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  • 1.
    Alvors, Per
    et al.
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Arnell, Jenny
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Miljö- och energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Heat and Power Technology Division,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jelse, Kristian
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Kemisk Teknologi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Skolan för kemivetenskap, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Energi och miljö/Energiteknik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, Krister
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Biokemi och Strukturbiologi, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Institutionen för kemiteknik, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Öhrman, Olof
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use.

    Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology.

    In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study.

    We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose.

    From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

    Three important results from the lignocellulosic ethanol study are: (i) the production systems could be far more complex and intelligently designed than previous studies show, (ii) the potential improvements consist of a large number of combinations of process integration options wich partly depends on specific local conditions, (iii) the environmental performance of individual systems may vary significantly due to systems design and local conditons.

    From the case study on gasification of solid biomass for the production of biomethane we find that one of the main advantages of this technology is its high efficiency in respect to converting biomass into fuels for transport. For future research we see a need for improvements within the gas up-grading section, including gas cleaning and gas conditioning, to obtain a more efficient process. A major challenge is to remove the tar before the methanation reaction.

    Three important results from the biomethane study are: (i) it is important not to crack the methane already produced in the syngas, which indicates a need for improved catalysts for selective tar cracking, (ii) there is a need for new gas separation techniques to facilitate the use of air oxidation agent instead of oxygen in the gasifier, and (iii) there is a need for testing the integrated process under realistic conditions, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions.

    From the case study on black liquor gasification for the production of DME we find that the process has many advantages compared to other biofuel production options, such as the fact that black liquor is already partially processed and exists in a pumpable, liquid form, and that the process is pressurised and tightly integrated with the pulp mill, which enhances fuel production efficiency. However, to achieve commercial status, some challenges still remain, such as demonstrating that materials and plant equipment meet the high availability required when scaling up to industrial size in the pulp mill, and also proving that the plant can operate according to calculated heat and material balances. Three important results from the DME study are: (i) that modern chemical pulp mills, having a potential surplus of energy, could become important suppliers of renewable fuels for transport, (ii) there is a need to demonstrate that renewable DME/methanol will be proven to function in large scale, and (iii) there is still potential for technology improvements and enhanced energy integration.

    Although quantitative improvement potentials are given in the three biofuel production cases, it is not obvious how these potentials would affect WTT values, since the biofuel production processes are complex and changing one parameter impacts other parameters. The improvement potentials are therefore discussed qualitatively. From the entire study we have come to agree on the following common conclusions: (i) research and development in Sweden within the three studied 2G biofuel production technologies is extensive, (ii) in general, the processes, within the three cases, work well at pilot and demonstration scale and are now in a phase to be proven in large scale, (iii) there is still room for improvement although some processes have been known for decades, (iv) the biofuel production processes are complex and site specific and process improvements need to be seen and judged from a broad systems perspective (both within the production plant as well as in the entire well-to-tank perspective), and (v) the three studied biofuel production systems are complementary technologies. Futher, the process of conducting this study is worth mentioning as a result itself, i.e. that many different actors within the field have proven their ability and willingness to contribute to a common report, and that the cooperation climate was very positive and bodes well for possible future collaboration within the framework of the f3 center.

    Finally, judging from the political ambitions it is clear that the demand for renewable fuels will significantly increase during the coming decade. This will most likely result in opportunities for a range of biofuel options. The studied biofuel options all represent 2G biofuels and they can all be part of the solution to meet the increased renewable fuel demand.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hultegren, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly.

    The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for “fair” techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project.

    Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found.

    There are several reasons why the results of the reviewed techno-economic studies vary. Some examples are that different system boundaries have been set and that different technical and economic assumptions have been made, product yields and energy efficiencies may be calculated using different methods etc. For obvious reasons, the studies are not made in the same year, which means that different monetary exchange rates and indices have been applied. It is therefore very difficult, and sometimes even impossible, to compare the technical as well as the economic results from the different studies. When technical evaluations are to be carried out, there is no general method for how to set the system boundaries and no right or wrong way to calculate the system efficiencies as long as the boundaries and methods are transparent and clearly described. This also means that it becomes fruitless to compare efficiencies between different concepts unless the comparison is done on an exactly equal basis.

    However, even on an equal basis, a comparison is not a straight forward process. For example, calculated efficiencies may be based on the marginal supply, which then become very dependent on how the industries exploit their resources before the integration. The resulting efficiencies are therefore very site-dependent. Increasing the system boundaries to include all in- and outgoing energy carriers from the main industry, as well as the integrated gasification plant (i.e. total plant mass and energy balance), would inflict the same site-dependency problem. The resulting system efficiency is therefore a measure of the potential improvement that a specific industry could achieve by integrating a biomass gasification concept.

    When estimating the overall system efficiency of industrial biorefinery concepts that include multiple types of product flows and energy sources, the authors of this report encourage the use of electrical equivalents as a measure of the overall system efficiency. This should be done in order to take the energy quality of different energy carriers into concern.

    In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and production cost estimates. However, the number of references for the cost data is rather limited. The majority of these have also been published by the same group of people and use the same or similar background information. The information in these references is based on quotes and estimates, which is good, however none of these are publically available and therefore difficult to value with respect to content and accuracy.

