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  • 1.
    Amarzguioui, Mohammed
    et al.
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Mucchiano, Gerd
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Westermark, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kavlie, Anita
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Sletten, Knut
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Prydz, Hans
    The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, Oslo, Norway.
    Extensive Intimal Apolipoprotein A1-Derived Amyloid Deposits in a Patient with an Apolipoprotein A1 Mutation1998Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 242, nr 3, s. 534-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aortic intima amyloid deposits are often associated with atherosclerotic plaques. In a recent study of one patient with aortic intimal amyloid the major fibril protein was an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) consisting of 69 amino acid residues. In the present study, we have screened the apoA1 gene for mutations in autopsy cases with aortic intimal amyloid immunohistochemically positive for apoA1, using single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. All cases except one had a normal apoA1 gene sequence. One case of exceptionally severe atherosclerosis combined with extensive intimal amyloid deposits showed an apoA1 deletion corresponding to Lys 107. Thus, wild type apoA1 is amyloidogenic but our findings suggest that the expression of a mutant apoA1-form may be associated with enhanced amyloidogenicity.

  • 2.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Häggström, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Björksten, Bengt
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin a levels in saliva in relation to the development of allergy in infants up to 2 years of age2002Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 32, nr 9, s. 1293-1298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between salivary IgA levels and development of allergy is controversial and the employed methodology has been questioned. Objective: The aim of the study was to relate the levels of total IgA, SIgA and allergen-specific IgA antibodies in saliva to the development of allergy in infants during the first 2 years of life. Methods: Saliva samples from 80 infants participating in a prospective study regarding the development of allergy were collected at 3 or 6, and 12 and 24 months of age. Total IgA, SIgA and Fel d 1 and ▀-lactoglobulin specific IgA levels were analysed with ELISA. Results: The levels of total IgA and SIgA increased with age. The number of samples with detectable IgA to Fel d 1 tended to increase with age, whereas the opposite was observed for IgA to ▀-lactoglobulin. Infants who developed allergy tended to have higher levels of total IgA, and allergen-specific IgA was more commonly detected than in non-allergic children. In contrast, non-allergic children tended to have higher levels of SIgA. Furthermore, the levels of SIgA were higher in sensitized infants with no allergic symptoms than in sensitized children with symptoms. Infants with allergic parents had lower SIgA levels than infants without. Direct exposure to cat and cow's milk did not influence the levels of allergen-specific IgA levels, nor was there any association between breast-feeding and IgA production. Conclusion: The kinetics of food and inhalant allergen-specific IgA in saliva during the first 2 years of life is similar to what has earlier been shown for IgG in serum. Development of allergy tended to be associated with high levels of total and allergen-specific IgA antibodies, but low levels of SIgA. Furthermore, high levels of SIgA seemed to protect sensitized children from developing allergic symptoms during the first 2 years of life, supporting a possible protective role of SIgA against development of allergy.

  • 3.
    Gati, Istvan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fredriksson, Bengt-Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken.
    Letter: Bent Spine Syndrome: A Phenotype of Dysferlinopathy or a Symptomatic DYSF Gene Mutation Carrier2012Ingår i: European Neurology, ISSN 0014-3022, E-ISSN 1421-9913, Vol. 67, nr 5, s. 300-302Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4.
    Gati, Istvan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken.
    Lindehammar, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk neurofysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US.
    Lindvall, B
    University Örebro, Örebro, Sweden .
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fredriksson, Bengt-Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Neurologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Medicinska specialistkliniken .
    SENSORY ATAXIC NEUROPATHY WITH DYSARTHRIA/DYSPHAGIA AND OPHTHALMOPLEGIA (SANDO) - CASE HISTORIES in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, vol 18, issue SI, pp 282-2822011Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Wiley-Blackwell , 2011, Vol. 18, nr SI, s. 282-282Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 5.
    Havarinasab, Said
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologiska patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologiska patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Björn, Erik
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pollard, K.M.
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologiska patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice2005Ingår i: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, Vol. 204, nr 2, s. 109-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible health effects of the organic mercury compound thimerosal (ethylmercurithiosalicylate), which is rapidly metabolized to ethylmercury (EtHg), have recently been much debated and the effect of this compound on the immune system is largely unknown. We therefore studied the effect of thimerosal by treating A.SW (H-2s) mice, susceptible to induction of autoimmunity by heavy metals, with 10 mg thimerosal/L drinking water (internal dose ca 590 μg Hg/kg body weight/day) for up to 30 days. The lymph node expression of IL-2 and IL-15 mRNA was increased after 2 days, and of IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA after 6 and 14 days. During the first 14 days treatment, the number of splenocytes, including T and B cells as well as Ig-secreting cells decreased. A strong immunostimulation superseded after 30 days treatment with increase in splenic weight, number of splenocytes including T and B cells and Ig-secreting cells, and Th2- as well as Th-1-dependent serum immunoglobulins. Antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) targeting the 34-kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin, and systemic immune-complex deposits developed. The H-2s strains SJL and B10.S also responded to thimerosal treatment with ANoA. The A.TL and B10.TL strain, sharing background genes with the A.SW and B10.S strain, respectively, but with a different H-2 haplotype (t1), did not develop ANoA, linking the susceptibility to H-2. Thimerosal-treated H-2s mice homozygous for the nu mutation (SJL-nu/nu), or lacking the T-cell co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (B10.S–CD28−/−), did not develop ANoA, which showed that the autoimmune response is T-cell dependent. Using H-2s strains with targeted mutations, we found that IFN-γ and IL-6, but not IL-4, is important for induction of ANoA by thimerosal. The maximum added renal concentration of thimerosal (EtHg) and inorganic mercury occurred after 14 days treatment and was 81 μg Hg/g. EtHg made up 59% and inorganic mercury 41% of the renal mercury. In conclusion, the organic mercury compound thimerosal (EtHg) has initial immunosuppressive effects similar to those of MeHg. However, in contrast to MeHg, thimerosal treatment leads in genetically susceptible mice to a second phase with strong immunostimulation and autoimmunity, which is T-cell dependent, H-2 linked and may at least partly be due to the inorganic mercury derived from the metabolism of ethyl mercury.

