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  • 1. Borch, Thomas
    et al.
    Ambus, Per
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Svensmark, Bo
    Gron, Christian
    Biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in a water unsaturated topsoil2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 51, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Collins, Chris
    et al.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Nepovim, Ales
    Remediation of BTEX and trichloroethylene - a review of current knowledge with special emphasis on phytoremediation2002In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 9, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Gron, Christian
    et al.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Borch, Thomas
    Haselmann, Kim F
    Kloroform i vand fra skove2005In: FSL Skovbrugsserien, ISSN 0907-0346, Vol. 34, p. 77-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Haselmann, Kim F
    et al.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Gron, Christian
    Formation of chloroform in soil - a year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site2002In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 139, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Greenhouse studies to investigate possible threats by organic waste product disposal on agricultural fields2003In: Phytoremediation Inventory COST Action 837 View, Czech Republic: UOCHB AVCR , 2003, p. 18-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Hvor naturlig er kloroform?2003In: Vatten : tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 4, p. 84-88Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [no]

    publicerat i den danska tidskrift Vand & Jord. Inte i Vatten!!!

  • 7.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Natural sources of volatile organohalogens - impact on the biosphere2003Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    On the importance of marine macroalgae as a source for volatile organohalogens on a global scale - An extrapolation from screening studies of macroalgae from Kongsfjorden, Arctic2004In: Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung, ISSN 1618-3193, no 492, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fahimi, Isabelle
    Gryndler, Milan
    Hartmann, Anton
    Heal, Mathew R
    Matucha, Miroslav
    Schöler, Heinz Friedrich
    Schroll, Reiner
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorine compounds in forest soil - Challenges to Understanding2005In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 12, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic acids in the environment. Moreover, both groups are produced in higher amounts by natural chlorination of organic matter, e.g. by soil microorganisms, marine macroalgae and salt lake bacteria, and show similar metabolism pathways. Elucidating the origin and fate of these organohalogens is necessary to implement actions to counteract environmental problems caused by these compounds Main Features. While the anthropogenic sources of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines are relatively well-known and within human control, knowledge of relevant natural processes is scarce and fragmented. This article reviews current knowledge on natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soils, with particular emphasis on processes in the rhizosphere, and discusses future studies necessary to understand the role of forest soils in the formation and degradation of these compounds Results and Discussion. Reviewing the present knowledge of the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil has revealed gaps in knowledge regarding the actual mechanisms behind these processes. In particular, there remains insufficient quantification of reliable budgets and rates of formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil (both biotic and abiotic processes) to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems regarding the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale Conclusion. It is concluded that the overall role of forest soil as a source and/or sink for chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines is still unclear; the available laboratory and field data reveal only bits of the puzzle. Detailed knowledge of the natural degradation and formation processes in forest soil is important to evaluate the strength of forest ecosystems for the emission and uptake of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines, both on a regional scale and on a global scale Recommendation and Perspective. As the natural formation and degradation processes of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil can be influenced by human activities, evaluation of the extent of this influence will help to identify what future actions are needed to reduce human influences and thus prevent further damage to the environment and to human health caused by these compounds

  • 10.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Gron, Christian
    DHI Water Environm Hlth, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
    Organic waste products in agriculture - Monitoring the waste constituents phthalate esters in soil-crop system by gas chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry2007In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1648-6897, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is described for monitoring phthalate esters in organic waste products, agricultural soil and crops. Solvent extraction, Ultra Turrax homogenisation and sonification were used to isolate the compounds from the sample matrices. Solid phase extraction was applied for purification, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for identification. With the method, six phthalate esters were determined in different matrices. The detection limits were in the range of 1 to 10 mu g kg(-1) wet weight, except for DEHP, which had a detection limit approaching 100 mu g kg(-1) wet weight. Repeatabilities were from 5 to 20% relative standard deviation. Recoveries were from 6 to 100%, depending on the compound analysed. However, except for the polar phthalates DMP and DEP, the recoveries were above 70%. The method feasibility was demonstrated in an investigation of the occurrence of phthalate esters in barley, rape, carrots, agricultural soil, aerobic and anaerobic sludge, household compost and pig manure.