    It has further been found that the variance in the operational costs is quite significant. Something that is particularly true for biomass costs, which have a high variance. This may be explained by natural variations in the quality of biomass used, but also to the different markets studied and the dates when the studies were performed. It may be seen from the specific investment costs that there is a significant spread in the data. It may also be seen that the differences in capital employed and process yields will result in quite large variations in the production cost of the synthetic fuels. On a general note, the studies performed are considering future plants and in some cases assumes technology development. It is therefore relevant to question the use of today’s prices of utilities and feedstock’s. It is believed that it would be more representative to perform some kind of scenario analysis using different parameters resulting in different cost assumptions to better exemplify possible futures.

    Due to the surprising lack of reports and articles regarding integration of biomass gasifiers in sawmills, it would be of great interest to carry out such a study. Also larger scale wood pellet production plants could be of interest as a potential gasification based biorefinery.

  • 3.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WE), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  • 4.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Flink, Mimmi
    Energy processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Lindfeldt, Erik
    Energy processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Pettersson, Karin
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Bakom drivmedelstanken - Perspektiv på svenska biodrivmedelssatsningar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Flink, Mimmi
    et al.
    Energy Processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Pettersson, Karin
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparing new Swedish concepts for production of second generation biofuels - evaluating CO2 emissions using a system approach2007In: SETAC Europe 14th LCA Case Studies Symposium, 3-4 december 2007, Göteborg, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Biofuel production in Europe - Potential from lignocellulosic waste2010In: Proceedings Venice 2010, Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to analyze the biofuel potential in Europe fromlignocellulosic waste (wood waste and paper and cardboard waste). Ethanol from fermentationand Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel from gasification are the two biofuels considered. As thosebiofuels are not yet commercially available, the optimal locations of the production plants haveto be determined. The analysis is carried out with a geographic explicit model that minimizes thetotal cost of the biofuel supply chain. A mixed integer linear program is used for theoptimization. The results show that ethanol production plants are selected in a majority of thestudied cases. Ethanol plants are mainly set up in areas with a high heat demand and/or highelectricity or heat price, whereas FT diesel production plants are set up in areas where the heatdemand is low all year round. A high cost for emitting CO2 as well as high transport fossil fuelprices favor the selection of FT diesel over ethanol production plants. With a CO2 cost of 100€/tCO2 applied, the biofuel production from waste can potentially meet around 4% of theEuropean transport fuel demand.

  • 7.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    CHP or biofuel production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 8.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Elin
    Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers.
    Harvey, Simon
    Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Economics Unit, Luleå University of Technology.
    Alriksson, Stina
    School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University.
    Wang, Chuan
    PRISMA, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Resin, Monika
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Hoffner, Nils
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Development of a regional-economic process integration model for Billerud Karlsborg AB2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy-intensive industrial sector that faces several challenges such as increased competition and rising feedstock and energy prices. To adress this, it is crucial for the industry to improve the material and energy efficiencies to the greatest possible extent. Process integration methods like pinch analysis and mathematical programming are useful tools for evaluating possible process alternatives, i.e. applications of new technologies, changes to new equipment and/or different operating conditions. Development of industrial energy combines is an interesting approach towards an overall optimization of energy and material flows. One problem is often that there are a large number of essentially different actors and financers that are interested in studying other parameters than those that are normally investigated in process integration studies, for example national or regional economics and various social values.In this project, engineering, economic and statistical tools and methods have been applied separately as well as in combination for different types of investigations conducted at the paper and pulp mill Billerud Karlsborg AB in Kalix, Sweden. One main objective has been to develop a process integration model of the mill based on the reMIND method to be used for introductory process simulations of the existing mill configuration. Additionally, pinch analysis has been used to identify alternatives for energy savings in the mill. Another objective has been to develop a regional economic market model (ReCOM) that should be suitable for analysis and predictions of price changes on relevant feedstock markets. A more simplified model based on the reMIND method has been used for intitial studies on how the mill can be turned into a biorefinery. The main purpose of that work has been to investigate if biomass gasification can be economically interesting for the mill and if so, under what boundary conditions. A statistical technique, conjoint analysis, has been used to study and analyze the attitude of employed people at the mill to changes in the production process that may affect for example the local and global environment etc. Finally, possible interactions between the different models and tools have been investigated.The reMIND modelling of the existing mill configuration has showed several alternatives to save steam and fuel. For example, if the wood-chips supplied to the digester is pre-heated from a temperature of 0°C to say 60°C by the use of low grade residual heat, approximately 1.5 ton per hour of 10 bar steam or 5 ton per hour of biomass fuels can theoretically be saved. Furthermore, if the inlet liquor temperature to effect 4 of the evaporation plant increases from 85 to 105°C, the steam used for evaporation decreases from 77 to 66 ton per hour and as a consequence, the biomass fuel supply to the bark boiler decreases from 51 to 39 ton per hour. This, however, also leads to a slightly reduced electricity production, from 35 to 34 MW due to a reduced production of the high pressure steam.The results from the developed ReCOM model, suggest that only none to small changes in the fibrous input prices from an increase in the fuel price (affecting the forestry sector) and a small price increase as a result from a reduced supply of purchasable wood-chips and pulp wood. The small effect that increasing fuel prices has on the fibrous input prices can largely be explained by the relatively small cost share that fuels have in the forestry sector. An increase of the labour costs would most likely have a larger impact. As for the price effect from a reduction in the supply of purchasable wood-chips, there is a substitution possibility between purchased and internally produced wood-chips for the pulp mill. However, when the limit for how much internally produced wood-chips is reached its will probably results in larger price effectsThe Pinch study of the mill indicated that there is a theoretical steam-saving potential of 18.5 MW, corresponding to 12% of the current steam demand. Two different retrofit proposals were suggested for how to achieve specific steam saving levels in practice. According to a basic retrofit proposal, a steam saving of 5.8 MW could be achieved at an investment cost of 7 MSEK while a more rigorous retrofit would enable steam savings of 11 MW at an investment cost of 14.5 MSEK. An approach for using these results in a reMIND model of the mill has also been proposed.The results from the more simplified reMIND modelling have showed that if the mill starts to produce DME via biomass gasification, the necessary policy support to make it economically feasible ranges from 92-561 SEK per MWh biofuel (DME) over four different future scenarios. This could be compared to the Swedish exemption from energy tax on biofuels, which currently amounts to approximately 275 SEK per MWh. It is also concluded that biomass gasification results in a larger net CO2 reduction when integrated with the pulp and paper mill, than when the mill and the gasification plant operate separately.The conjoint analysis showed that it is possible to find groups of respondents that were unknown prior to the study. If an organisation wants to implement a change in the process, conjoint analysis can be used to identify groups of participants with similar preferences and then tailor information to suit these specific groups.Many possibilities for the different models to interact have been identified and illustrated. The interaction between the reMIND method and ReCOM is based on exchanging information on fibrous input prices and quantities and conducted through an iterative process. The results indicate that the models can interact to produce more robust and reliable conclusions regarding optimal resource utilization suggesting that the described approach is feasible and that further research efforts can be made to extend the models. Pinch analysis and reMIND modelling has in other studies shown to be able to interact iteratively. In this study, the retrofit proposals obtained from the pinch analysis could serve as inputs to future reMIND modelling. Another interaction between reMIND and pinch analysis that has been identified during the project is to use pinch analysis to evaluate the opportunity to pre-heat certain process streams. The results from a conjoint analysis are quantitative in form of regression coefficients. However, to use these numbers for example in a Pareto front analysis will be difficult as the numbers has no monetary, energy or emission unit. Nonetheless, conjoint analysis can interact in many different ways with ReCOM as well as the reMIND models. For example, to choose scenarios to be modelled in ReCOM where the factors in the conjoint analysis can be tailored to indicate how the market would respond in a hypothetical situation. Conjoint analysis can be used to weight different factors in the reMIND model. The weighting can possibly also be used in the ReCOM model.This work has illustrated how the various engineering, economic and statistical methods and tools can be used both separately and in combination to help an industry towards more energy-efficient production processes.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 86, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be comparable, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions.