  • 6.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Studies on cytokines in experimental metal-induced systemic autoimmunity2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect on the imnnme system of inorganic mercury (Hg), organic mercury (methyl mercury-MeHg), and silver was examined in mouse strains genetically susceptible or resistant to metal-induced systemic autoimmunity (MIA). The major aim was to study the cytokine mRNA expression in the immune system of metal-treated mice, and relate these findings to the different parameters of MIA.

    Cytokine mRNA expression in lymphoid tissues was assessed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and phosphorimaging. The baseline expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA was higher in a strain (A.SW) susceptible to induction of MIA, compared with a resistant strain (A.TL). In A.SW mice Hg treatment caused early upregulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression, followed by substantial expression of IL-4 mRNA, and induction of antifibrillarin antibodies (AFA), lymphoproliferation and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. Hg treatment caused in MIA-resistant A.TL mice unchanged expression of IFN-γ mRNA, but reduced IL-2 expression. A major difference between A.SW and A.TL mice was the greatly increased IL-10 mRNA expression in the latter strain. Silver treatment of A.SW mice, which leads to a modified MIA with AFA, minimal lymphoproliferation, but no IC deposits, caused an early increase of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, but only a slight increase of IL-4 mRNA.

    The observation of a preferential expression of IL-10 mRNA in Hg-treated genetically MIA-resistant mice was further examined by using a strain with a targeted mutation for the IL-10 gene, as well as treatruent of genetically susceptible mice with recombinaot IL-10 (rIL-10). The IL-10 deficient strain did not develop AFA during Hg treatment, but showed a significant increase in antinuclear antibodies with a homogeneous pattern and a higher serum lgE concentration compared with Hg-treated resistant mice lacking the IL-10 mutation. The susceptible A.SW strain showed during intense treabnent with riL-10 and Hg a reduced induction of AFA, antichromalin antibodies (ACA), and serum IgE, as compared with A.SW mice only receiving Hg.

    The paradigm of T helper cells type 1 (Th1) aod 2 (Th2) is often discussed in the pathogenesis of autoimmnne diseases. MIA has many characteristics of a Th2 type of reaction, but the disease induction is critically depeodent on the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. In order to study the relevance of the Th1/Th2 concept for MIA, and to see if the disease could be aggravated by a strong deviation towards Th1, rIL-12 was given in combination with anti-IL-4 monoclonal aotibody (Mab) during treatmeut with Hg to the susceptible A.SW strain. The combined treatment reduced the Th2-dependent serum Ig isotypes, but increased the Th1-dependent IgG2a isotype. The IgG-AFA developed earlier and attained a higher titre. The renal IC deposits were severely reduced after combined treatment during the induction phase. Treatment with rIL-12 + Hg increased the Th1-dependent AFA of the IgG2a isotype, the polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA), and the IC deposits in renal and splenic vessel wall. Using only anti-IL-4 Mab during induction of MIA, the Th2-dependent serum IgG isotypes were reduced, while the development of AFA was not affected. The renal vessel wall IC deposits were reduced while the splenic vessel wall deposits were unaffected.

