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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 4.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 6.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 7.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Återvinningscentralen - sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven , 2018, p. 389-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Commission’s circular economy strategy pushes for a higher recycling rate and a more long-term waste management practice.1 Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) can contribute to this agenda as a better landfill management option, by shifting the landfill paradigm from dumping or as end-storage of waste to resource recovery or as temporary storage of resources.2-4 Through ELFM, landfills becomes a secondary source of both material (Waste-to-Material, WtM) and energy (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) with the use of innovative technologies.3,4

    Several studies explored the environmental and/or economic aspects of ELFM having different scopes and objectives. Some cover the entire process value chain while others additionally focused on comparing technological choices for WtE,5–7 WtM,8,9 and even ELFM waste valorisation.10 Furthermore, for the economic assessment, regulation-related costs and benefits as landfill taxes, gate fees and green certificates5,11,12 are also accounted for. Regarding the identification of economic hotspots, many of these studies concluded similar processes to be important. However, most of these studies were based on either hypothetical cases, or real cases but with small-scale excavation and separation using non-sophisticated set-ups, which are not likely to be used for large-scale processing. Hence, more uncertainty is expected from the lack of actual ELFM demonstration projects.

    The aim of this study is to analyse the main contributing factors that influence environmental and economic performance of ELFM, considering the landfill owner’s viewpoint. The study is based on a real case of excavation and subsequent separation in an existing stationary facility. Specifically, the influence of the prevailing system conditions is investigated as defined by the current legislation and the market situation.

  • 9.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

    Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  • 10.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

  • 11.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden2013In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 742-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the amount of material deposited in Swedish municipal solid waste landfills, how much is extractable and recyclable, and what the resource and climate implications are if landfill mining coupled with resource recovery were to be implemented in Sweden. The analysis is based on two scenarios with different conventional separation technologies, one scenario using a mobile separation plant and the other using a more advanced stationary separation plant. Further, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different processes in the scenarios. Results show that Swedens several thousand municipal landfills contain more than 350 million tonnes (t) of material. If landfill mining combined with resource recovery is implemented using a contemporary stationary separation plant, it would be possible to extract about 7 million t of ferrous metals and 2 million t of nonferrous metals, enough to meet the demand of Swedish industry for ferrous and nonferrous metals for three and eight years, respectively. This study further shows that landfill mining could potentially lead to the equivalent of a one-time reduction of about 50 million t of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon-dioxide equivalents), corresponding to 75% of Swedens annual emissions.

  • 12.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

    The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

    The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

    During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

    As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

  • 13.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

    The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

    The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

    During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

    As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

  • 14.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder fines is a residue of the shredding industry and is currently landfilled or used as landfill cover in Sweden. Throughout the time, the heterogeneity and small particle size have rendered resource recovery and recycling of it challenging. In spite of that, European policies envisioning circular economy, in concomitance with stringent resource recovery requirements and increased landfill taxes are challenging the current disposal practices of the shredding industry. As an attempt to address this issue, the present study has developed a systematic approach for performing an initial assessment of the feasibility of several selected mainstream applications for valorisation of shredder fines.

    First, sampling of shredder fines from a major shredding plant was obtained twice a week over a 10 weeks period. The main focus of the sampling program was to encompass the variation in the material’s physical and chemical composition. The two samples from each week were then mixed and divided into six subsamples. That is, one original fraction and five size fractions; ZA (7.10-5.00 mm), ZB (5.00-3.35 mm), ZC (3.35-2.00 mm), ZD (2.00-0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25-0.063 mm). These sub-samples were subsequently sent for laboratory analysis for characterisation of contaminants, potentially valuable metals and energy recovery related properties. Second, three potential main stream applications for shredder fines were identified based on existing research on similar industrial residues (e.g. municipal waste incineration bottom ash) and current practices of the Swedish shredding industry. The selected applications are; Smelting for copper, Energy recovery in cement kilns and municipal solid waste incinerators, and Substitution of aggregates in concrete making and road construction. Third, the gate requirements of potential users and legislative requirements with regards to the identified applications were established, and the characteristics of shredder fines were benchmarked against them.