  • 10.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimala fjärrvärmesystem i symbios med industri och samhälle: för ett hållbart energisystem2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som leder till en omställning mot hållbara energisystem och ett hållbart samhälle. Fjärrvärme har en viktig roll i energiförsörjningen eftersom den ger möjlighet att ta tillvara värmeresurser som annars kan vara svåra att utnyttja, som exempelvis spillvärme från industrier och förbränning av avfall. Fjärrvärmesystemen möjliggör också elproduktion i kraftvärmeverk, med betydligt högre totalverkningsgrad än vid separat el- respektive värmeproduktion. Ett led i omställning mot hållbarhet är därför förändring av energisystemet mot en ökad användning av fjärrvärme och minskad användning av el genom dels effektiviseringar och dels via konverteringar från olja och el till fjärrvärme. Våra svenska fjärrvärmesystem är väl utbyggda och utgör en viktig resurs i detta arbete. Den pågående klimatförändringen kommer med största trolighet att medföra förändrat uttagsmönster för både värme- och kylbehov. Med ett varmare klimat minskar behovet av värme samtidigt som efterfrågan på kyla ökar. Förändrade uttagsmönster för fjärrvärme och kyla, ökad konkurrens och tydligare medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen medför att fjärrvärmen står inför nya utmaningar där utveckling av nya affärer och nya marknader blir allt viktigare. Idag används fjärrvärmen främst för uppvärmning och tappvarmvatten vilket medför att utnyttjningstiden för fjärrvärme till stor del är utomhustemperaturberoende. För att minska utomhustemperaturberoendet och på så sätt få en lastkurva för fjärrvärme som är mer ”fyrkantig” i sin utformning krävs ett fjärrvärmebehov som är mer jämnt fördelat under året. Ett jämnare effektuttag över året leder till bättre utnyttjningstid och driftförhållande för baslastanläggningarna vilket är gynnsamt speciellt i ett kraftvärmesystem eftersom det möjliggör utökad elproduktion. Flera studier har visat hur utnyttjningstid och värmelasten är de faktorer som påverkar lönsamheten mest för ett biobränsleeldat kraftvärmeverk. Syftet med föreliggande projekt är att visa hur fjärrvärmesystemen kan bidra till resurssnåla energisystem med minskad klimatpåverkan. Men hjälp av systemstudier av olika fall lyfter projektet fram exempel där industrier och energileverantörer kan samarbeta kring fjärrvärmerelaterade åtgärder och hur detta leder till hållbara fjärrvärmesystem. Åtgärder som studerats är ökad användning av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, absorptionskyla samt introduktion av bioenergikombinat i fjärrvärmesystem. För att få kunskap om hur dessa idéer kan gå från att vara potentiellt lönsamma åtgärder till att bli faktiska genomförda projekt, analyseras även vilka faktorer som driver fram ett värmesamarbete mellan en industri och ett energibolag. Resultatet från projektet visar att det finns stora potentialer att öka användningen av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, från 100 GWh till 300 GWh för de 41 industrier belägna i 6 olika kommuner som analyserats. Konverteringen till ökad fjärrvärmeanvändning påverkar lastkurvan så att utnyttjningstiden ökar, vilket ger en bättre utnyttjandegrad av fjärrvärmeanläggningarna i systemet. På samma sätt är absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov en åtgärd som leder till mer uthålliga energisystem. När fjärrvärmedrivna absorptionskylmaskiner introduceras i Örebros energisystem minskar de globala emissionerna av CO2 samtidigt som systemkostnaden reduceras. Ett ökat framtida kylbehov i Örebro i samband med högre elpriser medför att absorptions kyla ersätter både frikyla och kompressionskyla med en optimal andel kyla från absorptionskylmaskiner på över 60 % och ökad ekonomisk lönsamhet med ca 6 MSEK per år. Ytterligare en åtgärd som bidrar till omställning mot minskad klimatpåverkan är investering i bioenergikombinat. Introduktionen av storskalig förgasning i Linköpings fjärrvärmesystem har en potential till en signifikant minskning av globala CO2-utsläpp jämfört med om endast konventionell biokraftvärme beaktas. Reduktionspotentialen varierar beroende på vilken typ av förgasning som investeras i. Intervjuer och enkätstudier i syftet att analysera hur dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder kan gå från potentiella åtgärder till att bli verkliga lönsamma projekt visade att finns ett antal högt rankade framgångsfaktorer som inte är främst ekonomiska utan snarare inomorganisatoriska eller individrelaterade till sin karaktär. Styrmedel är högt rankat, i synnerhet av industrin. En parameter som också visat sig utgöra en katalysator i flera samarbeten har varit att ett universitet varit involverat och byggt optimeringsmodeller över energisystemet på orten. Fjärrvärmesystemen har en viktig roll i den övergripande omställningen av våra energisystem mot ökad grad av hållbarhet. Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som främjar och påskyndar en sådan omställning. I detta arbete lyfts flera åtgärder fram som visar hur fjärrvärmesystem på ett tydligt sätt kan bidra till både minskad klimatpåverkan och ekonomiska vinster. Ökad fjärrvärme i industriella processer, absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov och bioenergikombinat är exempel på åtgärder som leder till utformning av optimala fjärrvärmesystem för ett hållbart samhälle. Detta arbete har också visat vad som krävs för att dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder mellan industrier och energileverantörer ska bli verkliga lönsamma samarbeten. Genom att identifiera dessa åtgärder kan vi på ett tydligt sätt visa på fjärrvärmens unika möjligheter att bli en ännu mer central aktör i den nödvändiga och mycket viktiga omställningen mot hållbarhet.

