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  • 1.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Betydelsen av upplevd trygghet för attraktiviteten hos olika kollektiva transportsätt.2001In: VTI:s fackseminarier vid Nordic Rail,2001, Linköping: Statens väg och transportforskningsinstitut , 2001, p. 39-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Causal Attribution and Self-Focused Attention for Shyness2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how and to what degree shy individuals differ from non-shy individuals regarding their attributional patterns. The results from 3 quantitative and 1 qualitative study paint a somewhat different picture of how shyness is associated with social cognition compared to previous research in the field. The following 4 main conclusions were drawn. (1) Being shy does not necessarily imply distorted social cognitions since shy people exhibited less of a self–other difference compared to non-shy people. (2) Being self-focused and shy means that emotional reactions are likely to be perceived as caused by stable internal causes rather than less stable internal and external causes. If shy people are self-focused to a lesser extent there is still a tendency for these individuals to exhibit this attributional pattern. (3) Shyness is more important than behavioral inhibition in determining ascriptions of causes to emotional reactions, whereas shyness and behavioral inhibition interact in determining people’s perceptions of the degree to which freely chosen causes are caused by internal and external factors, respectively. One conclusion of these findings is that future research needs to focus on how people in everyday life really explain their own and other people’s behaviors and reactions. (4) Very shy people can experience identity confusion as well as a conflicting wish to stay shy and to overcome shyness at the same time. Even though these results imply quite severe consequences of being shy, in general shyness seems to be viewed in quite a positive light.

    List of papers
    1. Attributions of shyness–resembling behaviors by shy and non–shy individuals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attributions of shyness–resembling behaviors by shy and non–shy individuals
    1999 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 575-585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Shy and non-shy individuals attributions of shyness-resembling behaviors in scenarios involving either themselves or other, hypothetical, people were studied through the use of a questionnaire. The participants were Swedish high-school students who rated the extent to which a number of such behaviors could be explained by four different causes, two internal (shyness and lack of interest) and two external (other persons and situational circumstances) causes. The results showed that shy participants attributed their own shyness-resembling behaviors to internal causes to a higher degree than did non-shy participants. Furthermore, non-shy participants attributed their own behaviors to external rather than internal causes, whereas shy participants judged internal and external causes to be about equally good explanations of their own behaviors. Both shy and non-shy participants attributed other peoples behaviors to internal rather than external causes. The differences between shy and non-shy participants were discussed in terms of differences in focus of attention, meaning that shy individuals seem to be much more self-focused than non-shy ones.

    Keywords
    Shyness; Attribution; Causal locus; Self–other difference; Actor–observer difference
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13840 (URN)10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00267-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12 Last updated: 2009-02-04
    2. The Role of Shyness and Self–Focused Attention for Attribution of Reactions in Social Situations to Internal and External Causes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Shyness and Self–Focused Attention for Attribution of Reactions in Social Situations to Internal and External Causes
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 519-527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that shyness would be associated with attribution of emotional reactions to stable internal causes rather than to less stable internal and external causes was tested in Study 1 (N = 60). In Study 2 (N= 112) the hypothesis that the explanatory power of shyness would decrease once the effect of self-focused attention on attribution to stable internal causes had been controlled for was tested. The results confirmed both hypotheses. Shyness correlated positively with attribution to stable internal causes, but non-significant with attribution to less stable internal and external causes. Shyness explained a lesser portion of the variance in attribution to both of the internal causes when controlling for self-focus. Even though the findings indicate that self-focus is central to the social cognitive processes of shy individuals, they also suggest that self-focus cannot fully explain attribution to internal causes in general and shy individuals' attributional pattern in particular.

