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  • 1.
    Aasmundtveit, K.E.
    et al.
    Institutt for Fysikk, Norges Tekn.-Naturvitenskapelige U., Trondheim, Norway.
    Samuelsen, E.J.
    Institutt for Fysikk, Norges Tekn.-Naturvitenskapelige U., Trondheim, Norway.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Pettersson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ferrer, S.
    Europ. Synchrt. Radiat. Facil. (E., F-38043, Grenoble, France.
    Structural aspects of electrochemical doping and dedoping of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2000In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 93-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical dedoping and redoping of p-toluene sulfonate doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been studied with in situ grazing incidence diffraction with water used as an electrolyte. The diffraction peak positions and integrated intensities do not change significantly during doping and dedoping, while the peak widths increase upon dedoping and decrease upon doping. This implies that the lattice parameters and the relative positions of the polymer chains and the p-toluene sulfonate ions remain unchanged, the redox processes being carried out by the motion of smaller ions between the polymer and the electrolyte, and that the structural order decreases upon dedoping and increases upon doping in a reversible manner.

  • 2.
    Duineveld, P.C.
    et al.
    Philips Research, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Lilja, M.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Diffusion of solvent in PDMS elastomer for micromolding in capillaries2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, no 24, p. 9554-9559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micromolding in capillaries is a soft lithography method for patterning materials. We have studied the diffusion of solvent from the excavated microsized channels in the stamp into the PDMS material, both theoretically and experimentally. It was demonstrated that a model of 1-D diffusion of solvent through a PDMS stamp, coupled with a mass conservation of the solvent in the channels, leads to a quantitatively accurate model for the velocity of the boundary between liquid-filled and vapor-filled microchannels in the stamp. With the model the diffusion coefficient of the solvent into PDMS was successfully determined.

  • 3. Gillissen, S
    et al.
    Jonforsen, M
    Kesters, E
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Theander, M
    Andersson, MR
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Lutsen, L
    Vanderzande, D
    Synthesis and characterization of poly(pyridine vinylene) via the sulfinyl precursor route2001In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 34, no 21, p. 7294-7299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of poly(pyridine vinylene) (PPyV) via the nonionic sulfinyl precursor route is presented. Starting from an unsymmetrical monomer, precursor polymers were prepared in various solvents, which led to polymers with variable molecular weights. The thermal conversion to the conjugated structure, as well as its stability, was studied with different techniques such as FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and direct insertion probe mass spectroscopy (DIP-MS). From these results we were able to derive the most suitable conditions to perform the conversion. The fully conjugated PPyV was further characterized with photoluminescence (PL) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The PL efficiency was found to be as high as 14%. The CV measurements showed that the polymer can be reduced (n-doped).

  • 4.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ghosh, S.
    Phase engineering for enhanced electrochromism in conjugated polymers2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 46, no 13-14, p. 2031-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of nanostructured blends of electrochromic polymers formed by self-assembly is reported. We have prepared blends of a polythiophene derivative, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polypyrrole, combining optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers. The route towards these blends is based on self-assembly of the former polymer into a hydrogel, and subsequent electrochemical polymerisation of the latter using the conducting hydrogel matrix as a template. When used as electrodes, these materials show very fast electrochromic response. The route used in the present work is generic and may be extended to other polymers. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 5. Johansson, DM
    et al.
    Wang, XJ
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Yu, G
    Srdanov, G
    Andersson, MR
    Synthesis of soluble phenyl-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylenes) with a low content of structural defects2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 35, no 13, p. 4997-5003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of two new soluble poly(p-phenylenevinylenes) (PPVs) are reported. The polymers are poly(2-2',5'-bis(octyloxy)benzene)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BOP-PPV) and poly(2-(2',5'-bis(octyloxy)benzene)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (BOPM-PPV). Both polymers have been polymerized at high and low temperatures to study the formation of structural defects. It is shown that both methoxy groups as side chains and low polymerization temperatures decrease the content of defects in the final polymer. As a consequence, the polymers with lower concentration of defects exhibit higher electroluminescence yields in light-emitting diodes. In addition to this, the polymers with a low content of defects exhibited longer operational lifetimes in these devices. The highest photoluminescence quantum yield in the solid state and electroluminescence efficiency were found to be 72% and 1.74%, respectively.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Mammo, W.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden, Addis Ababa University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Svensson, M.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Depts. Organ. Chem./Polymer Technol., Chalmers University of Technology, 412 83 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Electrochemical bandgaps of substituted polythiophenes2003In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1316-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical bandgaps for different soluble substituted polythiophenes have been measured by cyclic voltammetry. The effect of substituents on the oxidation/reduction potentials is discussed. Bandgaps obtained by cyclic voltammetry have been found to be in general higher than optical bandgaps. Among regioregular polymers substituted with a phenyl group at position 3 of the thiophene ring, examples are found that give very symmetric voltammograms. Rationalization for this behaviour is discussed from a conformational point of view.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Moving Redox Fronts in Conjugated Polymers Studies from Lateral Electrochemistry in Polythiophenes2004In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 151, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The propagation speed of the front of electrochemical conversion, from semiconductor to highly doped polymer, in films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) spin cast on insulating substrates was analyzed. Propagation of the p-doped zone in polymer electrochromic devices was imaged simultaneously with recording of electrochemical data. The current is proportional to the propagation speed and has a Tafel-like behavior when taking the resistive drop in the film into account. The resistivity in the film, which gradually lowers the propagation speed, was used for determination of the conductivity of the p-doped polymer. By combining these values with the doping charge injected into the film during front migration we estimated the hole carrier mobility for different doping levels. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Pettersson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Conductivity of de-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2002In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 129, no 3, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductivity of chemically and electrochemically de-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been investigated in situ. We observe a decrease in the conductivity by 4-5 orders of magnitude. The change of conductivity is correlated to the change of electronic structure. We obtain the dielectric function of the polymer by spectroscopic ellipsometry and note that anisotropy is observed in both doped and neutral states. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Jonforsen, M.
    et al.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahmad, I.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Larsson, J.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roman, L.S.
    Svensson, M.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Photodiodes made from poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene): polythiophene blends2001In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 119, no 1-3, p. 185-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A PPV-type polymer with the pyridopyrazine heterocycle (EHH-PPyPzV) has been synthesised and found to have high electron affinity according to electrochemical measurements. When used as the electron accepting material in single-layer-photodiodes, with a thiophene copolymer (PEOPT-co-PAAPT) as the electron donating material, IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) up to 1% was measured. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyse the blend morphology in the devices.