  • 11.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimal Localization of Biofuel Production on a European Scale2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Second generation biofuels use non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, for example waste or forest residues, and have in general lower environmental impact than first generation biofuels. In order to reach the 2020 target of 10% renewable energy in transport it will likely be necessary to have a share of at least 3% second generation fuels in the EU fuel mix. However, second generation biofuel production plants will typically need to be very large which puts significant demand on the supply chain. This makes it necessary to carefully choose the geographic location of the production plants. A geographic explicit model for determining the optimal location of biofuel production has been developed at IIASA and has previously been used in studies on national scale. The model is based on mixed integer linear programming and minimizes the total cost of the supply chain, taking into account supply as well as demand side.

    The aim of this study is to develop the localization model to cover the European Union, and to use it to analyze how for example policy instruments and energy prices affect second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered; targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. Two feedstock types (forest residues and lignocellulosic waste) and three biofuel production technologies (methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and lignocellulosic ethanol) are included. For all three technologies heat for district heating is co-produced, and for FTD and ethanol electricity is also co-produced.

    The results show that with current energy prices and a targeted biofuel support equivalent to existing tax exemptions, over 1.5% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels to a cost of 18 €/GJ. A CO2 cost of 100 €/tCO2results in a biofuel production equivalent to 2% of the total fuel demand, but to a higher cost (23 €/GJ). Targeted biofuel support promotes FTD which has higher biofuel efficiency, while a CO2 cost shifts the production towards ethanol due to larger co-production of electricity and high CO2 emissions from displaced electricity. In order to reach a 3% second generation fuel share to a reasonable cost waste feedstock must be used. If only forest residues are considered the biofuel supply cost exceeds 30 €/GJ, compared to around 11 €/GJ if low cost waste can also be used. The CO2 reduction potential is found to be strongly connected to the co-products, in particular electricity, with a high biofuel share not being a guarantee for a large decrease of CO2 emissions.

    It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal overall energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high share of second generation biofuels to reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximized reduction of CO2 emissions. Policies aiming at promoting the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

  • 12.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    System studies of forest-based biomass gasification2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes.

    In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The analysis has been done using two approaches – bottom-up with detailed case studies of BMG integrated with local systems, and top-down with BMG studied on a European scale.