    Keywords
    Shyness, attribution, internal causes, external causes, emotional reactions, self-focused attention
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13841 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00607.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. The Role of Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition for Attribution of Emotional Reactions and Ratings of Degree of Internality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition for Attribution of Emotional Reactions and Ratings of Degree of Internality
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13842 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12
    4. Tales from the shy: Interviews with self– and peer rated, shy and non–shy individuals concerning their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in social situationsbehaviors in social situations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tales from the shy: Interviews with self– and peer rated, shy and non–shy individuals concerning their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in social situationsbehaviors in social situations
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13843 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-12 Created: 2006-05-12
  • 3.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Shyness and Behavioral Inhibition for Attribution of Emotional Reactions and Ratings of Degree of Internality2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Shyness and Self–Focused Attention for Attribution of Reactions in Social Situations to Internal and External Causes2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 519-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that shyness would be associated with attribution of emotional reactions to stable internal causes rather than to less stable internal and external causes was tested in Study 1 (N = 60). In Study 2 (N= 112) the hypothesis that the explanatory power of shyness would decrease once the effect of self-focused attention on attribution to stable internal causes had been controlled for was tested. The results confirmed both hypotheses. Shyness correlated positively with attribution to stable internal causes, but non-significant with attribution to less stable internal and external causes. Shyness explained a lesser portion of the variance in attribution to both of the internal causes when controlling for self-focus. Even though the findings indicate that self-focus is central to the social cognitive processes of shy individuals, they also suggest that self-focus cannot fully explain attribution to internal causes in general and shy individuals' attributional pattern in particular.

  • 5.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frodi, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tales from the shy: Interviews with self– and peer rated, shy and non–shy individuals concerning their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in social situationsbehaviors in social situations2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Attributions of shyness–resembling behaviors by shy and non–shy individuals1999In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 575-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shy and non-shy individuals attributions of shyness-resembling behaviors in scenarios involving either themselves or other, hypothetical, people were studied through the use of a questionnaire. The participants were Swedish high-school students who rated the extent to which a number of such behaviors could be explained by four different causes, two internal (shyness and lack of interest) and two external (other persons and situational circumstances) causes. The results showed that shy participants attributed their own shyness-resembling behaviors to internal causes to a higher degree than did non-shy participants. Furthermore, non-shy participants attributed their own behaviors to external rather than internal causes, whereas shy participants judged internal and external causes to be about equally good explanations of their own behaviors. Both shy and non-shy participants attributed other peoples behaviors to internal rather than external causes. The differences between shy and non-shy participants were discussed in terms of differences in focus of attention, meaning that shy individuals seem to be much more self-focused than non-shy ones.

  • 7.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Betydelsen av upplevda risker och känslor av otrygghet vid resor med kollektivtrafik: En undersökning i Göteborg samt jämförelse med resultat från Norrköping och Stockholm.2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A questionnaire, including questions about perceived attractiveness, feelings of unsafety and different types of perceived risks connected to five different transport modes (car, city bus, tram, regional bus, and commuter train) was filled out by 58 persons at the city library in Gothenburg. The results showed that perceived risk and worry of being bothered, threatened or attacked might have a larger impact on perceived attractiveness than perceived risk and worry of being seriously injured in traffic accidents. Similar results were obtained in similar studies conducted in Norrköping and in Stockholm. Of the respondents in Gothenburg, 45 % stated that they avoid travelling with particularly tram during evenings and weekends, to the areas Angered or Bergsjön. The results obtained from the studies conducted in Gothenburg and in Stockholm also suggest that perceived risk and worry of being bothered, threatened or attacked affect feelings of unsafety. The results obtained from all three studies showed that certain circumstances, such as the bus stop etc being situated next to a park, contribute to a high degree to feelings of unsafety while walking to, or waiting at, a bus stop etc. When travelling with a public transport mode feelings of unsafety arise for example when the driver/personnel do not supervise their vehicle. In all three studies, women stated to a higher extent than men that different circumstances contribute to feelings of unsafety.