    As far as copper smelting is concerned, the presence of high concentrations of lead and chromium is the biggest challenge. Otherwise, the fractions; ZA, ZB, and ZD show some potential due to manageable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Concerning energy recovery, the calorific value apparently narrows down the options to municipal waste incinerators. There, the chlorine concentration only allows utilisation of the ZC fraction whereas heavy metal concentrations are too high with regards to all the fractions. With regards to the use as substitute material in construction, legislative requirements in Sweden for total content and leachate content of metals are too strict for shredder fines.

    In conclusion, the benchmarking reveals the need for prior upgrading of shredder fines with respect to the different applications. Thus, integrated upgrading processes that could handle the complexity of the material in terms of contaminants and valuable recoverables is needed in order to achieve holistic valorisation of the material.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling2014In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies2012In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, p. 33-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 60, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A NEW DAWN FOR THE BURIED GARBAGE?: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MARKETABILITY FOR PREVIOUSLY DISPOSED WASTE2015In: Sardinia 2015: 15th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] Raffaello Cossu et al, Padova, Italy, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with excavated waste sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, construction materials or even re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. However, the potential in landfills could better be exploited if technology and regulations adapts to disposed garbage.

  • 20.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Actors' incentives for improved waste management: the role of regulation and market interactions2007In: 4th International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Concentrate or dilute contaminants?2006In: COST Action E37 vork shop - Sustainability through new technologies for enhanced wood durability,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 22.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Concentrate or dilute contaminants?: Strategies for Swedish wood waste2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to assess the environmental consequences of management strategies for wood waste in Sweden. There is a special focus on separation strategies and in what way such measures influence environmental aspects such as the presence of heavy metals in the waste. Actors’ incentives and capacity to influence wood waste management are analysed, emphasising the importance of driving forces such as governmental regulation and market interactions.

    The results show that, in comparison to present dilution practice, separation of contaminants would lead to decreased heavy metal emissions during combustion of wood waste while still recovering a similar energy yield from the waste. Such measures would also increase possibilities for resource-saving reuse of the generated ash. For most metals, however, long-term pollution concerns related to accumulations in landfills and unintentional co-recycling are difficult to address, regardless of separation strategy. An exception is industrial preservative-treated wood waste that according to regulation is to be separately handled as hazardous, for which separation measures also would address such future concerns. This indicates that governments could play an important role in environmental policy by, for instance, stimulating separate handling of certain discarded products.

    Actors in the energy sector involved in fuel and heat production have quite restricted capacities for separation of contaminants in wood waste. Instead, achieving substantially less contaminated wood waste seems to require actors in the waste and construction sectors to develop source separation measures. The fact that such measures often involve actors lacking professional standards for waste management constitutes a fundamental obstacle to efficient separation. Perhaps even more hampering is that source separation at present leads to increased waste disposal costs for actors in the construction sector. Such economic outcomes of source separation are unfavourable, since these actors consider wood waste as a disposal problem for which the costs should be minimised. Despite these obstacles, however, the results show that some actors have proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation.

    At present, only a minor share of industrial preservative–treated wood waste is separately handled as hazardous. For actors in the energy, waste and construction sectors, the incentives for such measures appear low even though introduced regulations potentially could have created such incentives. It appears as if a lack of steering mechanisms such as communication and supervision have neutralised the inherent pressure from regulation in many cases. Quality requirements, on the other hand, can be concluded to be of outmost importance for motivating separation measures. Unfortunately, market forces encourage actors in the energy sector to practice inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements. As a consequence, actors in the waste and construction sectors do not experience any strong pressure for separation of contaminants from their customers. In fact, such an inconsistent enforcement of quality requirements seems to have counteracted legal pressures for separation, due to present customer-oriented business management.

