélée être le principal facteur explicatif des précipitations pour les stations soumises à la mousson de SO. Pour les stations soumises à la mousson de NE, l'altitude et la pente se sont révélées être les facteurs explicatifs principaux. Le bassin a été divisé en pixels auquels les caractéristiques des stations soumises à la mousson du NE ou du SO ont été affectées pour pouvoir calculer la pluie spatiale. Les différences entre les estimations fondées sur les régressions et celles fondées sur la méthode de Thiessen sont petites lorsque l'on considère le bassin complet à l'échelle annuelle, mais elles peuvent devenir importantes lorsque l'on considère les sous-bassins à l'échelle saisonnière.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31760 (URN)10.1080/02626660009492319 (DOI)17583 (Local ID)17583 (Archive number)17583 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Hydrological impacts of forest conversion to agriculture in a large river basin in northeast Thailand
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrological impacts of forest conversion to agriculture in a large river basin in northeast Thailand
    2001 (English)In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 15, no 14, p. 2729-2748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that forest clearance leads to an increase in water yield, but it is unclear if this result holds for larger river basins (> 1000 km(2)). No widespread changes in rainfall totals and patterns were found in the 12100 km(2) Nam Pong catchment in northeast Thailand between 1957 and 1995, despite a reduction in the area classified as forest from 80% to 27% in the last three decades. Neither were any detectable changes found in any other water balance terms nor in the dynamics of the recession at the end of the rainy season. When a hydrological model calibrated against data from the period before the deforestation was applied for the last years of the study period (1987-1995), runoff generation was however underestimated by approximately 15%, indicating increased runoff generation after the deforestation. However, this was mainly due to the hydrological response during one single year in the first period, when the Q/P ratio was very low. When excluding this year, neither analysis based on the hydrological model could reveal any significant change of the water balance due to the deforestation. More detailed land-use analysis revealed that shade trees were left on agricultural plots as well as a number of abandoned areas where secondary growth can be expected, which is believed to account for the results.

    Keywords
    deforestation, water yield, hydrological models, Thailand, tropical forests
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49107 (URN)10.1002/hyp.229 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Calibrating a rainfall-runoff model for a catchment with limited data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibrating a rainfall-runoff model for a catchment with limited data
    2002 (English)In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A rainfall-runoff model has been established to simulate streamflow in a regulated catchment in southern India, where data were limited in relation to the basin's complexity. Within the basin is a network of hydropower reservoirs and tunnels that complicate the relationships between observed and natural flows. The basin is affected by two monsoons that dominate in different areas and can only be quantified through a relatively sparse raingauge network. These characteristics combine to make it difficult to satisfactorily define the spatial distribution of rainfall inputs to the basin. After critically assessing the data that were found to be inconsistent and unrepresentative, various assumptions about the operation of the system were tested. Despite incomplete streamflow data and the complex hydropower system, the limiting factor affecting successful simulations of streamflow at the basin outlet was the uncertain representativeness of the calculated areal rainfall. The final outcome is a model, which despite shortcomings, is considered to be a useful water resources management tool that provides a sound basis for further studies.

    Abstract [fr]

    Un modèle pluie-débit a été établi pour simuler le débit dans un bassin versant régulé dans le sud de l'Inde, où les données sont limitées par rapport à la complexité du bassin. Il existe au sein du bassin un réseau de réservoirs hydroélectriques et de tunnels qui complique les relations entre les débits observés et naturels. Le bassin est affecté par deux moussons qui dominent dans des régions différentes et qui peuvent être quantifiées uniquement grâce à un réseau de pluviomètres relativement clairsemé. La combinaison de ces caractéristiques rend l'observation de la distribution spatiale des apports pluviométriques difficile. Après avoir évalué les données et montré qu'elles sont incohérentes et non représentatives, nous avons testé plusieurs hypothèses sur le fonctionnement du système. Malgré des données de débit incomplètes et la complexité du réseau hydro-électrique, le facteur le plus limitant dans les simulations de débit a été la mauvaise représentativité des calculs de pluie moyenne. Le résultat final est un modèle qui, malgré ses défauts, est vu comme un outil utile de gestion des ressources en eau, qui fournit une base solide pour des études supplémentaires.