    A previous study showed that the organic mercury compound MeHg causes a different MIA pattern than Hg. In order to examine the relation between cytokine expression and different MIA parameters, susceptible A.SW mice were treated with MeHg, which caused an initial immunosuppression especially with regard to B-cells. The immunosuppression was superseded by a modest induction of AFA and IL-4 mRNA, but a lack of increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, PBA, and systemic IC deposits. While increasing the dose ofMeHg accelerated and increased AFA development, the immuno-stimulation or IC deposits could not be aggravated. Speciation of mercury showed that the organ content of MeHg and Hg gradually increased.

    Delarbeten
    1. Murine metal-induced systemic autoimmunity: baseline and stimulated cytokine mRNA expression in genetically susceptible and resistant strains
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Murine metal-induced systemic autoimmunity: baseline and stimulated cytokine mRNA expression in genetically susceptible and resistant strains
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 126, nr 1, s. 157-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines play an important and complex role in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. In susceptible H-2s mice, inorganic mercury (Hg) induces lymphoproliferation, antinucleolar antibodies against the 34-kDa-protein fibrillarin, and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. Here, we report extensive analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in susceptible A.SW (H-2s) and resistant A.TL (H-2tl) mice under unstimulated conditions and during oral treatment with Hg and/or silver nitrate (Ag). Cytokine mRNA expression in lymphoid tissues was assessed using the ribonuclease protection assay and phosphorimaging. Baseline expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA was higher in A.SW than in A.TL mice. In A.SW mice, Hg treatment caused early up-regulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ levels, followed by substantial expression of IL-4 mRNA, which was significant compared to control A.SW and Hg-treated A.TL mice. Hg-exposed A.TL mice exhibited unchanged IFN-γ, reduced IL-2 and greatly increased IL-10 mRNA expression. Ag-treated A.SW mice, which develop antifibrillarin antibodies (AFA) but exhibit minimal immune activation and no IC deposits, showed an early increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, but only a small and delayed rise in IL-4 mRNA. In conclusion, H-2-linked resistance to Hg-induced AFA is characterized by low constitutive expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, which is not increased by Hg, and a marked increase in IL-10 expression. Conversely, the key features of H-2-linked susceptibility to Hg- and Ag-induced AFA are up-regulation of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA expression, and down-regulation of IL-10 expression.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25960 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01636.x (DOI)10408 (Lokalt ID)10408 (Arkivnummer)10408 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-08 Skapad: 2009-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. IL-10 is not a major determinant for resistance to murine mercury-induced systemic autoimmunity
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>IL-10 is not a major determinant for resistance to murine mercury-induced systemic autoimmunity
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic autoimmune diseases have a complicated and largely unknown etiology and pathogenesis, but they are at least partly obeying the rules of an ordinary immune response. Cytokines are therefore important in the pathogenesis as demonstrated by the recent success in treating rheumatoid arthritis with anti-cytokine agents. The suppressive fimctions in the immune system have lately received much interest. One of the cytokines in focus in this respect is IL-10. We recently observed that in heavy-metal induced systemic autoimmunity, genetically resistant mice show a strong increase in IL-10 mRNA expression, which was not seen in susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the possible regulating effect of IL-10 on induction and manifestation of systemic autoimmunity in this model. We took two approaches: a targeted mutation for the IL-10 gene in a strain resistant to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity, and treatment with recombinant IL-10 in the genetically susceptible A. SW strain during the induction of autoimmunity by metals.

    The wild-type C57BL/6J (B6-WT) strain did not react with lymphoproliferation, polyclonal B-cell activation, increases in antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) or tissue immune-complex (IC) deposits in response to inorganic mercury (Hg) or silver (Ag). However, in agreement with previous obsetvations there was a modest increase in serum IgG1, IgE and IgG2a. Treatment with Ag caused only a weak increase in IgE and IgG1. The B6.129P2-µ10tm1Cgn /J strain (IL-10 deficient B6 mice) did not develop antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) during Hg treatment, but compared with Hg-treated B6-WT mice there was a significant increase in homogeneous ANA and a higher serum IgE concentration. The IL-10 deficient B6 controls showed a spontaneous increase in splenic weight as well as serum IgM and IgG1 compared with the B6-WT control mice. These signs of immune activation were also present in the IL-10 deficient B6 mice treated with Hg, while treatment with Ag reduced these features making the response similar to that in the B6-WT controls.