    List of papers
    1. Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    2004 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

    Keywords
    Heavy metal pollution, Demolition waste, Recovered waste wood, Industrial waste streams, Sustainable development, Waste bioenergy
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14069 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00100-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion
    2006 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14070 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2005.07.017 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

    Keywords
    Waste management strategies, Heavy metals, Problem shifting, Substance flow analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14071 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control
    2006 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

    Keywords
    preservatives; sawn timber; wood waste; waste management; hazardous substances; environmental pollution; material flow analysis; substance flow analysis; environmental policy; regulations; industrial ecology; strategic sustainable development; Sweden
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14072 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2006.012272 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    5. Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination
    2008 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14073 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2007.03.010 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    6. Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling centres in Sweden and their strategic importance for the environmental performance of the waste management system
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14074 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 23.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contamination in Swedich waste wood - environmental implications, sources and waste management strategies2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, bulk materials, e.g. wood, plastic, steel, and concrete, are contaminated by hazardous substances such as heavy metals, causing environmental and resource problems during waste management. This thesis aims to contribute with knowledge about the relationships between small substance flows and large bulk material flows, thereby enabling the development of strategies that decrease such environmental problems during waste handling. For this purpose, Swedish recovered waste wood (R WW) and its contaminants were studied in detail. Due to their high toxicity, nondegradability, and frequent use in urban areas, the heavy metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and mercury (Hg) were selected for study.

    This thesis is mainly based on three studies. To start with, elemental fuel analyses of RWW were reviewed to accomplish a broad assessment of the elemental content in the waste and to define the general extent of contamination. Secondly, the sources for this contamination were tracked and identified by analysing the inflow of the studied substances via different products during the middle of the 20th century. Finally, different upstream strategies to handle R WW, here categorised as separation measures taken before the RWW enters the combustion plant, were compared and evaluated, determining how they would influence the environmental impact generated downstream in the current waste management system in Sweden.

    It is concluded that current RWW has been substantially contaminated by all of the studied heavy metals during its lifetime in the technosphere. Furthermore, RWW of Swedish and European origin (Swedish combustion plants import RWW fuel from Europe) differ in their elemental composition. Swedish RWW contains more arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, whereas European waste displays higher concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury. For Swedish RWW, the main origin of this contamination is limited to a few sources, of which surface-treated and industrial preservative-treated wood constitute the most important ones. From a total metal flow perspective, it seems that the metal flows related to RWW are small compared to other metal flows in Sweden, except in the case of arsenic. Arsenic in RWW is of the same magnitude as other substantial flows in Sweden, such as a contaminant in coal.

    Today, the management of RWW is mainly downstream-oriented, focusing on measures at combustion plants, such as dilution of contaminants and installing gas cleaning. In contrast to this downstream focus, the results from this thesis emphasise the importance of upstream separation strategies, which exhibit several environmental benefits compared to the current management. However, from a long-term perspective, all strategies suggested for improving the handling of RWW more or less shift pollution problems to the future. Hence, to accurately prevent environmental pollution, upstream strategies must be combined with measures taken further downstream in the current waste management system, permanently immobilising the hazardous substances. Again, upstream separation strategies are argued to be important since they decrease the volume problem, thereby enhancing implementation of such downstream immobilising strategies.

    List of papers
    1. Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
    2004 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

    Keywords
    Heavy metal pollution, Demolition waste, Recovered waste wood, Industrial waste streams, Sustainable development, Waste bioenergy
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14069 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00100-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Estimating the contribution of different pollution sources for the elevated heavy metal concentrations in recovered waste wood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the contribution of different pollution sources for the elevated heavy metal concentrations in recovered waste wood
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One crucial problem related to the task of decreasing environmental pollution and increasing resource efficiency is that many material flows are contaminated with hazardous substances. In this paper, the contamination of heavy metals in Swedish recovered waste wood is addressed. The main objective was to estimate the contribution of heavy metals from six selected pollution sources. It is shown that the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, surface-treated wood, fastening systems, plastic waste, concrete, and soil explains most of the elevated concentrations of lead, chromium, zinc, copper, and arsenic. The sources for nickel, cadmium, and mercury arc more poorly understood, although several potential sources are identified. The included pollution sources differ in the extent of their integration to wood, which influences the possibility of removing them from the main waste flow. Two waste management approaches for obtaining less polluted recovered waste wood are discussed, and the possibilities and impediments for each strategy outlined.

