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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol and Intens Care, SE-70185 Orebro, Sweden.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Local anaesthetic adjuvants: neuraxial versus peripheral nerve block2009In: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0952-7907, E-ISSN 1473-6500, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 649-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review To present a review of the literature on the importance and the clinical characteristics relevant to adjuvants added to local anaesthetics in neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks. Recent findings In neuraxial anaesthesia, both opioids and alpha-2 receptor agonists have beneficial effects. Intrathecally, fentanyl and sufentanil not only improve the postoperative analgesia but also make it possible to allow a decrease in the local anaesthetic dose. When clonidine or dexmedetomidine was added to intrathecal local anaesthetics, the regression of sensory, motor block increased dose-dependently and postoperative analgesia was prolonged. The potency of intrathecal clonidine:dexmedetomidine seems to be 10:1. In peripheral nerve block, when opioid was combined with local anaesthetics, no increased improvement in analgesia was reported in comparison with systemic controls in most of the studies, except buprenorphine. Also clonidine is controversial as an analgesic adjuvant. Special factors, such as type of local anaesthetics, block of upper or lower limb, are important for its the beneficial effect. Other adjuvants, except neuraxial low-dose neostigmine, are of minor importance. Summary Opioids and alpha-2 receptor agonists are important as neuraxial adjuvants to improve the quality of peroperative and postoperative analgesia in high-risk patients and in ambulatory procedures. In peripheral nerve blocks, however, some benefit is found only when clonidine is added to local anaesthetics under certain circumstances.

  • 2.
    Darvish, B.
    et al.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Alahuhta, S.
    University Oulu.
    Dahl, V.
    Asker and Baerum Hospital.
    Helbo-Hansen, S.
    Odense University Hospital.
    Thorsteinsson, A.
    Landspitali University Hospital.
    Irestedt, L.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Dahlgren, G.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 46-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour in the Nordic countries. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to the anaesthesiologist responsible for Obstetric anaesthesia service in all maternity units (n=153) with questions relating to the year 2008. Results The overall response rate was 93%. About 32% (22-47%) of parturients received epidural analgesia for labour. There were databases for registering obstetric epidural complications in 13% of Danish, 24% of Norwegian and Swedish, 43% of Finnish and 100% of hospitals in Iceland. The estimated incidence of ADP was 1% (n approximate to 900). Epidural blood patch (EBP) was performed in 86% (n approximate to 780) of the parturients. The most common time interval from diagnosis to performing EBP was 24-48 h. The success rate for EBP was greater than 75% in 67% (62-79%) of hospitals. The use of diagnostic CT/MRI before the first or the second EBP was exceptional. No major complication was reported. Teaching of epidurals was commonest (86%) in the non-obstetric population and 53% hospitals desired a formal training programme in obstetric analgesia. Conclusion We found the incidence of ADP to be approximately 1%. EBP was the commonest method used for its management, and the success rate was high in most hospitals. Formal training in epidural analgesia was absent in most countries and trainees first performed it in the non-obstetric population.