    The susceptible A.SW mice treated with rIL-10 and Hg showed during ongoing intense rIL-10 treatment reduced induction of ANoA, reduction in antichromatin antibodies (ACA), and a reduced increase in serum IgE compared with mice which received Hg but not rIL-10. In conclusion, the reduced ANoA induction during riL-10 treatment indicates suppressive effect of IL-10 on autoimmune development. Lack of IL-10 may promote development of ANA, ACA, and serum IgE, but is not likely to be crucial for resistance to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84778 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-10-22 Skapad: 2012-10-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-10-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 134, nr 2, s. 202-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In many Th1-dependent autoimmune models, treatment with recombinant interleukin-12 (rIL-12) accelerates the autoimmune response. Mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA) in mice is an H-2 regulated condition with antinucleolar antibodies targeting fibrillarin (ANoA), systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits and transient polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA). HgIA has many characteristics of a Th2 type of reaction, including a strong increase of IgE, but disease induction is critically dependent on the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. The aim of this study was to investigate if a strong deviation of the immune response in HgIA towards Th1 would aggravate HgIA. Injections of both rIL-12 and anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (α-IL-4) reduced the HgCl2-(Hg-)induced concentration of the Th2-dependent serum IgE and IgG1, but increased the Th1-dependent serum IgG2a. The IgG-ANoA developed earlier and attained a higher titre after combined treatment, and the ANoA titre of the IgG1 isotype decreased while the ANoA titre of the Th1-associated IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3-ANoA isotypes increased. Treatment with rIL-12 alone increased the Hg-induced IgG2a and IgG3 ANoA titres, the PBA, and the IC deposits in renal and splenic vessel walls, while treatment with α-IL-4 + Hg inhibited renal but not splenic vessel wall IC deposits. We conclude that manipulating the cytokine status, by altering the Th1/Th2 balance, will influence autoimmune disease manifestations. This might be an important way of modulating human autoimmune diseases.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26489 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02303.x (DOI)11045 (Lokalt ID)11045 (Arkivnummer)11045 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-08 Skapad: 2009-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. The immunosuppressive effect of methylmercury does not preclude development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible mice
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The immunosuppressive effect of methylmercury does not preclude development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible mice
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 208, nr 1, s. 149-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a common environmental pollutant due to both natural and anthropogenic sources. Although the central nervous system (CNS) is considered the critical organ for the toxic effect of MeHg, it has recently been suggested that the immune system might be at least as sensitive as the CNS.

    We have examined the effects of MeHg on the immune system in genetically metal-susceptible mice. Subcutaneous (sc) injections of 2 mg MeHg/kg body weight (bw) every third day (internal dose ca. 540 μg Hg/kg bw/day) to A.SW mice of the H-2s haplotype, caused during the first week a 47 and 9% reduction of B- and T-cells, respectively, which indicates immunosuppression. Subsequently, an autoimmune syndrome developed which shared certain features with the syndrome induced by inorganic mercury in H-2s mice, including antibodies targeting the 34 kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin, increased expression of IL-4 mRNA, increase of Th2-type of immunoglobulins (IgE and IgG1), and increased MHC class II expression on B-cells. However, the response using MeHg was attenuated compared with even lower doses of Hg in the form of inorganic mercury, and specifically lacked the increased expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, the polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA), and the systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits which are induced by inorganic mercury. Increasing the dose of MeHg increased the titre of anti-nucleolar antibodies and shortened the induction time, but did not lead to stronger immunostimulation or systemic IC-deposits. The kidney and liver selectively accumulated MeHg, while the blood, spleen and lymph nodes showed lower levels of MeHg. The accumulation of MeHg and Hg2+ increased throughout the 30-day period. The fraction of Hg2+ in the kidney varied between 4 and 22%, and the lymph nodes showed a maximum of 30% Hg2+.

    We conclude first that MeHg has quantitatively different effect on the immune system compared with inorganic mercury, and secondly that an initial immunosuppression induced by a xenobiotic does not preclude subsequent immunostimulation and autoimmunity.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30139 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2004.11.020 (DOI)15619 (Lokalt ID)15619 (Arkivnummer)15619 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-09 Skapad: 2009-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 7.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Björn, Erik
    Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    The immunosuppressive effect of methylmercury does not preclude development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible mice2005Ingår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 208, nr 1, s. 149-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a common environmental pollutant due to both natural and anthropogenic sources. Although the central nervous system (CNS) is considered the critical organ for the toxic effect of MeHg, it has recently been suggested that the immune system might be at least as sensitive as the CNS.