    The results show that BMG-based biofuel or electricity production can constitute economically interesting alternatives for integration with district heating or pulp and paper production. However, due to uncertainties concerning future energy market conditions and due to the large capital commitment of investment in BMG technology, forceful economic support policies will be needed if BMG is a desired route for the future energy system, unless oil and electricity prices are high enough to provide sufficient incentives for BMG-based biofuel or electricity production. While BMG-based biofuel production could make integration with either district heating or pulp and paper production economically attractive, BIGCC shows considerably more promise if integrated with pulp and paper production than with district heating.

    Bioenergy use is often considered CO2-neutral, because uptake in growing plants is assumed to fully balance the CO2 released when the biomass is combusted. As one of the alternatives in this thesis, biomass is viewed as limited. This means that increased use of bioenergy in one part of the energy system limits the amount of biomass available for other applications, thus increasing the CO2 emissions for those applications. The results show that when such marginal effects of increased biomass use are acknowledged, the CO2 mitigation potential for BMG-based biofuel production becomes highly uncertain. In fact, most of the BMG-based biofuel cases studied in this thesis would lead to an increase rather than the desired decrease of global CO2 emissions, when considering biomass as limited.

    List of papers
    1. Implications of system expansion for the assessment of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from biomass based transportation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of system expansion for the assessment of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from biomass based transportation
    2010 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1136-1154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show the effects of expanding the system when evaluating well-to-wheel (WTW) CO2 emissions for biomass-based transportation, to include the systems surrounding the biomass conversion system. Four different cases are considered: DME via black liquor gasification (BLG), methanol via gasification of solid biomass, lignocellulosic ethanol and electricity from a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) used in a battery-powered electric vehicle (BPEV). All four cases are considered with as well as without carbon capture and storage (CCS). System expansion is used consistently for all flows. The results are compared with results from a conventional WTW study that only uses system expansion for certain co-product flows.

    It is shown that when expanding the system, biomass-based transportation does not necessarily contribute to decreased CO2 emissions and the results from this study in general indicate considerably lower CO2 mitigation potential than do the results from the conventional study used for comparison. It is shown that of particular importance are assumptions regarding future biomass use, as by expanding the system, future competition for biomass feedstock can be taken into account by assuming an alternative biomass usage. Assumptions regarding other surrounding systems, such as the transportation and the electricity systems are also shown to be of significance.

    Of the four studied cases without CCS, BIGCC with the electricity used in a BPEV is the only case that consistently shows a potential for CO2 reduction when alternative use of biomass is considered. Inclusion of CCS is not a guarantee for achieving CO2 reduction, and in general the system effects are equivalent or larger than the effects of CCS. DME from BLG generally shows the highest CO2 emission reduction potential for the biofuel cases. However, neither of these options for biomass-based transportation can alone meet the needs of the transport sector. Therefore, a broader palette of solutions, including different production routes, different fuels and possibly also CCS, will be needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010
    Keywords
    Second generation biofuels; Lignocellulosic biofuels; System expansion; Well-to-wheel; CO2 emissions; CCS
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60429 (URN)10.1002/er.1633 (DOI)
    Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system
    2010 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WE), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Keywords
    Biomass gasification, District heating, Optimisation, Global CO2 emissions, Energy system, Biorefinery
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56808 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.01.007 (DOI)000277918300007 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Kristina Difs, Elisabeth Wetterlund, Louise Trygg and Mats Söderström, Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system, 2010, BIOMASS and BIOENERGY, (34), 5, 637-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.01.007 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-06-04 Created: 2010-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies
    2010 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2914-2922Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Keywords
    Biomass gasification; Energy policy; District heating; Energy system optimisation; Biorefinery
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58244 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.11.032 (DOI)000279710500022 ()
    Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    4. Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use
    2011 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 932-941Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates system aspects of biorefineries based on biomass gasification integrated with pulp and paper production. As a case the Billerud Karlsborg mill is used. Two biomass gasification concepts are considered: BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification dimethyl ether production) and BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle). The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance, global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. As reference cases. BIGDME and BIGCC integrated with district heating are considered. Biomass gasification is shown to be potentially profitable for the mill. The results are highly dependent on assumed energy market parameters, particularly policy support. With strong policies promoting biofuels or renewable electricity, the calculated opportunity to invest in a gasification-based biorefinery exceeds investment cost estimates from the literature. When integrated with district heating the BIGDME case performs better than the BIGCC case, which shows high sensitivity to heat price and annual operating time. The BIGCC cases show potential to contribute to decreased global CO2 emissions and energy use, which the BIGDME cases do not, mainly due to high biomass demand. As biomass is a limited resource, increased biomass use due to investments in gasification plants will lead to increased use of fossil fuels elsewhere in the system.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
    Keywords
    Biomass gasification, Biorefinery, Energy systems analysis, Biofuels, Pulp and paper production
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67024 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.017 (DOI)000288102600026 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Elisabeth Wetterlund, Karin Pettersson and Simon Harvey, Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use, 2011, ENERGY, (36), 2, 932-941. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.017 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - the need for economic policies promoting biofuels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - the need for economic policies promoting biofuels
    2010 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, Vol. 21, p. 1207-1212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse economic policy support for biofuels, with the aim to determine the amount of support necessary to make investments in a gasification based biorefinery producing DME (dimethyl ether) profitable for a pulp and paper mill. As a case the integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill of Billerud Karlsborg is studied, using mixed integer linear programming and different future energy market scenarios. The results show that the required support is strongly connected to the price ratio of oil to biomass, with the support ranging from 10 EUR/MWh biofuel (lower than the present tax exemption of 14 EUR/MWh) to 61 EUR/MWh. The required support is shown to be sensitive to changes of the capital cost, but not to the pulp and paper production rate of the host mill. It is concluded that strong policy instruments will be required for forest industry based biorefineries to be desirable for the future.