    Keywords
    rainfall-runoff modelling, Pitman model, limited data, land-use change, India
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31766 (URN)10.1080/02626660209492903 (DOI)17590 (Local ID)17590 (Archive number)17590 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Simulating the impacts of land-use and climate change on water resource availability for a large south Indian catchment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating the impacts of land-use and climate change on water resource availability for a large south Indian catchment
    2002 (English)In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A monthly rainfall-runoff model was calibrated for a large tropical catchment in southern India. Various land-use and climatic change scenarios were tested to assess their effects on mean annual runoff and assured water yield at the Bhavanisagar Reservoir in Tamil Nadu, India. The largest increase in runoff (19%) came from converting forest and savanna (the indigenous control scenario) to agriculture. Mean annual runoff decreased by 35% after conversion to commercial forest and 6% after partial conversion to tea plantations. The predicted climate scenarios of reduced dry season rainfall decreased the annual runoff by 5% while enhanced annual rainfall caused a 17% increase in runoff. Even if land-use and climate changes had relatively large effects on runoff, the changes in reservoir yield which can be assured every year, were often less severe. This was probably due to the buffering effect of the reservoir and variation in the mean annual runoff.

    Abstract [fr]

    Un modèle pluie-débit mensuel a été calé pour un grand bassin versant tropical du sud de l'Inde. Différents scénarios de changement du climat et de l'occupation du sol ont été testés pour estimer leurs effets sur l'écoulement annuel moyen et sur le bilan du barrage Bhavanisagar, au Tamil Nadu, en Inde. La plus grande augmentation d'écoulement (19%) est obtenue dans le cas de la conversion de la forêt et de la savane (le scénario de contrôle indigène) en agriculture. L'écoulement annuel moyen décroît de 35% après conversion en forêts plantées, et de 6% après conversion partielle en plantations de thé. Le scénario climatique de réduction de la pluviosité en saison sèche réduit l'écoulement de 5%, tandis que celui de l'augmentation de la pluviosité annuelle engendre une augmentation de l'écoulement de 17%. Même si les changements de climat et d'occupation du sol ont des effets relativement importants sur l'écoulement, les changements dans la disponibilité annuelle du barrage sont souvent moins sévères. Cela est probablement dû à l'effet d'amortissement du stockage dans le réservoir.

    Keywords
    land-use change, climate change, hydrology, water resources, runoff, reservoir yield, India
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-48979 (URN)10.1080/02626660209492904 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Local perceptions about forests and water in two tropical catchments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local perceptions about forests and water in two tropical catchments
    2000 (English)In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed to assess how local inhabitants in two tropical watersheds value forests and perceive both forests and their own capacity to influence the hydrological cycle. Both service and productivity functions were strongly valued, particularly forests' rain-bringing capacity. The view that forests are directly responsible for increased precipitation was especially strong in low rainfall areas. Forests were also seen as important for their ability to retain soil water. The human activity most often mentioned as affecting water availability was tree planting while water conservation structures were not seen as detrimentally affecting others. Water was pictured very strongly as being part of a cycle so that which is used by humans or trees is not considered lost but only displaced to return again as rain.

    Keywords
    forest, local perceptions, water
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31763 (URN)10.1023/A:1011012420808 (DOI)17587 (Local ID)17587 (Archive number)17587 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 23.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forest management in India: local versus state control of forest resources1997In: Managing Common Resources in local and global systems / [ed] Sylvia Karlsson, Linköping: EPOS , 1997, p. 97-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    GIS at the Department of Geography and Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, Sweden2005In: Higher Education GIS in Geography: a European perspective, Liverpool: LIverpool Hope University , 2005, p. 100-104Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How do researchers view  the role of local knowledge in natural resource management?2009In: International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability, ISSN 1832-2077, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing sound natural resource management is a complex issue and a synergy of knowledge from all stakeholders, representing local and outside interests, is the only means to attain sustainable solutions. The results from interviews with a number of researchers in least developed countries have shown that although indigenous knowledge is acknowledged in the local sphere as site-specific, it is scientific knowledge that is considered universally valid and superior. In conflicting circumstances, local knowledge is often considered wrong without recognizing the existence of different contexts, world views or goals and the many examples of the fallibility of science. As researchers, reflecting upon and understanding one’s own world view and perceptions of different sources of knowledge is important as it affects the way that knowledge held by local communities is treated and whether or not it is included in research and development projects and policy documents.