    Keywords
    Waste wood, building and demolition waste, heavy metal contamination, waste management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102035 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-27 Created: 2013-11-27 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

    Keywords
    Waste management strategies, Heavy metals, Problem shifting, Substance flow analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14071 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 24.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban and landfill mining: emerging global perspectives and approaches2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 16-17, p. 1772-1773Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 25.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Återvinnare för industrin 20072007In: Återvinnare för industrin, Stockholm: Rekord Media och Produktion AB , 2007, p. 94-95Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews the articles in a special volume of Journal of Cleaner Production on urban mining and landfill mining, identifying what is seen as relevant for exploring the feasibility of such approaches and which societal changes and research areas are essential for their further dissemination. In doing so, we put the articles in relation to previous research and a modified resilience model displaying dimensions of relevance for socio-ecological transitions, i.e., Metabolic flows, Governance andamp; knowledge, Business dynamics and Infrastructure andamp; markets. The main contributions of the articles in the special volume are in regards to metabolic issues (e.g. characterization of technospheric material stocks and societal impacts of landfill mining) and business dimensions (e.g. economics, organizational issues and management tools). Two articles also provide original contributions by conceptualizing these emerging approaches and defining what makes them different from existing recycling strategies and practices. We conclude that urban mining and landfill mining show high potential but that state-of-the-art is theoretical, implying a need for applied approaches to develop applicable methods and technology and to assess performance of such activities in practice. However, realization of these approaches faces interdisciplinary and long-term challenges, which apart from technology and facts also needs to address non-technical conditions in terms of governance, market dynamics and organizational structures and cultures.

  • 27.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing a monitoring method facilitating continual improvements in the sorting of waste at recycling centres2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beneficial use of waste relies on efficient systems for collection and separation. In Sweden, a bring system involving recycling centres for collection of bulky, electr(on)ic and hazardous waste has been introduced. A significant share of this waste is incorrectly sorted, causing downstream environmental implications. At present, however, there is a lack of affordable and accurate monitoring methods for providing the recycling centres with the necessary facts for improving the sorting of waste. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the usability of a simplified and potentially more suitable waste monitoring method for recycling centres. This method is based on standardised observations where the occurrence of incorrect sorting is monitored by taking digital pictures of the waste which then are analysed according to certain guidelines. The results show that the developed monitoring method could offer a resource-efficient and useful tool for proactive quality work at recycling centres, involving continuous efforts in developing and evaluating measures for improved sorting of waste. More research is however needed in order to determine to what extent the obtained results from the monitoring method are reliable.

  • 28.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The strategic role of recycling centres for environmental performance of waste management systems2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 362-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how different actors influence the sorting quality of waste at recycling centres. Visitors (i.e. citizens) play an essential role since they conduct the actual sorting. They have difficulties sorting many of their discarded products, leading to decreased performance of the entire waste management system of which recycling centres are a part. Several measures addressing this problem are identified such as product design, improved terminology for labelling waste and increased manning at recycling centres. A fundamental task for managers and employees is to further develop information and guidance for visitors, both at home and at recycling centres. Several obstacles for improvements are also discussed, including working conditions and the economy of recycling centres, as well as the routines for communication and quality assurance among actors in the recycling business.