  • 3.
    Essving, Per
    et al.
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Aberg, Elisabeth
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Spannar, Henrik
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lundin, Anders
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Local Infiltration Analgesia Versus Intrathecal Morphine for Postoperative Pain Management After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial2011In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 0003-2999, E-ISSN 1526-7598, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 926-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Local infiltration analgesia (LIA)-using a combination of local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and epinephrine, injected periarticularly during surgery-has become popular in postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared intrathecal morphine with LIA after TKA. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: In this double-blind study, 50 patients scheduled to undergo TKA under spinal anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups: group M, 0.1 mg morphine was injected intrathecally together with the spinal anesthetic and in group L, LIA using ropivacaine, ketorolac, and epinephrine was infiltrated in the knee during the operation, and 2 bolus injections of the same mixture were given via an intraarticular catheter postoperatively. Postoperative pain, rescue analgesic requirements, mobilization, and home readiness were recorded. Patient-assessed health quality was recorded using the Oxford Knee Score and EQ-5D during 3 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was IV morphine consumption the first 48 postoperative hours. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: Mean morphine consumption was significantly lower in group L than in group M during the first 48 postoperative hours: 26 +/- 15 vs 54 +/- 29 mg, i.e., a mean difference for each 24-hour period of 14.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6 to 20.9) mg. Pain scores at rest and on movement were lower during the first 48 hours in group L than in group M (P andlt; 0.001). Pain score was also lower when walking in group L than in group M at 24 hours and 48 hours postoperatively (P andlt; 0.001). In group L, more patients were able to climb stairs at 24 hours: 50% (11 of 22) versus 4% (1 of 23), i.e., a difference of 46% (95% CI 23.5 to 68.5) and at 48 hours: 70% (16 of 23) versus 22% (5 of 23), i.e., a difference of 48% (95% CI 23 to 73). Median (range) time to fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter in group L than in group M, 51 (24-166) hours versus 72 (51-170) hours. The difference was 23 (95% CI 18 to 42) hours (P = 0.001). Length of hospital stay was also shorter in group L than in group M: median (range) 3 (2-17) versus 4 (2-14) days (P = 0.029). Patient satisfaction was greater in group L than in group M (P = 0.001), but no differences were found in knee function, side effects, or in patient-related outcomes, Oxford Knee score, or EQ-5D. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: LIA technique provided better postoperative analgesia and earlier mobilization, resulting in shorter hospital stay, than did intrathecal morphine after TKA.

  • 4. Essving, Per
    et al.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Kjellberg, Jill
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Wallgren, Orjan
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundin , Anders
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Reduced hospital stay, morphine consumption, and pain intensity with local infiltration analgesia after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty2009In: ACTA ORTHOPAEDICA, ISSN 1745-3674 , Vol. 80, no 2, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose The degree of postoperative pain is usually moderate to severe following knee arthroplasty. We investigated the efficacy of local administration of analgesics into the operating area, both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Methods 40 patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) were randomized into 2 groups in a double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00653926). In group A (active), 200 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.5 mg epinephrine (total volume 106 mL) were infiltrated intraoperatively into the soft tissue, while in group P (placebo), no injections were given. 21 hours postoperatively, 150 mg ropivacain, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.1 mg epinephrine were injected intraarticularly via a catheter in group A, whereas patients in group P were injected with the same volume of saline (22 mL). Results Median hospital stay was shorter in group A than in group P: 1 (1-6) days as opposed to 3 (1-6) days (p 0.001). Postoperative pain in group A was statistically significantly lower at rest after 6 h and 27 h and on movement after 6, 12, 22, and 27 h. Morphine consumption was statistically significantly lower in group A for the first 48 h, resulting in a lower frequency of nausea, pruritus, and sedation. Postoperatively, there were improved functional scores (Oxford knee score and EQ-5D) in both groups relative to the corresponding preoperative values. Interpretation Local injection of analgesics periarticularly at the end of the operation and intraarticularly at 21 h postoperatively provided excellent pain relief and earlier home discharge following UKA. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction in both groups after 6 months.

  • 5.
    Essving, Per
    et al.
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Kjellberg, Jill
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Wallgren, Orjan
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lundin, Anders
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Reduced morphine consumption and pain intensity with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) following total knee arthroplasty A randomized double-blind study involving 48 patients2010In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 354-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Postoperative pain is often severe after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We investigated the efficacy of the local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique, both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Methods 48 patients undergoing TKA were randomized into 2 groups in a double-blind study. In group A, 400 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.5 mg epinephrine were infiltrated periarticularly during operation. In group P, no injections were given. 21 h postoperatively, 200 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.1 mg epinephrine were injected intraarticularly in group A, and the same volume of saline was injected in group P. All patients were followed up for 3 months. Results Median morphine consumption was lower in group A during the first 48 h: 18 (1-74) mg vs. 87 (36-160) mg in group P. Postoperative pain was lower at rest in group A during the first 27 h, and on movement during the first 48 h, except at 21 h. Time to fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter in group A than in group P: 3 (1-7) vs. 5 (2-8) days. Patient satisfaction was higher in group A than in group P on days 1 and 7. The unbound venous blood concentration of ropivacaine was below systemic toxic blood concentrations. Interpretation The local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique provides excellent pain relief and lower morphine consumption following TKA, resulting in shorter time to home readiness and higher patient satisfaction. There were few side effects and systemic LA concentrations were low.