  • 26.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hydrological impacts of forest conversion to agriculture and local perceptions in a large river basin in northeast Thailand2002In: Proceedings of the 12th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference, 2002, Beijing: Tsinghua University Press , 2002, p. 494-499Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local perceptions about forests and water in two tropical catchments2000In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed to assess how local inhabitants in two tropical watersheds value forests and perceive both forests and their own capacity to influence the hydrological cycle. Both service and productivity functions were strongly valued, particularly forests' rain-bringing capacity. The view that forests are directly responsible for increased precipitation was especially strong in low rainfall areas. Forests were also seen as important for their ability to retain soil water. The human activity most often mentioned as affecting water availability was tree planting while water conservation structures were not seen as detrimentally affecting others. Water was pictured very strongly as being part of a cycle so that which is used by humans or trees is not considered lost but only displaced to return again as rain.

  • 28.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    GIS-supported modelling of areal rainfall in a mountainous river basin with monsoon climate in southern India2000In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial rainfall patterns and seasonal variability were assessed for a mountainous river basin with monsoon climate. Factors were identified that could explain this variability, and a GIS-supported method to determine the areal distribution of precipitation was developed. To find acceptable regression equations, a division had to be made between rainfall stations dominated by the southwest-monsoons and the northeast-monsoons, respectively. Distance to the southwestern border was the main explaining factor for precipitation at southwest-monsoon dominated stations. For northeast-monsoon dominated stations, altitude and slope were the most important factors. The basin was divided into pixels with characteristics typical for northeast- or southwest-monsoon dominated rainfall stations to allow calculation of spatial rainfall. The difference when comparing regression-based estimates with Thiessen-based estimates was small when considering the annual estimates for the whole basin. However, when analysing seasonal rainfall or sub-catchments, the differences between Thiessen-based and regression-based estimates were significant.

  • 29.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Plermkamon, Vichian
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.
    Hydrological impacts of forest conversion to agriculture in a large river basin in northeast Thailand2001In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 15, no 14, p. 2729-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that forest clearance leads to an increase in water yield, but it is unclear if this result holds for larger river basins (> 1000 km(2)). No widespread changes in rainfall totals and patterns were found in the 12100 km(2) Nam Pong catchment in northeast Thailand between 1957 and 1995, despite a reduction in the area classified as forest from 80% to 27% in the last three decades. Neither were any detectable changes found in any other water balance terms nor in the dynamics of the recession at the end of the rainy season. When a hydrological model calibrated against data from the period before the deforestation was applied for the last years of the study period (1987-1995), runoff generation was however underestimated by approximately 15%, indicating increased runoff generation after the deforestation. However, this was mainly due to the hydrological response during one single year in the first period, when the Q/P ratio was very low. When excluding this year, neither analysis based on the hydrological model could reveal any significant change of the water balance due to the deforestation. More detailed land-use analysis revealed that shade trees were left on agricultural plots as well as a number of abandoned areas where secondary growth can be expected, which is believed to account for the results.

