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  • 1.
    Johansson, B.
    et al.
    Dept. Environ. Ener. Syst. Studs., Lund Univ., Gerdagatan 13, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Energy and environmental costs for electric vehicles using CO2-neutral electricity in Sweden2000In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 777-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilised. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilized. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh.

  • 2.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Environmental assessment of waste management options for recovered waste wood2003In: International Society for Industrial Ecology Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Environmental issues related to the flow of waste wood through the Swedish building sector - A problem description2002Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Estimating the significance of different pollution sources influencing Swedish waste wood2003Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

  • 6.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

  • 7.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control2006In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

  • 8.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion2006In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  • 9.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Tracking pollution sources in waste wood - A first step to integrated material flows between sectors, Recycling, close loop economy, secondary resources,2002In: International Society for Industrial Ecology Meeting,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Libiseller, Claudia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  • 11.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy planning using strategicenvironmental assessment: – exploring new tools in a Swedish municipality2005In: eceee 2005 Summer Study proceedings: What works & who delivers?, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of local energy systems, i.e. supply, distributionand use of energy in a municipality, is crucial for overallenvironmental performance of national energy systems. Itfollows that availability and effectiveness of instruments tocontrol this development are of great interest. For local authorities,energy planning may be such an instrument.Swedish legislation mandates each local authority to issue aplan for all supply and use of energy. In accordance with theEU directive 2001/42/EC, legislation now also requires thatsuch plans include environmental assessment. This is oftenreferred to as strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Anongoing research project is reported where tools for SEA areimplemented and evaluated in municipal energy planning.The hypothesis is that such tools will improve the planningprocess, compared with current practice, and subsequentlythe energy plan in terms of its ability to direct the developmentof local energy systems towards less environmentalimpact. This development includes both increased energyefficiency and use of renewable energy sources. A planningprocess based on earlier studies of energy planning, on theEU-directive, and on earlier SEA processes is proposed andimplemented in a Swedish municipality. Several tools areprovided, such as, scenario analysis, environmental life cycleanalysis, and public participation in the form of citizen panels.The main research question that will eventually be analysedby evaluating the process and its outcome is: “Does the use of SEA tools lead to improved energy planning froman environmental point of view?”

  • 12.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Forskningsgruppen för miljöstrategiska studier.
    Wiklund, Hans
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Utveckling av lokala energisystem - strategisk miljöbedömning och medboragarmedverkan2004In: Energitinget 2004,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Stenlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Viklund, Hans
    Viklund, Per
    Björklund, Anna
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Johansson, Jessica
    Energiplanering med strategisk miljöbedömning i Finspång2007Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Stenlund (Nilsson Ivner), Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems2003In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

  • 16.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency2003In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roth, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

1 - 17 of 17
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