  • 6.
    Fant, F
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Axelsson, K
    Örebro University.
    Sandblom, D
    Örebro University.
    Magnuson, A
    Örebro University.
    Andersson, S-O
    Örebro University.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Thoracic epidural analgesia or patient-controlled local analgesia for radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized, double-blind study2011In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 782-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Postoperative pain after radical retropubic prostatectomy is moderate to severe. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether intra-abdominal local anaesthetics provide similar analgesia compared with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Fifty patients, ASA I-II, participated in this prospective, double-blinded study. All patients had TEA. After operation, they were randomized into two groups of 25 patients: Group PCLA (patient-controlled local analgesia): self-administration of 10 ml of ropivacaine 2 mg ml(-1) via the intra-abdominal catheter for 48 h. Group TEA: infusion of 10 ml h(-1) of ropivacaine 1 mg ml(-1), fentanyl 2 mg ml(-1), and epinephrine 2 mg ml 21 epidurally for 48 h. The primary endpoint was pain on coughing at 4 h after operation. Rescue medication was morphine i.v. as required. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Pain on coughing at 4, 24, and 48 h was significantly lower in Group TEA [0 (0-10)] compared with Group PCLA [4 (0-10)] (Pandlt;0.05). Significantly lower pain intensity was also found in Group TEA compared with Group PCLA at the incision site, deep pain, and pain on coughing at 4 and 24 h (Pandlt;0.05). Morphine consumption was significantly greater in Group PCLA [12 (0-46)] compared with Group TEA [0 (0-20)] at 0-48 h after operation [median (range)] (P=0.015). Maximum expiratory pressure was higher in Group TEA compared with Group PCLA at 24 h (Pandlt;0.01). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. TEA provides superior postoperative pain relief with better preservation of expiratory muscle strength compared with PCLA.

  • 7.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preoperative screening and risk assessment in the ambulatory surgery patient2009In: CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0952-7907, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 705-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review With the rapid increase in the number of sicker patients with multiple co-morbidities and extremes of age who are undergoing ambulatory surgery, a thorough and detailed preoperative workup has become increasingly important. Case cancellation on the morning of surgery should be an exception. Therefore, much attention is focused on the optimization of the sicker patients. Although the anesthesiologist plays a central role in the preoperative assessment, a multidisciplinary approach is critical. This review was done to provide the reader with current trends and practices in preoperative assessment of the ambulatory surgical patient. Recent findings The risk factors that may influence major morbidity, death or hospital admission include age greater than 85 years, hospital admission within the previous 6 months and invasiveness of surgery. The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status greater than 2 can predict in-hospital adverse events. Routine preoperative investigations in the healthy patient, including electrocardiogram are, today, unwarranted and have not been shown to improve outcome. Summary Risk management involves the identification of the patient at risk, optimization of preoperative health status, risk reduction through medical intervention as well as appropriate perioperative care. Thus, patient outcome can be improved, specifically for the sicker patients at a higher risk.

  • 8.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics in ambulatory surgery2010In: CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0952-7907, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 708-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review Wound infiltration analgesia using local anaesthetics has been used for several decades. Recently, newer techniques to prolong analgesia have developed, including the use of catheters and injection of local anaesthetics or other adjuvants, and local infiltration analgesia using large volumes of local anaesthetics injected into different tissue planes. The aim of this review is to present the current status of wound infiltration analgesia in management of postoperative pain and to highlight the risks of this technique in clinical practice. Recent findings Several studies have shown beneficial effects of local anaesthetics, with or without adjuvant drugs, in the management of postoperative pain. Specifically, the use of local anaesthetics injected via catheters to prolong analgesia reduces postoperative pain, albeit to a limited extent. The use of large volumes of local anaesthetics into tissue planes during surgery is also beneficial in pain management. Single doses of local anaesthetics provide pain relief, but the short duration of effect can be a limiting factor. There is a growing concern about some side-effects associated with the use of local anaesthetics, specifically toxicity when drugs are injected in large doses, chondrotoxicity when bupivacaine is injected intra-articularly in higher concentrations and over a period and finally, infection when using catheters that are retained in situ. Summary Used correctly and in adequate doses, wound infiltration analgesia can be used in a multimodal analgesic regime without major complications. It offers the benefit of providing analgesia at a low cost when used as a single injection.