  • 29.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av en bättre avfallsterminologi på återvinningscentraler: kartläggning och empiriska försök2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder en stor variation mellan återvinningscentraler med avseende på hur fraktioner benämns, vilka fraktioner som finns tillgängliga och vad de ska innehålla. En utveckling av en mer standardiserad terminologi, som samtidigt beaktar de lokala skillnaderna mellan återvinningscentralerna, skulle i detta sammanhang ge många fördelar och bland annat möjliggöra fortlöpande, nationella informations- och folkbildningsinsatser.

    På de flesta återvinningscentraler används flera, helt olika principer för att benämna avfallet. Vissa fraktioner benämns efter behandlingsmetod, andra efter vad avfallet kommer att användas till eller så namnger man fraktionerna efter vilka material och produkter de ska innehålla. Detta är på många sätt förvirrande för besökarna och leder till en hel del felsortering. Därför bör man eftersträva att renodla terminologin genom att endast använda en princip för att benämna avfallet.

    Mycket talar för att en terminologi som konsekvent utgår från vilka material- och produkter fraktionerna ska innehålla är att föredra. Återvinningscentraler bör därför undvika att använda olika behandlingsmetoder och användningsområden för avfallet i skyltningen eftersom sådan information ger ganska lite stöd till besökarna.

    Många besökare sorterar i huvudsak efter sina tidigare erfarenheter. De läser därför inte skyltarna noggrant utan fokuserar på rubrikerna och ögnar bara snabbt igenom resten av texten. Av den orsaken är det extra viktigt att man placerar den viktigaste informationen först det vill säga material- och produktexempel. För mycket detaljinformation på skyltarna (många materialexempel, förbudstexter, hänvisningar, etc.) gör det också extra svårt för denna typ av besökare att snabbt identifiera den relevanta informationen för dem i en specifik situation.

    För att fastställa hur mycket information och exakt vilka ord och begrepp som ska användas på skyltarna för att åstadkomma bäst sortering krävs mer forskning i form av ett större antal empiriska försök. I detta projekt har vi tagit fram grundläggande kunskap som kan ligga till grund för utformandet av sådana försök.

  • 30.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verktyg för bättre sortering på återvinningscentraler2009Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) & Sweden and Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban mining - Prospecting for metals in the invisible city2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, ‘urban mining’ has a huge potential for enabling more efficient resource use and offering new business opportunities for the cleantech and recycling industries. This concept involves recovering technospheric stocks of previously employed natural resources that have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating material stocks can be found in old water supply, sewage and power distribution networks – urban structures rich in for example iron and copper. This paper aims to analyze the potential for urban mining of the metals copper and aluminum from hibernating power and communication cables in Sweden. Emphasis is on the economic feasibility of two different approaches for realizing such initiatives. The results indicate that separate extraction of obsolete cables situated below ground in a city is not yet likely to be economically justified for power grid managers. Even in case of integrated recovery during other maintenance work on the grids, additional project costs often exceed potential revenues for the cables. In rural areas, however, both separate and integrated recovery of hibernating cables seem straightforwardly profitable, especially for obsolete copper cables belonging to the regional communication network. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of economics. Research aiming to analyze technical, economic, environmental and other institutional conditions for realization of urban mining is therefore strongly encouraged.

  • 32.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    The Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power gridsor communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have beentaken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metalstocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper,obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasisis also on economic conditions for extracting such “hibernating” cables. The results show that on a percustomer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04e0.05 tonnes persubscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In thelarger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while theobsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linköping. For managers of local power grids, recovery ofhibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At thepresent price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 33.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and economic conditions for landfill mining2009In: 2009 ISIE Conference: 5th International Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transition Towards Sustainability, 2009, p. 189-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "At the conference we would like to present selected results from an ongoing research project