  • 8.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Kollektivtrafik i storstad - undviker människor att resa på grund av otrygghet?2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A questionnaire, including questions pertaining to perceived attractiveness, feelings of unsafety and different types of risks connected to different transport modes (car, city bus, tram, regional bus, commuter train and subway), was filled out by 59 respondents. The results showed that perceived attractiveness might be affected by perceived risks and worry of being bothered, threatened or attacked by fellow passengers to a higher extent than perceived risks and worry of being involved in traffic accidents. Different circumstances, for instance bus stop etc being remotely situated, were considered to contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc. When travelling with different public transport modes the participants stated that they feel unsafe if for example the drivers/personnel do not supervise their vehicle. Women stated to a higher extent than men that different cirsumstances contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc, as well as when travelling with different public transport modes. A majority of the respondents stated that they avoid travelling with the red subwayline during nighttime, especially during weekends. The respondents stated that they had a more positive attitude towards tram than towards regional bus and commuter train, which was not the case in a similar study conducted in Norrköping. This result might be explained by a successful introduction of a new tramwayline (Tvärbanan) in Stockholm.

  • 9.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Perceived risk, feelings of safety and worry associated with different travel modes.2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective was to study how perceived accident risk and risk of violence are related to feelings of safety and worry associated with different transport modes (car, taxi, city bus, regional bus, train, ferry and aeroplane). Another aim was to study how individual differences (such as age, sex, the extent to which individuals use different travel modes, personal experience of accidents and violence situations and how individuals perceive themselves) might affect these relationships. A questionnaire was constructed for these purposes and was filled out by 100 respondents. The results showed that there were differences between the respondents' perceptions of accident risk, risk of violence and feelings of safety, as well as differences between the different transport modes. Car received higher ratings of accident risk than the remaining transport modes, whereas city bus and ferry received the highest ratings of risk of violence. The participants seemed to have a fairly good idea of the internal rank order of the transport modes with respect to accident risk, whereas they seemed less aware of the actual size of the differences between the different transport modes. The ratings of feelings of safety and worry were found to be quite similar. Finally, individual differences, such as age and sex, seemed to have some effects on the perceptions of risk and feelings of safety.

  • 10.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Upplevd trygghet vid resor med kollektiva transportmedel.2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The main objective was to study differences and similarities between different transport modes (car, city bus, tram, regional bus and commuter train) concerning perceived attractiveness, feelings of safety and different types of risks connected to the different transport modes. Another aim was to study to what extent different circumstances (for instance lighting) contribute to feelings of insecurity while travelling with different public transport modes. Finally, an objetive was to study possible effects of individual differences (such as demographic variables). A questionnaire was constructed for these purposes and was filled out by 58 respondents. The results showed that people perceive feelings of safety and attractiveness to be different depending on the transport mode. People perceive private cars to be more attractive than public transport modes. Perceived attractiveness might be affected by perceived risks and worry of being bothered, threatened and violated by fellow passengers to a higher extent than perceived risks and worry of being involved in traffic accidents while travelling. Individual differences might have an affect on perceived attractiveness, feelings of safety and perceptions of risks.

  • 11.
    Eckert, Gisela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Estling, Fanny
    Jakobsson, Ebba
    Tyrberg, Mårten
    Du kan väl spela psykolog. Att få en känsla av kontinuitet och progression. Ett nytt sätt att undervisa i samtals- och testmetod på ett psykologprogram.2006In: Utvecklingskonferensen,2005, Lund: CED, Lunds universitet , 2006, p. 110-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eckert, Gisela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Jakobsson, Ebba
    Schröder, Emelie
    Tyrberg, Mårten
    Externally Imposed Internally Driven Learning - A Paradox?2007In: The 13th International Conference on Thinking,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Paldanius, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Folkhögskoleanda och folkhögskolemässiga handlingar2009In: Folkhögskolans praktiker i förändring / [ed] Bernt Gustavsson, Gunnel Andersdotter. Lena Sjöman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 79-118Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Paldanius, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alm, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Folkhögskoleanda och mässighet – en fråga om särart?2008In: Årsbok om folkbildning: 2007 Forskning & utveckling, Stockholm: Föreningen för folkbildningsforskning , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 14 of 14
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