    Keywords
    Biomass gasification; Energy policy; Energy system optimisation; Biorefinery
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60425 (URN)10.3303/CET1021202 (DOI)
    Note
    Presented at PRES, Prague, August 28-September 1 2010Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2012-02-02
    6. Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale
    2012 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

    Keywords
    Biofuels; Bioenergy; Energy system optimisation; Energy policy; CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74574 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2012.02.051 (DOI)000304076800051 ()
    Note
    funding agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||Swedish Research Council Formas and Angpanneffireningens Foundation for Research and Development||EC||Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    7. Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies — second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies — second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power
    2013 (English)In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today’s tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
    Keywords
    Bioenergy, Second generation biofuels, Energy system optimisation, Energy policy, CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74575 (URN)10.1007/s13399-012-0054-2 (DOI)
    Note

    On the day of the defence day the titel of the publication was Second generation biofuel potential in Europe.

    Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy policies affecting biomass gasification applications in district heating systems2009In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Applied Energy, 5-7 January 2009, Hong Kong, 2009, p. 1502-1512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two gasification applications are included: co-production of SNG (synthetic natural gas) for use as transportation fuel and DH heat in a biorefinery, and BIGCC CHP (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle, combined heat and power). Using an optimisation model the level of policy support necessary to make biofuel production competitive to electricity generation, and the level of tradable green electricity certificates necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in SNG production to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, support policies promoting biofuels in the range of 16-22 EUR/MWh are needed. For investment in BIGCC CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP tradable green electricity certificates in the range of 4-15 EUR/MWh are necessary. The necessary policy support levels are very sensitive to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy tools makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future policy tools, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  • 14.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvey, S.
    Div. of Heat and Power Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - The need for economic policies promoting biofuels2010In:  , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic policy support for biofuels was studied to determine the amount of support necessary to make investments in a gasification based biorefinery producing dimethyl ether profitable for a pulp and paper mill. The required support ranged from lower than the present tax exemption, to more than four times the exemption, depending mainly on the price relation between oil and biomass. The required support is sensitive to changes of the capital cost, but not to the pulp and paper production rate of the host mill. Thus, strong policy instruments will be required for forest industry based biorefineries to be desirable for the future. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 19th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and 7th European Congress of Chemical Engineering (Prague, Czech Republic 8/28/2010-9/1/2010).

  • 15.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - the need for economic policies promoting biofuels2010In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, Vol. 21, p. 1207-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse economic policy support for biofuels, with the aim to determine the amount of support necessary to make investments in a gasification based biorefinery producing DME (dimethyl ether) profitable for a pulp and paper mill. As a case the integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill of Billerud Karlsborg is studied, using mixed integer linear programming and different future energy market scenarios. The results show that the required support is strongly connected to the price ratio of oil to biomass, with the support ranging from 10 EUR/MWh biofuel (lower than the present tax exemption of 14 EUR/MWh) to 61 EUR/MWh. The required support is shown to be sensitive to changes of the capital cost, but not to the pulp and paper production rate of the host mill. It is concluded that strong policy instruments will be required for forest industry based biorefineries to be desirable for the future.

  • 16.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

  • 17.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies — second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power2013In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today’s tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

  • 18.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Systems analysis of economic performance and CO2 emissions2009In: Proceedings of 22nd Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, August 31 – September 3, 2009, Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil / [ed] Nebra, S.A., de Oliveira Jr, S., Bazzo, E., Brazil: ABCM, Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2009, p. 1549-1558Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification offers several advantages; primarily the potential for higher electrical efficiency and the possibility to synthesise for example biofuels for transportation. Gasification based processes have a considerable surplus of heat that can be used in other processes in order to raise the overall efficiency. In this paper we study system aspects of integrating biomass gasification with a pulp and paper mill having a steam deficit, thus creating a biorefinery. Two different gasification concepts are considered: BIGCC (electricity production in biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) and BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification production of dimethyl ether, DME, for use as transportation fuel). Heat from the gasification processes replaces boiler steam in the pulp and paper mill. The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance and global fossil CO2 emissions. As reference cases, BIGCC and BIGDME integrated with a district heating network are considered. The results show that in particular BIGCC can be economically profitable for the pulp and paper mill, with a calculated investment opportunity of 120-150 MEUR, but that the results are highly dependent on the assumed level of certificates promoting green electricity. For the BIGDME case the policy tools are of even larger importance. When strong policies promoting biofuels are assumed the investment opportunity is estimated at 300-330 MEUR, while there is no investment opportunity if no policies are in place. If BIGCC or BIGDME technologies are integrated instead with a district heating network, the investments only become profitable if the heat price is high and the annual heat delivery time is long (8000 hours). Biomass gasification has a larger CO2 reduction potential when integrated with a pulp and paper mill than when the mill and the gasification plant operate separately. The potential for the mill to implement biomass gasification as a means to reduce CO2 emissions is, however, uncertain and strongly dependent on the surrounding system.