  • 11.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Haselmann, KF
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Themat Studies, Environm Sci Programme, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Univ So Denmark, Dept Chem, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark Montana State Univ, Ctr Biofilm Engn, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA Eurofins AS, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
    Borch, T
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Themat Studies, Environm Sci Programme, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Univ So Denmark, Dept Chem, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark Montana State Univ, Ctr Biofilm Engn, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA Eurofins AS, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
    Gron, C
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Themat Studies, Environm Sci Programme, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Univ So Denmark, Dept Chem, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark Montana State Univ, Ctr Biofilm Engn, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA Eurofins AS, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.
    Terrestrial natural sources of trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3) - An overview2002In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 121-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of volatile chlorinated compounds like chloroform, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene in industrialized societies causes a large annual release of these compounds into the environment. Due to their role as a source for halogen radicals involved in various catalytic atmospheric reaction cycles, including the regulation of the stratospheric and tropospheric ozone layers, these compounds also constitute a risk for drinking water resources as they can be transported to the groundwater from contaminated field sites or even from atmospheric deposition. Therefore, identification and investigation of sources and sinks of volatile chlorinated compounds are of particular interest. Chloroform, a major contributor to natural gaseous chlorine, was found to be emitted by several anthropogenic and natural sources including the oceans and terrestrial areas. The origin of chloroform in the terrestrial environment can be anthropogenic point sources, atmospheric deposition, release by vegetation and production directly in the soil. The calculated annual biogenic global chloroform emission is 700 Gg, and marine and terrestrial environments are nearly equal contributors. The estimated emissions from anthropogenic sources account for less than 10% of the estimated total emissions from all sources. Among terrestrial sources, forests have recently been identified as contributing to the release of chloroform into the environment. With the data available, annual emissions of chloroform to the atmosphere from forest sites were calculated and compared to other natural sources. At present knowledge, forests are only a minor source in the total biogenic flux of chloroform, contributing less than 1% to the annual global atmospheric input. However, it should be noted that data are available for Northern temperate forests only. The large tropical forest areas may provide a yet unknown input of chloroform.

  • 12.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Matucha, M.
    Isotope Laboratory, Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?2008In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of 36Cl-chloride. The uptake of 36Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of 36Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 µg 36Cl-chloride g-1 fresh weight (FW) h-1 and 3.0 µg 36Cl-chloride g-1 FW h-1, respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants 36Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Mehrtens, Gaby
    Marine macroalgae from Kongsfjorden, Arctic - Comparison of halogenating activity and release of volatile organobromine compounds2004In: Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung, ISSN 1618-3193, Vol. 492, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiencke, Christian
    AWI, Bremerhafen, Germany.
    Finding the scattered pieces of the mechanisms behind the formation of volatile halogen-containing C1- and C2-compounds in Antarctic macroalgae2008In: Reports on polar and marine research. 571, Alfred-Wegener Institut fur Polar- und Meeresforschung , 2008, p. 200-207Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Wiencke, Christian
    Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: Results from a laboratory incubation study2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 24, p. 6605-6609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogencontaining compounds.