    We have examined the effects of MeHg on the immune system in genetically metal-susceptible mice. Subcutaneous (sc) injections of 2 mg MeHg/kg body weight (bw) every third day (internal dose ca. 540 μg Hg/kg bw/day) to A.SW mice of the H-2s haplotype, caused during the first week a 47 and 9% reduction of B- and T-cells, respectively, which indicates immunosuppression. Subsequently, an autoimmune syndrome developed which shared certain features with the syndrome induced by inorganic mercury in H-2s mice, including antibodies targeting the 34 kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin, increased expression of IL-4 mRNA, increase of Th2-type of immunoglobulins (IgE and IgG1), and increased MHC class II expression on B-cells. However, the response using MeHg was attenuated compared with even lower doses of Hg in the form of inorganic mercury, and specifically lacked the increased expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, the polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA), and the systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits which are induced by inorganic mercury. Increasing the dose of MeHg increased the titre of anti-nucleolar antibodies and shortened the induction time, but did not lead to stronger immunostimulation or systemic IC-deposits. The kidney and liver selectively accumulated MeHg, while the blood, spleen and lymph nodes showed lower levels of MeHg. The accumulation of MeHg and Hg2+ increased throughout the 30-day period. The fraction of Hg2+ in the kidney varied between 4 and 22%, and the lymph nodes showed a maximum of 30% Hg2+.

    We conclude first that MeHg has quantitatively different effect on the immune system compared with inorganic mercury, and secondly that an initial immunosuppression induced by a xenobiotic does not preclude subsequent immunostimulation and autoimmunity.

  • 8.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response2003Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 134, nr 2, s. 202-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In many Th1-dependent autoimmune models, treatment with recombinant interleukin-12 (rIL-12) accelerates the autoimmune response. Mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA) in mice is an H-2 regulated condition with antinucleolar antibodies targeting fibrillarin (ANoA), systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits and transient polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA). HgIA has many characteristics of a Th2 type of reaction, including a strong increase of IgE, but disease induction is critically dependent on the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. The aim of this study was to investigate if a strong deviation of the immune response in HgIA towards Th1 would aggravate HgIA. Injections of both rIL-12 and anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (α-IL-4) reduced the HgCl2-(Hg-)induced concentration of the Th2-dependent serum IgE and IgG1, but increased the Th1-dependent serum IgG2a. The IgG-ANoA developed earlier and attained a higher titre after combined treatment, and the ANoA titre of the IgG1 isotype decreased while the ANoA titre of the Th1-associated IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3-ANoA isotypes increased. Treatment with rIL-12 alone increased the Hg-induced IgG2a and IgG3 ANoA titres, the PBA, and the IC deposits in renal and splenic vessel walls, while treatment with α-IL-4 + Hg inhibited renal but not splenic vessel wall IC deposits. We conclude that manipulating the cytokine status, by altering the Th1/Th2 balance, will influence autoimmune disease manifestations. This might be an important way of modulating human autoimmune diseases.

  • 9.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    IL-10 is not a major determinant for resistance to murine mercury-induced systemic autoimmunityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic autoimmune diseases have a complicated and largely unknown etiology and pathogenesis, but they are at least partly obeying the rules of an ordinary immune response. Cytokines are therefore important in the pathogenesis as demonstrated by the recent success in treating rheumatoid arthritis with anti-cytokine agents. The suppressive fimctions in the immune system have lately received much interest. One of the cytokines in focus in this respect is IL-10. We recently observed that in heavy-metal induced systemic autoimmunity, genetically resistant mice show a strong increase in IL-10 mRNA expression, which was not seen in susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the possible regulating effect of IL-10 on induction and manifestation of systemic autoimmunity in this model. We took two approaches: a targeted mutation for the IL-10 gene in a strain resistant to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity, and treatment with recombinant IL-10 in the genetically susceptible A. SW strain during the induction of autoimmunity by metals.

    The wild-type C57BL/6J (B6-WT) strain did not react with lymphoproliferation, polyclonal B-cell activation, increases in antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) or tissue immune-complex (IC) deposits in response to inorganic mercury (Hg) or silver (Ag). However, in agreement with previous obsetvations there was a modest increase in serum IgG1, IgE and IgG2a. Treatment with Ag caused only a weak increase in IgE and IgG1. The B6.129P2-µ10tm1Cgn /J strain (IL-10 deficient B6 mice) did not develop antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) during Hg treatment, but compared with Hg-treated B6-WT mice there was a significant increase in homogeneous ANA and a higher serum IgE concentration. The IL-10 deficient B6 controls showed a spontaneous increase in splenic weight as well as serum IgM and IgG1 compared with the B6-WT control mice. These signs of immune activation were also present in the IL-10 deficient B6 mice treated with Hg, while treatment with Ag reduced these features making the response similar to that in the B6-WT controls.