  • 19.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers.
    Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 932-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates system aspects of biorefineries based on biomass gasification integrated with pulp and paper production. As a case the Billerud Karlsborg mill is used. Two biomass gasification concepts are considered: BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification dimethyl ether production) and BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle). The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance, global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. As reference cases. BIGDME and BIGCC integrated with district heating are considered. Biomass gasification is shown to be potentially profitable for the mill. The results are highly dependent on assumed energy market parameters, particularly policy support. With strong policies promoting biofuels or renewable electricity, the calculated opportunity to invest in a gasification-based biorefinery exceeds investment cost estimates from the literature. When integrated with district heating the BIGDME case performs better than the BIGCC case, which shows high sensitivity to heat price and annual operating time. The BIGCC cases show potential to contribute to decreased global CO2 emissions and energy use, which the BIGDME cases do not, mainly due to high biomass demand. As biomass is a limited resource, increased biomass use due to investments in gasification plants will lead to increased use of fossil fuels elsewhere in the system.

  • 20.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Energy Processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Implications of system expansion for the assessment of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from biomass based transportation2010In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1136-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show the effects of expanding the system when evaluating well-to-wheel (WTW) CO2 emissions for biomass-based transportation, to include the systems surrounding the biomass conversion system. Four different cases are considered: DME via black liquor gasification (BLG), methanol via gasification of solid biomass, lignocellulosic ethanol and electricity from a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) used in a battery-powered electric vehicle (BPEV). All four cases are considered with as well as without carbon capture and storage (CCS). System expansion is used consistently for all flows. The results are compared with results from a conventional WTW study that only uses system expansion for certain co-product flows.

    It is shown that when expanding the system, biomass-based transportation does not necessarily contribute to decreased CO2 emissions and the results from this study in general indicate considerably lower CO2 mitigation potential than do the results from the conventional study used for comparison. It is shown that of particular importance are assumptions regarding future biomass use, as by expanding the system, future competition for biomass feedstock can be taken into account by assuming an alternative biomass usage. Assumptions regarding other surrounding systems, such as the transportation and the electricity systems are also shown to be of significance.

    Of the four studied cases without CCS, BIGCC with the electricity used in a BPEV is the only case that consistently shows a potential for CO2 reduction when alternative use of biomass is considered. Inclusion of CCS is not a guarantee for achieving CO2 reduction, and in general the system effects are equivalent or larger than the effects of CCS. DME from BLG generally shows the highest CO2 emission reduction potential for the biofuel cases. However, neither of these options for biomass-based transportation can alone meet the needs of the transport sector. Therefore, a broader palette of solutions, including different production routes, different fuels and possibly also CCS, will be needed.

  • 21.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden .
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden .
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia, Stockholm.
    von Schenck, Anna
    Innventia, Stockholm.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia, Stockholm.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how.

    This report describes the development of BeWhere Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying boundary conditions, in particular regarding energy market prices, policy instruments, investment costs, feedstock competition and integration possibilities with existing energy systems. This report also presents current and future Swedish biomass resources as well as a compilation of three consistent future energy scenarios.

    BeWhere is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and is written in the commercial software GAMS, using CPLEX as a solver. The model minimises the cost of the entire studied system, including costs and revenues for biomass harvest and transportation, production plants, transportation and delivery of biofuels, sales of co-products, and economic policy instruments. The system cost is minimised subject to constraints regarding, for example, biomass supply, biomass demand, import/export of biomass, production plant operation and biofuel demand. The model will thus choose the least costly pathways from one set of feedstock supply points to a specific biofuel production plant and further to a set of biofuel demand points, while meeting the demand for biomass in other sectors.

    BeWhere has previously been developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria and Luleå University of Technology and has been used in several studies on regional and national levels, as well as on the European level. However, none of the previous model versions has included site-specific conditions in existing industries as potential locations for industrially integrated next generation biofuel production. Furthermore, they also usually only consider relatively few different production routes. In this project, bottom-up studies of integrated biofuel production have been introduced into a top-down model and taken to a higher system level, and detailed, site-specific input data of potential locations for integrated biofuel production has been included in the model.

    This report covers the first stages of model development of BeWhere Sweden. The integration possibilities have been limited to the forest industry and a few district heating networks, and the feedstocks to biomass originating from the forest. The number of biofuel production technologies has also been limited to three gasification-based concepts producing DME, and two hydrolysis- and fermentation-based concepts producing ethanol. None of the concepts considered is yet commercial on the scale envisioned here.

    Preliminary model runs have been performed, with the main purpose to identify factors with large influence on the results, and to detect areas in need of further development and refinement. Those runs have been made using a future technology perspective but with current energy market conditions and biomass supply and demand. In the next stage of model development different roadmap scenarios will be modelled and analysed. Three different roadmap scenarios that describe consistent assessments of the future development concerning population, transport and motor fuel demands, biomass resources, biomass demand in other industry sectors, energy and biomass market prices etc. have been constructed within this project and are presented in this report. As basis for the scenarios the report “Roadmap 2050” by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been used, using 2030 as a target year for the scenarios. Roadmap scenario 1 is composed to resemble “Roadmap 2050” Scenario 1. Roadmap scenario 2 represents an alternative development with more protected forest and less available biomass resources, but a larger amount of biofuels in the transport system, partly due to a higher transport demand compared to Roadmap scenario 1. Finally Roadmap scenario 3 represents a more “business as usual” scenario with more restrictive assumptions compared to the other two scenarios.