  • 10. Jonforsen, M
    et al.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, MR
    Synthesis and characterization of soluble and n-dopable poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with relatively small band gap2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1638-1643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis and characterization of poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with linear and branched aliphatic side chains are reported. The electron affinity of the polymers was measured with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and found to be highest for the pyridopyrazine vinylene polymers, Compared to CN-MEH-PPV, the pyridopyrazine vinylene polymers were easier to reduce, while the quinoxaline derivatives were harder. UV-vis absorption measurements showed that the polymers have relatively small band gaps.

  • 11.
    Jonforsen, M.
    et al.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Spjuth, L.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Synthesis and characterization of poly(quinoxaline vinylene)s and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene)s with phenyl substituted side-groups2002In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 131, no 1-3, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(quinoxaline vinylene) and poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) with 3(2'-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl side-groups have been synthesized and compared with similar polymers with purely aliphatic side-chains. The new polymers had smaller bandgaps, and from cyclic voltammetry it was seen that the phenyl substituted side-groups made the polymers easier to reduce, with half wave potentials of -1.02 and -1.33 V versus Ag/AgCl for the poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) and poly(quinoxaline vinylene) respectively. The attachment of the phenyl substituted side-groups had counteracting effects on the stability towards photo-oxidation, which resulted in improved stability of the poly(pyridopyrazine vinylene) compared to its equivalent with purely aliphatic side-chains, while the poly(quinoxaline vinylene) showed decreased stability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Kaminorz, Y.
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Condensed Matter Phys., Univ. P., Potsdam, Germany.
    Smela, E.
    Condensed Matter Phys. Chem. Dept., Ris Natl. Lab. FYS-124, P.O. B., Roskilde, Denmark.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Brehmer, L.
    Institute of Physics, Condensed Matter Phys., Univ. P., Potsdam, Germany.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Dept. Organ. Chem. Poly. Technol., Chalmers Univ. of Technol., S-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Characteristics of polythiophene surface light emitting diodes2000In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface light emitting diodes (SLEDs), in which previously microfabricated electrodes were coated with a conjugated polymer, were made with greatly different electrode spacings (250 nm and 10 or 20 µm) and with different electrode material combinations. The fabrication process allowed us to compare several electrode materials. The SLED structures also enabled imaging of the light emission zone with fluorescence video microscopy. Conventional sandwich structures were also made for comparison (electrode separation 50 nm). In this study, the emitting layer was poly[3-(2',5'-bis(1?,4?,7?trioxaoctyl)phenyl)- 2,2'-bithiophene] (EO-PT), a conjugated polymer based on polythiophene with oligo(ethyleneoxide) side chains. The current-voltage (I(V)) and light-voltage (L(V)) characteristics of the SLEDs were largely insensitive to electrode separation except at high voltages, at which the current in the devices with the largest separations was limited. Sandwich structures had the same light output at a given current. Light could be obtained in forward and reverse bias from indium tin oxide (ITO)-aluminum, gold silicide-aluminum, and gold silicide-gold SLEDs, but the turn-on voltages were lowest with the ITO-aluminum devices, and these were also the brightest and most reliable. Adding salt to the EO-PT increased the current and brightness, decreased the turn-on voltages, and made the I(V) characteristics symmetric, thus, a device with an electrode separation of 10 µm had the extraordinarily low turn-on voltage of 6 V. The location of the light emission was at the electron-injecting contact.

  • 13.
    Redhe, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marklund, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the response surface methodology and the D-optimality criterion in crashworthiness related problems2002In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to determine the efficient number of experimental points when using the response surface methodology in crashworthiness problems.

    The D-optimality criterion is used as experimental design method. Two application models have been studied, one square tube and one front rail from Saab Automobile AB. Both models were fully parameterized in the preprocessor LS-INGRID but only two design variables were used. The optimization package LS-OPT was used to determine the design of experiments using the D-optimality criterion. Both models were subjected to an impact into a rigid wall and the simulations were carried out using LS-DYNA. A general recommendation is to to use 1.5 times the minimum number of experimental points. A more specialized recommendation is for linear surfaces 1.5, elliptic surfaces 2.2 and for quadratic surfaces 1.6 times the minimum number of experimental points.

  • 14.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    PEDOT surface energy pattern controls fluorescent polymer deposition by dewetting2004In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 449, no 1-2, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An elastomeric stamp of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) can modify the surface energy of some surfaces when brought into conformal contact with these for some time. The substrates under investigation are a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) and a polyelectrolyte poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS). The changes in surface wetting are characterized by contact angle measurement. Changes are due to the PDMS stamp, which leaves low molecular weight residues on the surface, as shown by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. This process may also be operating when other inks are transferred in microcontact printing. Patterning of fluorescent polymer film with feature size of 10–100 μm range is done by confining polymer solutions on the modified surface, by means of spin- or dip-coating. The profile of the patterned film and factors that influence the profile are discussed. This technique is a convenient way to build polymer microstructures for application in organic and biomolecular electronics and photonics.

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