    The susceptible A.SW mice treated with rIL-10 and Hg showed during ongoing intense rIL-10 treatment reduced induction of ANoA, reduction in antichromatin antibodies (ACA), and a reduced increase in serum IgE compared with mice which received Hg but not rIL-10. In conclusion, the reduced ANoA induction during riL-10 treatment indicates suppressive effect of IL-10 on autoimmune development. Lack of IL-10 may promote development of ANA, ACA, and serum IgE, but is not likely to be crucial for resistance to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity.

  • 10.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Interleukin-10 in murine metal-induced systemic autoimmunity2005Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 422-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic autoimmune diseases have a complicated and largely unknown aetiology and pathogenesis, but they are at least partly obeying the rules of an ordinary immune response. Cytokines are therefore important in the pathogenesis as demonstrated by the recent success in treating rheumatoid arthritis with anti-cytokine agents. The suppressive functions in the immune system have lately received much interest. One of the cytokines in focus in this respect is interleukin (IL)-10. We recently observed that in heavy-metal induced systemic autoimmunity, genetically resistant mice show a strong increase in IL-10 mRNA expression, which was not seen in susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the possible regulating effect of IL-10 on the induction and manifestation of systemic autoimmunity in this model. We took two approaches: a targeted mutation of the IL-10 gene in a strain resistant to heavy metal-induced autoimmunity, and treatment with recombinant IL-10 in the genetically susceptible A.SW strain during the induction of autoimmunity by metals. The wild-type C57BL/6 J (B6-WT) strain did not react with lymphoproliferation, polyclonal B cell activation, anti-nucleoar autoantibodies (ANoA) or tissue immune-complex (IC) deposits in response to inorganic mercury (Hg) or silver (Ag). However, serum IgG1 and IgE showed a modest increase during Hg treatment, while Ag caused a weak increase in IgE and IgG2a. The B6-129P2-Il10tm1Cgn/J strain (IL-10-deficient mice) did not develop antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) during Hg treatment, but showed a higher median titre of homogeneous ANA compared with Hg-treated B6-WT mice. Both control and Hg-treated (but not Ag-treated) IL-10-deficient mice showed an increase in splenic weight and serum IgG1 compared with B6-WT control and Hg-treated mice. An early, significant increase in serum IgE was seen in Hg-treated IL-10-deficient and WT mice compared with the controls, the increase was 42- and sixfold, respectively. During ongoing intense treatment with rIL-10 in combination with Hg the susceptible A.SW mice showed a reduced development of ANoA and antichromatin antibodies, as well as serum IgE, compared with mice receiving Hg but not rIL-10. In conclusion, IL-10 suppresses several aspects of HgIA, but is not crucial for resistance to heavy metal-induced autoimmunity. Peroral silver treatment suppresses the spontaneous immune activation seen in IL-10-deficient mice. © 2005 British Society for Immunology.

  • 11.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Interleukin-10 in murine mercury-induced systemic autoimmunity2005Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 422-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic autoimmune diseases have a complicated and largely unknown etiology and pathogenesis, but they are at least partly obeying the rules of an ordinary immune response. Cytokines are therefore important in the pathogenesis as demonstrated by the recent success in treating rheumatoid arthritis with anti-cytokine agents. The suppressive fimctions in the immune system have lately received much interest. One of the cytokines in focus in this respect is IL-10. We recently observed that in heavy-metal induced systemic autoimmunity, genetically resistant mice show a strong increase in IL-10 mRNA expression, which was not seen in susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the possible regulating effect of IL-10 on induction and manifestation of systemic autoimmunity in this model. We took two approaches: a targeted mutation for the IL-10 gene in a strain resistant to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity, and treatment with recombinant IL-10 in the genetically susceptible A. SW strain during the induction of autoimmunity by metals.