    In total 55 potential biofuel plant sites have been included at this stage of model development. Of this 32 sites are pulp/paper mills, of which 24 have chemical pulp production (kraft process) while eight produce only mechanical pulp and/or paper. Seven of the pulp mills are integrated with a sawmill, and 18 additional stand-alone sawmills are also included, as are five district heating systems. The pulp and paper mills and sawmills are included both as potential biofuel plant sites, as biomass demand sites regarding wood and bioenergy, and as biomass supply sites regarding surplus by-products. District heating systems are considered both regarding bioenergy demand and as potential plant sites.

    In the preliminary model runs, biofuel production integrated in chemical pulp mills via black liquor gasification (BLG) was heavily favoured. The resulting total number of required production plants and the total biomass feedstock volumes to reach a certain biofuel share target are considerably lower when BLG is considered. District heating systems did not constitute optimal plant locations with the plant positions and heat revenue levels assumed in this study. With higher heat revenues, solid biomass gasification (BMG) with DME production was shown to be potentially interesting. With BLG considered as a production alternative, however, extremely high heat revenues would be needed to make BMG in district heating systems competitive.

    The model allows for definition of biofuel share targets for Sweden overall, or to be fulfilled in each county. With targets set for Sweden overall, plant locations in the northern parts of Sweden were typically favoured, which resulted in saturation of local biofuel markets and no biofuel use in the southern parts. When biofuels needed to be distributed to all parts of Sweden, the model selected a more even distribution of production plants, with plants also in the southern parts. Due to longer total transport distances and non-optimal integration possibilities, the total resulting system cost was higher when all counties must fulfil the biofuel share target. The total annual cost to fulfil a certain biofuel target would also be considerably higher without BLG in the system, as would the total capital requirement. This however presumes that alternative investments would otherwise be undertaken, such as investments in new recovery boilers. Without alternative investments the difference between a system with BLG and a system without BLG would be less pronounced.

    In several cases the model located two production plants very close to each other, which would create a high biomass demand on a limited geographic area. The reason is that no restrictions on transport volumes have yet been implemented in the model. Further, existing onsite co-operations between for example sawmills and pulp mills have not always been captured by the input data used for this report, which can cause the consideration of certain locations as two separate plant sites, when in reality they are already integrated. It is also important to point out that some of the mill specific data (obtained from the Swedish Forest Industries Federation’s environmental database) was identified to contain significant errors, which could affect the results related to the plant allocations suggested in this report.

    Due to the early model development stage and the exclusion of for example many potential production routes and feedstock types, the model results presented in this report must be considered as highly preliminary. A number of areas in need of supplementing have been identified during the work with this report. Examples are addition of more industries and plant sites (e.g. oil refineries), increasing the number of other production technologies and biofuels (e.g. SNG, biogas, methanol and synthetic diesel), inclusion of gas distribution infrastructures, and explicit consideration of import and export of biomass and biofuel. Agricultural residues and energy crops for biogas production are also considered to be a very important and interesting completion to the model. Furthermore, inclusion of intermediate products such as torrefied biomass, pyrolysis oil and lignin extracted from chemical pulp mills would make it possible to include new production chains that are currently of significant interest for technology developers. As indicated above, the quality of some input data also needs to be improved before any definite conclusions regarding next generation biofuel plant localisations can be drawn.Due to the early model development stage and the exclusion of for example many potential production routes and feedstock types, the model results presented in this report must be considered as highly preliminary. A number of areas in need of supplementing have been identified during the work with this report. Examples are addition of more industries and plant sites (e.g. oil refineries), increasing the number of other production technologies and biofuels (e.g. SNG, biogas, methanol and synthetic diesel), inclusion of gas distribution infrastructures, and explicit consideration of import and export of biomass and biofuel. Agricultural residues and energy crops for biogas production are also considered to be a very important and interesting completion to the model. Furthermore, inclusion of intermediate products such as torrefied biomass, pyrolysis oil and lignin extracted from chemical pulp mills would make it possible to include new production chains that are currently of significant interest for technology developers. As indicated above, the quality of some input data also needs to be improved before any definite conclusions regarding next generation biofuel plant localisations can be drawn.

    A further developed BeWhere Sweden model has the potential for being a valuable tool for simulation and analysis of the Swedish energy system, including the industry and transport sectors. The model can for example be used to analyse different biofuel scenarios and estimate cost effective biofuel production plant locations, required investments and costs to meet a certain biofuel demand. Today, concerned ministries and agencies base their analyses primary on results from the models MARKAL and EMEC, but none of these consider the spatial distribution of feedstock, facilities and energy demands. Sweden is a widespread country with long transport distances, and where logistics and localisation of production plants are crucial for the overall efficiency. BeWhere Sweden considers this and may contribute with valuable input that can be used to complement and validate results from MARKAL and EMEC; thus testing the feasibility of these model results. This can be of value for different biofuel production stakeholders as well as for government and policy makers. Further, Sweden is also of considerable interest for future next generation biofuel production from a European perspective. By introducing a link to existing models that operate on a European level, such as BeWhere Europe and the related IIASA model GLOBIOM, BeWhere Sweden could also be used to provide results of value for EU policies and strategies.

  • 22.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2914-2922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

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