  • 30.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Hydrological Unit, Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Warburton, Michele
    The School of Bioresources Engineering & Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, South Africa .
    Adaptation to climate change and other stressors among commercial and small-scale South African farmers2013In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 273-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa are exposed to many challenges. Interviews with 44 farmers in the upper Thukela basin, KwaZulu-Natal, were conducted to identify common and specific challenges for the two groups and adaptive strategies for dealing with the effects of climate and other stressors. This work was conducted as part of a larger participatory project with local stakeholders to develop a local adaptation plan for coping with climate variability and change. Although many challenges related to exposure to climate variability and change, weak agricultural policies, limited governmental support, and theft were common to both farming communities, their adaptive capacities were vastly different. Small-scale farmers were more vulnerable due to difficulties to finance the high input costs of improved seed varieties and implements, limited access to knowledge and agricultural techniques for water and soil conservation and limited customs of long-term planning. In addition to temperature and drought-related challenges, small-scale farmers were concerned about soil erosion, water logging and livestock diseases, challenges for which the commercial farmers already had efficient adaptation strategies in place. The major obstacle hindering commercial farmers with future planning was the lack of clear directives from the government, for example, with regard to issuing of water licences and land reform. Enabling agricultural communities to procure sustainable livelihoods requires implementation of strategies that address the common and specific challenges and strengthen the adaptive capacity of both commercial and small-scale farmers. Identified ways forward include knowledge transfer within and across farming communities, clear governmental directives and targeted locally adapted finance programmes.

  • 31.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wolski, Piotr
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Kgathi, Donald
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Ringrose, Susan
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Vanderpost, Cornelius
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC), Maun, Botswana.
    Chang­ing flow in the Okavango basin: Upstream developments and downstream effects2010In: Integrated Watershed Management: Perspectives and Problems: Perspectives and Problems / [ed] Beheim, E., Rajwar, G.S., Haigh, M. and Krecek, J., Springer and Capital Publishing Company , 2010, 1, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Headwaters are fragile environments threatened by anthropogenic actions. The regeneration of headwaters calls for a practical approach through integrated environmental management. This book discusses various issues concerning headwater regions of the world under wide-ranging themes: climate change impacts, vegetal cover, sub-surface hydrology, catchment and streamflow hydrology, pollution, water quality and limnology, remote sensing and GIS, environmental impact assessment and mitigation, socio-economic impacts, public participation, education and management, and integrated watershed management. This book aims to bring about an awareness in sustainable regeneration of headwater regions and particularly highlighting the problems of environmental management in highlands and headwaters. These regions consist of great reserves of natural resources which need to be exploited and managed sustainably.

  • 32.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wolski, Piotr
    University of Botswana.
    Ringrose, Susan
    University of Botswana.
    Vanderpost, Cornelius
    University of Botswana.
    Changing flow in the Okavango basin: Upstream developments and downstream effects2005In: Headwater Control VI: Hydrology, Ecology and Water Resources in Headwaters,2005, 2005, p. 125-131Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andre, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opach, Tomasz (Contributor)
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Neset, Tina S. (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Guidebook for Integrated Assessment and Management of Vulnerability to Climate Change2013Book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Rydhagen, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of Planning and Media Design, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adaptation spinoffs from technological and socio-economic changes2015In: Climate Change Adaptation and Development: Transforming Paradigms and Practices / [ed] Tor Håkon Inderberg, Siri Eriksen, Karen O'Brien & Linda Sygna, London and New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 161-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that societal change related to economic growth and development policies can affect the adaptive capacity of communities to a multitude of stressors including climate variability and change. Concerns have recently been raised about the consequences of climate mitigation and adaptation on vulnerable groups and the impacts of large-scale globalization processes on the adaptive capacities of local communities. This chapter addresses how side effects of technological and socioeconomic changes, which we refer to as spinoffs have potential to strengthen climate adaptation strategies. The spinoff examples fall under a two-dimensional framework according to whether they arise from orchestrated or opportunity-driven initiatives and technological or socio-economic changes. Three cases in developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth have been chosen as examples of different types of spinoffs and how they can positively influence climate adaptation and more particularly adaptive capacity. They are: information and communication technology (ICT) in South Africa, changing lifestyles in China and empowerment in India. The cases illustrate that new objects, inventions and trends constantly emerge which have potential to help people improve their livelihoods in ways that can be climate smart. People working as development workers and policy makers need to be observant and engage in open-minded dialogue with communities in order to recognize emergent technologies, lifestyles and trends to facilitate the use and development of on-going or potential spinoffs that positively affect adaptation to climate change.