    The wild-type C57BL/6J (B6-WT) strain did not react with lymphoproliferation, polyclonal B-cell activation, increases in antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) or tissue immune-complex (IC) deposits in response to inorganic mercury (Hg) or silver (Ag). However, in agreement with previous obsetvations there was a modest increase in serum IgG1, IgE and IgG2a. Treatment with Ag caused only a weak increase in IgE and IgG1. The B6.129P2-µ10tm1Cgn /J strain (IL-10 deficient B6 mice) did not develop antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) during Hg treatment, but compared with Hg-treated B6-WT mice there was a significant increase in homogeneous ANA and a higher serum IgE concentration. The IL-10 deficient B6 controls showed a spontaneous increase in splenic weight as well as serum IgM and IgG1 compared with the B6-WT control mice. These signs of immune activation were also present in the IL-10 deficient B6 mice treated with Hg, while treatment with Ag reduced these features making the response similar to that in the B6-WT controls.

    The susceptible A.SW mice treated with rIL-10 and Hg showed during ongoing intense rIL-10 treatment reduced induction of ANoA, reduction in antichromatin antibodies (ACA), and a reduced increase in serum IgE compared with mice which received Hg but not rIL-10. In conclusion, the reduced ANoA induction during riL-10 treatment indicates suppressive effect of IL-10 on autoimmune development. Lack of IL-10 may promote development of ANA, ACA, and serum IgE, but is not likely to be crucial for resistance to heavy-metal induced autoimmunity.

  • 12.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Murine metal-induced systemic autoimmunity: baseline and stimulated cytokine mRNA expression in genetically susceptible and resistant strains2001Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 126, nr 1, s. 157-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines play an important and complex role in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. In susceptible H-2s mice, inorganic mercury (Hg) induces lymphoproliferation, antinucleolar antibodies against the 34-kDa-protein fibrillarin, and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. Here, we report extensive analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in susceptible A.SW (H-2s) and resistant A.TL (H-2tl) mice under unstimulated conditions and during oral treatment with Hg and/or silver nitrate (Ag). Cytokine mRNA expression in lymphoid tissues was assessed using the ribonuclease protection assay and phosphorimaging. Baseline expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA was higher in A.SW than in A.TL mice. In A.SW mice, Hg treatment caused early up-regulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ levels, followed by substantial expression of IL-4 mRNA, which was significant compared to control A.SW and Hg-treated A.TL mice. Hg-exposed A.TL mice exhibited unchanged IFN-γ, reduced IL-2 and greatly increased IL-10 mRNA expression. Ag-treated A.SW mice, which develop antifibrillarin antibodies (AFA) but exhibit minimal immune activation and no IC deposits, showed an early increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, but only a small and delayed rise in IL-4 mRNA. In conclusion, H-2-linked resistance to Hg-induced AFA is characterized by low constitutive expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, which is not increased by Hg, and a marked increase in IL-10 expression. Conversely, the key features of H-2-linked susceptibility to Hg- and Ag-induced AFA are up-regulation of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA expression, and down-regulation of IL-10 expression.

  • 13.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi.
    Näslund, J
    Sletten, K
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi.
    Mucchiano, G
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi.
    Tjernberg, LO
    Nordstedt, C
    Engström, U
    Westermark, P
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Medin: an integral fragment of aortic smooth muscle cell-produced lactadherin forms the most common form of human amyloid. 1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 96, s. 8669-8674Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Klingstedt, Therése
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Blechschmidt, Cristiane
    Charite, Germany .
    Nogalska, Anna
    University of So Calif, CA USA .
    Prokop, Stefan
    Charite, Germany .
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    King Engel, W
    University of So Calif, CA USA .
    Askanas, Valerie
    University of So Calif, CA USA .
    Heppner, Frank L.
    Charite, Germany .
    Nilsson, K Peter R
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes for Sensitive Fluorescent Assignment of Protein Inclusion Bodies2013Ingår i: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 607-616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small hydrophobic ligands identifying intracellular protein deposits are of great interest, as protein inclusion bodies are the pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. Here we report that fluorescent amyloid ligands, termed luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), rapidly and with high sensitivity detect protein inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle tissue from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). LCOs having a conjugated backbone of at least five thiophene units emitted strong fluorescence upon binding, and showed co-localization with proteins reported to accumulate in s-IBM protein inclusion bodies. Compared with conventional amyloid ligands, LCOs identified a larger fraction of immunopositive inclusion bodies. When the conjugated thiophene backbone was extended with terminal carboxyl groups, the LCO revealed striking spectral differences between distinct protein inclusion bodies. We conclude that 1) LCOs are sensitive, rapid and powerful tools for identifying protein inclusion bodies and 2) LCOs identify a wider range of protein inclusion bodies than conventional amyloid ligands.