  • 16.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication .
    von Arnold, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Gron, C.
    Grøn, C., DHI Water and Environment, Agent Allé 5, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark.
    Organic contaminants from sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils false alarm regarding possible problems for food safety?2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 1 SPEC. ISS., p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. Sewage sludge produced in waste-water treatment contains large amounts of organic matter and nutrients and could, therefore, be suitable as fertiliser. However, with the sludge, besides heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria, a variety of organic contaminants can be added to agricultural fields. Whether the organic contaminants from the sludge can have adverse effects on human health and wildlife if these compounds enter the food chain or groundwater still remains a point of controversial discussion. Main Features. This paper presents an overview on the present situation in Europe and a summary of some recent results on the possible uptake of organic contaminants by crops after addition to agricultural fields by sewage sludge. Results. Greenhouse experiments and field trials were performed to study the degradation and uptake of organic micro-contaminants in sludge-amended agricultural soil in crops, such as barley and carrots grown in agricultural soil amended with anaerobically-treated sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, but studies hitherto have revealed no immediate risks. Common sludge contaminants such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), bis(diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), showed neither accumulation in soil nor uptake in plants. Discussion. It is assumed that the annual amount of sewage sludge produced in Europe will increase in the future, mainly due to larger amounts of high quality drinking water needed by an increasing population and due to increasing demands for cleaner sewage water. Application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils is sustainable and economical due to nutrient cycling and disposal of sewage sludge. However, this solution also involves risks with tespect to the occurrence of organic contaminants and other potentially harmful contents such as pathogens and heavy metals present in the sludge. There have been concerns that organic contaminants may accumulate in the soil, be taken up by plants and thereby transferred to humans via the food chain. Results obtained so far revealed, however, no immediate risk of accumulation of common organic sludge contaminants in soil or uptake in plants when applying sewage sludge to agricultural soil. With very high dosages of sewage sludge, there may be a risk for accumulation of very apolar contaminants, such as DEHP, to the soil. Conclusions. Any conclusions on the safe use of sewage sludge in agriculture have to be drawn carefully, as the studies performed until now have been limited. Further studies are required, and before final statements can be drawn, it is imminent to study a larger variety of common crops and the effect sewage sludge application may have on a possible accumulation of organic contaminants in the crops. Furthermore, a larger variety of organic contaminants need to be studied and special focus should be given to contaminants newly introduced into the environment. Besides investigating possible plant uptake of organic contaminants, the fate of these compounds in soil after sludge application need to be monitored too. Here, special attention has to be given to studies on degradation and the formation of degradation products, to weathering and to leaching effects on groundwater, to the application of different crops on the same field (crop rotation), to the use of full-width tillage and strip tillage, and to long term application of sewage sludge on the soil. Recommendations and Perspectives. There are environmental, political as well as economical incentives to increase the agricultural application of sludge. However, such usage should be performed with care as there are also ways in which sludge fertilisation could harm the environment and human health. Recently, a new European COST Action (859) has been established covering the field of food safety and improved food quality. Part of the Action is dealing with the application of sewage sludge in agriculture. Before any political and economical measures can be taken, the pros and cons have to be sufficiently investigated on a scientific level first. © 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 17. Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Aubert, Sylvie
    Grosse, Wolfgang
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Environmentally related sulphonated aromatic compounds - a review about state-of-the-art knowledge2002In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 9, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Svensson, Teresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden2007In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloroform concentrations were observed and input and output fluxes estimated over a 2-yr period in a small coniferous catchment (0.22 km2) in southeast Sweden. Water discharge was measured daily, and runoff water was sampled bi-weekly for chloroform analysis. An approximate chloroform budget was calculated, which indicated that the annual output of 6 μg m−2 yr−1 was approximately six times higher than the input, inferring an internal source of chloroform in the catchment. To the best of our knowledge, neither flux estimates nor mass balances have previously been made for chloroform on a catchment scale, nor have data regarding natural runoff variation with time been gathered. Concentrations of chloroform in runoff were found to be generally high during wet periods, such as spring, but also peaked during summer rain events. The observed pattern suggests that chloroform is formed in surface soil layers and transported to the outlet under high-flow conditions and during dry-period rain events; it is lost through degradation or evaporation during drier periods due to longer soil water residence times. The data suggest that the variation among replicates increases with concentration; this emphasizes the need to know what the degree of on-site variation is, so one can collect a sufficient number of replicates to permit detection of spatial or temporal changes.

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