    aiming to address the environmental and economic potentials of landfill mining (LFM) in Sweden. LFM means the excavation processing treatment or recycling of waste that over the years have been dumped in waste deposits. In the first part of the presentation the environmental potential of LFM on the national scale of Sweden will be quantified in terms of selected impact categories (global warming potential material and energy resource flows etc.). Preliminary results show that this overall potential is huge and could for instance lead to avoided climate gas emissions corresponding to 4–5 times the annual Swedish emissions. Critical factors (efficiency of waste technology transportation distances etc.) determining to what extent such potentials can be realised in practice i.e. in specific LFM–projects will then be discussed. The second and final part of the presentation will solely focus on conditions for realisation. Here we will discuss under what circumstances LFM is profitable and contributes to economic growth. Our ongoing research show that only the raw material value of Swedish waste deposits is beyond 10 billion Euros (€). However no matter how large the economic potential appears on the national scale the realisation of LFM will always be done by actors on the project level. For these individual companies benefits must simply outweigh the costs. There are however many factors that may influence the profitability of specific projects such as revenues for recovered materials efficiency of technology environmental taxes and waste disposal fees labour regulatory compliance expenses and so on. We will categorise such factors into a few critical drivers enablers and barriers for implementation of LFM and discuss them in terms of technology legislation and market interactions."

  • 34.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 513-520Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is nowa well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions,local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has beensuggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing,treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill miningcovering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research paperspublished during the period 1988–2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily beenseen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space andlocal pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources,mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically,simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstratingmoderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recentresearch findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resourceextraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementationinvolves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying theconditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmentalperformance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination ofapplied and theoretical research is required.

  • 35.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Landfill mining: on the potential and multifaceted challenges of implementation2015In: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste / [ed] Mohammad J. Taherzadeh and Tobias Richards, Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2015, 1, p. 313-330Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews landfill mining research. By applying industrial ecology and transition perspectives, it aims to address two research questions: (i) Why should we learn how to mine the landfills? and (ii) Why don’t we mine the landfills? Emphasis is on how institutional conditions influence feasibility and further dissemination of this strategy. While benefits of landfill mining mainly materialise on the societal level, it is concluded that current policy, legislative and market conditions provide minor incentives for private actors to engage in such activities. Facilitating realisation is therefore not just a matter of knowledge production and technology but will rely on knowledge dissemination and strong actor networks that engage in politics, influence public opinion and advocate landfill mining as a way to solve wider societal concerns.

  • 36.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potential and conditions for mining the technosphere2013In: Second International Academic Symposium of Enhanced Landfill mining / [ed] Peter Tom Jones, Daneel Geysen, Houthalen-Helchteren, Belgium: Haletra , 2013, p. 19-36Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews landfill mining research. By applying industrial ecology and transition perspectives, it aims to address two research questions: (i) Why should we learn how to mine the landfills? and (ii) Why don’t we mine the landfills? Emphasis is on how institutional conditions influence feasibility and further dissemination of this strategy. While benefits of landfill mining mainly materialise on the societal level, it is concluded that current policy, legislative and market conditions provide minor incentives for private actors to engage in such activities. Facilitating realisation is therefore not just a matter of knowledge production and technology but will rely on knowledge dissemination and strong actor networks that engage in politics, influence public opinion and advocate landfill mining as a way to solve wider societal concerns.

  • 37.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Environmental assessment of waste management options for recovered waste wood2003In: International Society for Industrial Ecology Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Environmental issues related to the flow of waste wood through the Swedish building sector - A problem description2002Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Estimating the significance of different pollution sources influencing Swedish waste wood2003Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

  • 41.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

  • 42.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden: Waste beyond control2006In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood preservatives contain hazardous substances that cause environmental implications during waste management. The objective of this study was to analyse the waste management of preservative-treated sawn timber in Sweden from a pollution perspective and in regard to the present waste policy. Firstly, the generation of waste was modelled and then the methods of disposal were analysed from direct inquiries to waste facilities and from mass balance considerations. The results show that the discarded amount of preservative-treated sawn timber has increased and today exceeds 150 000 tonnes per year. This waste generation will continue for many years and will contain several thousand tonnes of arsenic and chromium. According to the Swedish Waste Decree, preservative-treated sawn timber is to be separately handled as hazardous waste. At present, however, most of the waste unintentionally becomes dispersed in non-hazardous waste, making it difficult to control the outflows of hazardous substances from preservative-treated sawn timber.