  • 9.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Bjornsson, A.
    Department Anaesthesiol and Intens Care, Orebro.
    Fredriksson, M.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Reduction in mortality after epidural anaesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing rectal but not colonic cancer surgery: a retrospective analysis of data from 655 patients in Central Sweden2011In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is some evidence that epidural analgesia (EDA) reduces tumour recurrence after breast and prostatic cancer surgery. We assessed whether EDA reduces long-term mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Methods. All patients having colorectal cancer surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 at Linkoping and Orebro were included. Exclusion criteria were: emergency operations, laparoscopic-assisted colorectal resection, and stage 4 cancer. Statistical information was obtained from the Swedish National Register for Deaths. Patients were analysed in two groups: EDA group or patient-controlled analgesia (PCA group) as the primary method of analgesia. Results. A total of 655 patients could be included. All-cause mortality for colorectal cancer (stages 1-3) was 22.7% (colon: 20%, rectal: 26%) after 1-5 yr of surgery. Multivariate regression analysis identified the following statistically significant factors for death after colon cancer (Pless than0.05): age (greater than72 yr) and cancer stage 3 (compared with stage 1). A similar model for rectal cancer found that age (greater than72 yr) and the use of PCA rather than EDA and cancer stages 2 and 3 (compared with stage 1) were associated with a higher risk for death. No significant risk of death was found for colon cancer when comparing EDA with PCA (P=0.23), but a significantly increased risk of death was seen after rectal cancer when PCA was used compared with EDA (P=0.049) [hazards ratio: 0.52 (0.27-1.00)]. Conclusions. We found a reduction in all-cause mortality after rectal but not colon cancer in patients having EDA compared with PCA technique.

  • 10.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Favaios, S.
    EPE.
    Perniola, A.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Magnuson, A.
    University Orebro.
    Berggren, L.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    A meta-analysis of the efficacy of wound catheters for post-operative pain management2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 785-796Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local anesthetics (LA) are injected via catheters placed in surgical wounds for post-operative analgesia. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess whether LA reduce pain intensity when injected via wound catheters. A literature search was performed from Medline via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database from 1966 until November 2009. The search strategy included the following key words: pain, postoperative, catheters and local anesthetics. Two co-authors independently read every article that was initially included and extracted data into a pre-defined study record form. A total of 753 studies primarily fit the search criteria and 163 were initially extracted. Of these, 32 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Wound catheters provided no significant analgesia at rest or on activity, except in patients undergoing gynecological and obstetric surgery at 48 h (P = 0.03). The overall morphine consumption was lower (approximate to 13 mg) during 0-24 h (P less than 0.001) in these patients. No significant differences in side effects were found, except for a lower risk of wound breakdown (P = 0.048) and a shorter length of hospital stay (P = 0.04) in patients receiving LA. A statistically significant heterogeneity was seen between the studies in most end-points. LA injected via wound catheters did not reduce pain intensity, except at 48 h in a subgroup of patients undergoing obstetric and gynecological surgery. Rescue analgesic consumption was also lower in this group at 0-24 h. The magnitude of these effects was small and compounded by pronounced heterogeneity.

  • 11.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Rawal, Narinder
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Magnuson, Anders
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Alnehill, Hakan
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Kurt
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Patient controlled regional analgesia after carpal tunnel release: a double-blind study using distal perineural catheters2011In: JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-EUROPEAN VOLUME, ISSN 1753-1934, Vol. 36E, no 3, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was done to assess the efficacy of a perineural catheter for pain relief following carpal tunnel release (CTR). Sixty-six patients undergoing open CTR under local anaesthesia (LA) were randomly divided into three groups: Groups A and B had a perineural catheter and Group C served as non-blinded control group. Postoperative pain relief was by self-administration of either ropivacaine (Group A) or saline (Group B) via an elastometric pump and by oral paracetamol in Group C. Patients in Group A had a significantly greater difference in summed pain intensity than Group B. Fewer patients in Group A requested supplementary analgesics than in Group C. Patient satisfaction was higher in Group A than in Group B on day 1. However better analgesia was not associated with better functional recovery.