  • 15.
    Mucchiano, Gerd
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sletten, Knut
    Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Center of Oslo, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Westermark, Per
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Apolipoprotein A-1-derived amyloid in atherosclerotic plaques of the human aorta2001Ingår i: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 193, nr 2, s. 270-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that the amyloid localized to the aortic intima may be a biochemical entity different from other forms of localized amyloid. The amyloid fibril protein in one patient studied consisted of an N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1). Since this patient was later shown to carry a missense mutation in the apo A-1 gene, leading to a deletion at position 107 of the mature protein, the question remained whether wild-type apo A-1 is amyloidogenic. In autopsy specimens from the thoracic aorta from 69 individuals, intimal atherosclerotic plaque-related amyloid was present in 11 cases (16%) and amyloid outside plaques in 37 cases (54%). The immunoreactivity of amyloid localized to the aortic intima was evaluated with the aid of antisera against N-terminal segments of apo A-1. The amyloid in association with atherosclerotic plaques was positively labelled by immunohistochemistry. The amyloid fibril protein from one patient, previously shown not to carry any mutation in the apo A-1 gene, was purified and shown by amino acid sequence analysis to be of apo A-1 nature. The result shows that wild-type apo A-1 is amyloidogenic and gives rise to a common localized form of amyloid associated with atherosclerosis.

  • 16.
    Mucchiano, Gerd I.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Department of Medicine, Högland Hospital, Eksjö.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Einarsson, Eibert
    Department of Surgery, Högland Hospital, Eksjö.
    Westermark, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Apolipoprotein A-I–Derived Amyloid in Atherosclerosis: Its Association With Plasma Levels of Apolipoprotein A-I and Cholesterol2001Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Pathology, ISSN 0002-9173, E-ISSN 1943-7722, Vol. 115, s. 298-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild-type apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I)–derived amyloid commonly occurs in atherosclerotic plaques. To clarify apo A-I amyloid formation, plasma levels of apo A-I and cholesterol were related to the presence of amyloid in atherosclerotic plaques in 15 patients with peripheral atherosclerosis, subjected to arterial reconstruction. Plasma levels of apo A-I and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were slightly higher in patients with apo A-I–derived amyloid than in those without, but the difference was not significant. Levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the group with amyloid. High concentrations of apo A-I in the arterial intima are probably of greater importance to amyloid formation than high plasma levels of the protein. During atherosclerosis, the acute phase reactant serum amyloid A may displace apo A-I from HDL, leading to increased concentration of lipid-free apo A-I in the intima and conformational changes of apo A-I, which make it more fibrillogenic. Some forms of amyloid fibrils have been shown to be cytotoxic. Apo AI–derived amyloid is possibly a pathogenically important factor in atherosclerosis.

  • 17.
    Peng, S.
    et al.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Cellbiologi.
    Naslund, J.
    Näslund, J., Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy, and Elderly Care Research (NEUROTEC), Section for Geriatrics, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi.
    Glennert, J.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westermark, P.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A computer-based training system for breast fine needle aspiration cytology2002Ingår i: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 196, nr 1, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a rapid and inexpensive technique used extensively in the diagnosis of breast disease. To remove diagnostic subjectivity, a diagnostic decision support system (DDSS) called CytoInform© has been developed, based on a Bayesian belief network (BBN) for the diagnosis of breast FNAs. In addition to acting as a DDSS, the system implements a computer-based training (CBT) system, providing a novel approach to breast cytology training. The system guides the trainee cytopathologist through the diagnostic process, allowing the user to grade each diagnostic feature using a set of on-screen reference images as visual clues. The trainee positions a slider on a spectrum relative to these images, reflecting the similarity between the reference image and the microscope image. From this, an evidence vector is generated, allowing the current diagnostic probability to be updated by the BBN. As the trainee assesses each clue, the evidence entered is compared with that of the expert through the use of a defined teaching file. This file records the relative severity of each clue and a tolerance band within which the trainee must position the slider. When all clues in the teaching case have been completed, the system informs the user of inaccuracies and offers the ability to reassess problematic features. In trials with two pathologists of different experience and a series of ten cases, the system provided an effective tool in conveying diagnostic evidence and protocols to trainees. This is evident from the fact that each pathologist only misinterpreted one case and a total of 86%/88% (experienced/inexperienced) of all clues assessed were interpreted correctly. Significantly, in all cases that produced the correct final diagnostic probability, the route taken to that solution was consistent with the expert's solution. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 18. Peng, Siwei
    et al.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi.
    Näslund, Jan
    Häggqvist, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Glennert, Johanna
    Westermark, Per
    Medin and medin-amyloid in ageing inflamed and non-inflamed temporal arteries2002Ingår i: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 196, s. 91-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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