  • 43.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion2006In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  • 44.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Tracking pollution sources in waste wood - A first step to integrated material flows between sectors, Recycling, close loop economy, secondary resources,2002In: International Society for Industrial Ecology Meeting,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Libiseller, Claudia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish recovered wood waste: Linking regulation and contamination2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995–2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  • 46.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimating the contribution of different pollution sources for the elevated heavy metal concentrations in recovered waste woodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One crucial problem related to the task of decreasing environmental pollution and increasing resource efficiency is that many material flows are contaminated with hazardous substances. In this paper, the contamination of heavy metals in Swedish recovered waste wood is addressed. The main objective was to estimate the contribution of heavy metals from six selected pollution sources. It is shown that the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, surface-treated wood, fastening systems, plastic waste, concrete, and soil explains most of the elevated concentrations of lead, chromium, zinc, copper, and arsenic. The sources for nickel, cadmium, and mercury arc more poorly understood, although several potential sources are identified. The included pollution sources differ in the extent of their integration to wood, which influences the possibility of removing them from the main waste flow. Two waste management approaches for obtaining less polluted recovered waste wood are discussed, and the possibilities and impediments for each strategy outlined.

  • 47.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Potential and conditions for landfill mining in Sweden2008In: Gordon Research Conference Industrial Ecology,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landfill mining: a review of three decades of research2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-established fact however that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such resource and pollution problems and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering an analysis of trends, objectives and research topics in 39 papers published during the period 1988–2008. The results show that so far landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional waste management issues such as lack of landfill space or facilitation of final closure and remediation of waste deposits. Although most initiatives also have involved some effort to recover deposited resources (primarily cover soil material), such constituents have been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings however indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as future reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears gigantic, it is argued that facilitating implementation also involves a number of challenges in terms of technology innovation, concepts for realization and frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance.

  • 49.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Potential metal resources in waste incineration ash deposits2012In: SUM 2012 Symposium on Urban Mining, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration of waste has always been connected to large metal flows, and it has long been a concern from an environmental point of view, with special focus given to high metal concentrations in the flue gas. However, these metal flows could have also been seen as a potential resource stock available for extraction. This study aims to assess the potential of Swedish waste incineration ash deposits as sources for metal extraction. A second, and equally important aim, is to contribute knowledge for priority-setting of future research on metal extraction methods from such residues.

     

    The results from this study indicate that the metal flows are still considerable. The total amounts of scrap metal in these deposits are significant, and nearly amount to the annual collection of both ferrous and non-ferrous scrap in Sweden. Furthermore, for some of the metals studied the annual flows in Sweden seem to be higher than the metal flows in slag from the copper and steel industries. The main research regarding the extraction of metals from MSWI ash has focused on fly ash. However, by looking at the total potential amounts in different deposits, the results in this study suggest that, from an environmental and economic point of view, the highest potential seems to be for metal stocks in the bottom ash. One metal that has not been high on the research agenda is Titanium, which, due to a high raw material value combined with large amounts in deposits, is ranked at the top from both the economic and environmental perspectives. The results also show that there currently seems to be less incentive to extract the scarcer metals both from an economic and an environmental point of view.

    The article gives suggestions for future research. For example, how much of the metals in the deposits are in a chemical form, making them suitable for extraction? Which challenges arise if the focus of extraction is turned towards the bottom ashes, with their lower concentrations but higher total amounts? Furthermore, research is needed on how accessible different types of deposits are, and what type of institutional and technological challenges and possibilities would arise in a real-world extraction activity.

  • 50.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Department of Engineering Management, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining / [ed] [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven , 2018, p. 317-332Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 60
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