  • 12.
    Jildenstal, Pether K
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Hallen, Jan L
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Rawal, Narinder
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Berggren, Lars
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Effect of Auditory Evoked Potential-Guided Anaesthesia on Consumption of Anaesthetics and Early Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: a randomised controlled trial2011In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0265-0215, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after non-cardiac surgery is a well known problem in some categories of patients. This study aims to evaluate the influence of auditory evoked potential (AEP)-guided anaesthesia on the requirement for anaesthetic drugs and their influence on POCD. Methods Four hundred and fifty patients aged between 18 and 92 years scheduled for ophthalmic surgery under general anaesthesia were assigned randomly to one of two groups. In group A (AEP group), the depth of anaesthesia (DoA) was aimed at an AEP index (AAI) between 15 and 25. In group C (control group), DoA was guided by clinical signs. Hypotension was treated with fluids and vasopressors using a standardised algorithm. A mini-mental test and the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were used to evaluate cognitive function. Results Anaesthetic drug requirements were significantly lower in group A than in group C: propofol 92.5 +/- 26.5 vs. 103.8 +/- 39.5 mg (P = andlt;0.001) and desflurane end-tidal concentration 2.5 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.79% (P andlt; 0.001). In group A, 36 patients (16%) received additional fluids and vasopressors compared to 65 patients (29%) in group C (P andlt; 0.01). AAI values differed significantly between the groups: 18 (11-21) in group A vs. 12 (10-19) in group C (P andlt; 0.001). The number of patients with POCD was 16 in group C compared to two in group A (P andlt; 0.001) at day 1 post-operation. Conclusion AEP monitoring allows dose reduction of anaesthetic agents, leading to better cardiovascular stability and decreased requirements for intra-operative fluids and vasopressors. Cognitive decline seen following minor ophthalmic surgery, even when anaesthesia is assessed clinically, is short-lived with no long-term sequelae.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre.
    Lindberget, O
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Vegfors, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping.
    Implementing a pre-operative checklist to increase patient safety: a 1-year follow-up of personnel attitudes.2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 176-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The operating room is a complex work environment with a high potential for adverse events. Protocols for perioperative verification processes have increasingly been recommended by professional organizations during the last few years. We assessed personnel attitudes to a pre-operative checklist ('time out') immediately before start of the operative procedure. METHODS: 'Time out' was implemented in December 2007 as an additional safety barrier in two Swedish hospitals. One year later, in order to assess how the checklist was perceived, a questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 704 persons in the operating departments, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, operation and anesthetic nurses and nurse assistants. In order to identify differences in response between professions, each alternative in the questionnaire was assigned a numerical value. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 331 (47%) persons and 93% responded that 'time out' contributes to increased patient safety. Eighty-six percent thought that 'time out' gave an opportunity to identify and solve problems. Confirmation of patient identity, correct procedure, correct side and checking of allergies or contagious diseases were considered 'very important' by 78-84% of the responders. Attitudes to checking of patient positioning, allergies and review of potential critical moments were positive but differed significantly between the professions. Attitudes to a similar checklist at the end of surgery were positive and 72-99% agreed to the different elements. CONCLUSION: Staff attitudes toward a surgical checklist were mostly positive 1 year after their introduction in two large hospitals in central Sweden.

  • 14.
    Oscarsson Tibblin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sorliden, M
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anskär, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Predictors of cardiac events in high-risk patients undergoing emergency surgery2009In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 986-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of myocardial damage and left ventricular myocardial dysfunction and their influence on outcome in high-risk patients undergoing non-elective surgery.

    Methods: In this prospective observational study, 211 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classification III or IV undergoing emergent or urgent surgery were included. Troponin I (TnI) was measured pre-operatively, 12 and 48 h post-operatively. Pre-operative N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker for left ventricular systolic dysfunction, was analyzed. The diagnostic thresholds were set to TnI andgt; 0.06 mu g/l and NT-proBNP andgt; 1800 pg/ml, respectively. Post-operative major adverse cardiac events (MACE), 30-day and 3-months mortality were recorded.