  • 35.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yuan, Wei
    Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Fan, Hua
    Agricultural College, Shihezi University, China.
    Farm-scale adaptation under extreme climate and rapid economic transition2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 393-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse what shapes farmers’ vulnerability and adaptation strategies in the context of rapid change. Xinjiang is semi-arid, with extremes of temperature, growing seasons and winds. Favourable socioeconomic conditions have boosted the wellbeing of farmers in the past decades. Interviews with forty-seven farmers led to the categorization of five groups according to the predominant type of farming activity: animal farmers, government farmers (leasing land from the Xinjiang Production and Construction Group), crop farmers, agri-tourism operators and entrepreneurs. High government support has aided farmers to deal with climate challenges, through advanced technology, subsidies and loans. Farmers, however, greatly contribute to their own high adaptive capacity through inventiveness, flexibility and a high knowledge base. Although the future climate will entail hotter temperatures, farmers can be seen as generally well equipped to deal with these challenges because of the high adaptive capacity they currently have and utilize. Those that are most vulnerable are those that have difficulty to access credit e.g. animal farmers and those that do not want to change their agricultural systems e.g. from pastoral lifestyles to include tourism-based operations.

  • 36.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hughes, Denis A.
    Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Calibrating a rainfall-runoff model for a catchment with limited data2002In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rainfall-runoff model has been established to simulate streamflow in a regulated catchment in southern India, where data were limited in relation to the basin's complexity. Within the basin is a network of hydropower reservoirs and tunnels that complicate the relationships between observed and natural flows. The basin is affected by two monsoons that dominate in different areas and can only be quantified through a relatively sparse raingauge network. These characteristics combine to make it difficult to satisfactorily define the spatial distribution of rainfall inputs to the basin. After critically assessing the data that were found to be inconsistent and unrepresentative, various assumptions about the operation of the system were tested. Despite incomplete streamflow data and the complex hydropower system, the limiting factor affecting successful simulations of streamflow at the basin outlet was the uncertain representativeness of the calculated areal rainfall. The final outcome is a model, which despite shortcomings, is considered to be a useful water resources management tool that provides a sound basis for further studies.

  • 37.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hughes, Denis A.
    Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Simulating the impacts of land-use and climate change on water resource availability for a large south Indian catchment2002In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A monthly rainfall-runoff model was calibrated for a large tropical catchment in southern India. Various land-use and climatic change scenarios were tested to assess their effects on mean annual runoff and assured water yield at the Bhavanisagar Reservoir in Tamil Nadu, India. The largest increase in runoff (19%) came from converting forest and savanna (the indigenous control scenario) to agriculture. Mean annual runoff decreased by 35% after conversion to commercial forest and 6% after partial conversion to tea plantations. The predicted climate scenarios of reduced dry season rainfall decreased the annual runoff by 5% while enhanced annual rainfall caused a 17% increase in runoff. Even if land-use and climate changes had relatively large effects on runoff, the changes in reservoir yield which can be assured every year, were often less severe. This was probably due to the buffering effect of the reservoir and variation in the mean annual runoff.

  • 38.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From Water Poverty to Water Prosperity—A More Participatory Approach to Studying Local Water Resources Management2013In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 695-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Poverty Index (WPI), a tool designed for integrated analysis of water issues, was set-up in a community in Madhya Pradesh, India through a transparent and participatory process. Though the aim of the WPI is to primarily use existing statistical data, quantitative information from census and local records was combined with qualitative data from community interviews and participatory exercises. The inclusion of community chosen indicators and the adjustment of values so that higher numbers represent water prosperity rather than water poverty, led to the Water Prosperity Index (WPI+). The WPI + score was contrasted with the WPI at community level. It was also calculated for two community areas with different caste and socio-economic characteristics and weighted separately according to water issues prioritized by men and women. The WPI + revealed a great difference in water access between the two areas and in prioritized issues between men and women illustrating the importance of appropriate spatial representation and gender sensitive assessments for revealing important disparities. Results also showed that highly aggregated data hide these differences making it more difficult to target the most vulnerable groups when planning measures to increase equitable water allocation. While quantitative data reveal an important perspective of the water situation, qualitative data about adequacy of resources, services or institutions, improve understanding of which issues to prioritize. A valid and useful community water index must be based on representative participation, transparency and local influence on the methodology and subsequent results.