    Results: Elevated TnI levels were detected in 33% of the patients post-operatively. A TnI elevation increased the risk of MACE (35% vs. 3% in patients with normal TnI levels, P andlt; 0.001) and 30-day mortality (23% vs. 7%, P=0.003). Increased concentrations of NT-proBNP were seen in 59% of the patients. Elevated NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of myocardial damage post-operatively, odds ratio, 6.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-18.0] and resulted in an increased risk of MACE (21% vs. 2.5% in patients with NT-proBNP andlt; 1800 pg/ml, P andlt; 0.001).

    Conclusion: Myocardial damage is common in a high-risk population undergoing unscheduled surgery. These results suggest a close correlation between myocardial damage in the post-operative period and increased concentration of NT-proBNP before surgery. The combinations of TnI and NT-proBNP are reliable markers for monitoring patients at risk in the peri-operative period as well as useful tools in our risk assessment pre-operatively in emergency surgery.

  • 15.
    Oscarsson Tibblin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Järhult, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Matti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Pettersson, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Darvish, Bijan
    Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Krook, Helena
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    To continue or discontinue aspirin in the perioperative period: a randomized, controlled clinical trial2010In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) are a common cause of deathafter non-cardiac surgery. Despite evidence for the benefitof aspirin for secondary prevention, it is often discontinuedin the perioperative period due to the risk of bleeding.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlledtrial in order to compare the effect of low-dose aspirin withthat of placebo on myocardial damage, cardiovascular, and bleedingcomplications in high-risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.Aspirin (75 mg) or placebo was given 7 days before surgery andcontinued until the third postoperative day. Patients were followedup for 30 days after surgery.

    Results: A total of 220 patients were enrolled, 109 patients receivedaspirin and 111 received placebo. Four patients (3.7%) in theaspirin group and 10 patients (9.0%) in the placebo group hadelevated troponin T levels in the postoperative period (P=0.10).Twelve patients (5.4%) had an MACE during the first 30 postoperativedays. Two of these patients (1.8%) were in the aspirin groupand 10 patients (9.0%) were in the placebo group (P=0.02). Treatmentwith aspirin resulted in a 7.2% absolute risk reduction [95%confidence interval (CI), 1.3–13%] for postoperative MACE.The relative risk reduction was 80% (95% CI, 9.2–95%).Numbers needed to treat were 14 (95% CI, 7.6–78). No significantdifferences in bleeding complications were seen between thetwo groups.

    Conclusions: In high-risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, perioperativeaspirin reduced the risk of MACE without increasing bleedingcomplications. However, the study was not powered to evaluatebleeding complications.

     

  • 16.
    Perniola, Andrea
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Crafoord, Kristina
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Darvish, Bijan
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Axelsson , Kjell
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Intraabdominal local anaesthetics for postoperative pain relief following abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding study2009In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0265-0215 , Vol. 26, no 5, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective Local anaesthetics administered intraabdominally have been found to reduce analgesic requirements postoperatively after hysterectomy. This study was designed to assess the optimal dose of local anaesthetics for best pain relief.

    Methods Sixty patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomly divided into three groups to receive 10 ml h(-1) infusion of levobupivacaine intraabdominally postoperatively for 48 h in a double-blind manner: group L, 7.5 mg h(-1); group M, 12.5 mg h(-1) and group H, 17.5 mg h(-1). Pain intensity was measured using the numeric rating scale, ketobemidone consumption over 48 h was measured with a patient-controlled analgesia pump, recovery parameters, expiratory muscle strength, time to home readiness, plasma concentration of levobupivacaine and health-related quality of life were all measured at defined time points postoperatively.

    Results No differences were found between the active groups in pain intensity, recovery parameters or health-related quality of life. Pain intensity was maximal during 04 h and during coughing. Expiratory muscle strength decreased significantly during 0-4 h in all active groups, with no differences between the groups. Plasma concentration of levobupivacaine was below known toxic concentrations in humans, and no patient had symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity. Health-related quality of life showed improved scores at 3 months after the operation compared with preoperative values, but no differences between the groups were found in any of the parameters.

    Conclusion Satisfactory analgesia can be achieved with low doses of levobupivacaine administered intraabdominally, except during the early postoperative period. No advantages were seen in this study when higher doses of levobupivacaine were administered as a continuous infusion for postoperative pain relief.

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