  • 39.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using an integrated tool to promote sustainable rural development - participatory modification of the Water Prosperity Index at village level in India2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Poverty Index, originally set up at national and regional levels, using ready available aggregated statistical information, is a holistic tool to integrate different water related components.  In this project we are testing the potential of the index when used at the village level, where data collection can be more adapted to local conditions. Thus, by grounding index construction and data collection with local stakeholders, the tool may become a more effective means of achieving Integrated Water Resource Management, IWRM. In a village in Madya Pradesh, India, with 170 households we are in the process of modifying the Water Poverty Index into a Water Prosperity Index together with local stakeholders.

    The WPI is based on a number of indicators which are combined into a Geographic Information System framework, enabling a cross-sectoral identification the most pressing problem areas. We bring both analytical and technical components of the tool to the village (i.e., the integrating intellectual structure of the WPI and diesel generator, power point projector, computer and GIS-software) but we take the technical part home with us again as no one in village has training in computer use or any of the software. The main advantage of the index creation however is not the technology but the system thinking around water management, which has been focused upon during the participatory process. The index is not a solution in itself but a means to holistically analyse, monitor and plan for local sustainable development. The paper discusses the opportunities and obstacles encountered while implementing this process.

  • 40.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Kgathi, Donald
    University of Botswana.
    Risk in the Okavango Delta in the face of social and environmental change2007In: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 70, no 2-3, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information from 117 questionnaires and focus groups in four villages in the Okavango Delta, Botswana was used to identify households exposed to different levels of risk in order to relate them to various livelihood activities and coping strategies. Current household strategies such as migration and diversification that are used to cope with recurring hazards such as drought, reduced flooding and animal disease are becoming more limited because of fencing policies and changed flooding regimes. In the light of future challenges such as climate change and increased upstream water abstractions, the heavy reliance on government assistance will probably increase especially among female-headed households and high-risk households. Without targeted initiatives based on spatial and social distributions of risk, then the dependency syndrome of Botswana is likely to continue and be exacerbated. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 41.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Environmental Science University of Sussex.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Layberry, Russell
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Environmental Science University of Sussex.
    Todd, Martin
    University College of London.
    Hughes, Denis
    Institute of Water Research Rhodes University.
    Ringrose, Susan
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre University of Botswana.
    Vanderpost, Cornelius
    Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre University of Botswana.
    Estimating rainfall and water balance over the Okavango River Basin for hydrological applications2006In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 331, no 1-2, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historical database for use in rainfall-runoff modeling of the Okavango River Basin in Southwest Africa is presented. The work has relevance for similar data-sparse regions. The parameters of main concern are rainfall and catchment water balance, which are key variables for subsequent studies of the hydrological impacts of development and climate change. Rainfall estimates are based on a combination of in situ gauges and satellite sources. Rain gauge measurements are most extensive from 1955 to 1972, after which they are drastically reduced due to the Angolan civil war. The sensitivity of the rainfall fields to spatial interpolation techniques and the density of gauges were evaluated. Satellite based rainfall estimates for the basin are developed for the period from 1991 onwards, based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) datasets. The consistency between the gauges and satellite estimates was considered. A methodology was developed to allow calibration of the rainfall-runoff hydrological model against rain gauge data from 1960 to 1972, with the prerequisite that the model should be driven by satellite derived rainfall products from 1990 onwards. With the rain gauge data, addition of a single rainfall station (Longa) in regions where stations earlier were lacking was more important than the chosen interpolation method. Comparison of satellite and gauge rainfall outside the basin indicated that the satellite overestimates rainfall by 20%. A non-linear correction was derived by fitting the rainfall frequency characteristics to those of the historical rainfall data. This satellite rainfall dataset was found satisfactory when using the Pitman rainfall-runoff model (Hughes, D., Andersson, L., Wilk, J., Savenije, H.H.G., this issue. Regional calibration of the Pitman model for the Okavango River. Journal of Hydrology). Intensive monitoring in the region is recommended to increase accuracy of the comprehensive satellite rainfall estimate calibration procedure. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wittgren, Hans-Bertil
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Adapting Water Management to Climate Change2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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