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  • 1.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stjernstrom, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ansell, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Thunell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    DNA repair genes XPC, XPD, XRCC1, and XRCC3 are associated with risk and survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck2015In: DNA Repair, ISSN 1568-7864, E-ISSN 1568-7856, Vol. 31, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogenous group of tumors with a high rate of early recurrences, second primary tumors, and mortality. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment over the past decades, the overall 5-year survival rate remains around 50%. Since the head-and neck-region is continuously exposed to potentially DNA-damaging exogenous and endogenous factors, it is reasonable to expect that the DNA repair genes play a part in the development, progression, and outcome of HNSCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the SNPs XPC A499V, XPD K751Q XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M as potential risk factors and indicators of survival among Caucasian patients. One-hundred-sixty-nine patients as well as 344 healthy controls were included and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. We showed that XPC A499V was associated with increased risk of HNSCC, especially laryngeal carcinoma. Among women, XPD K751Q was associated with increased risk of oral SCC. Furthermore, XPD homozygous mutant individuals had the shortest survival time, a survival time that increased however after full dose radiotherapy. Wild-type individuals of XRCC3 T241M demonstrated an earlier age of onset. HPV-positive never smokers had lower frequencies of p53 mutation. Among HNSCC patients, HPV-positivity was significantly associated with XRCC1 R399Q homozygous mutant genotype. Moreover, combinations of putative risk alleles seemed to act synergistically, increasing the risk of HNSCC. In conclusion, our results suggest that SNPs of the DNA repair genes XPC, XPD, XRCC1, and XRCC3 may affect risk and survival of HNSCC. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Tiefenböck, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ansell, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thunell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Strong expression of survivin is associated with positive response to radiotherapy and improved overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients2013In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 133, no 8, p. 1994-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a malignancy that is associated with severe mortality despite advances in therapy. Todays standard treatment most commonly includes radiotherapy, often combined with chemotherapy or surgery. There are so far no established biomarkers to predict response to radiation, and thus the aim of this study was to investigate a series of markers that could potentially identify HNSCC patients who would benefit from radiotherapy. The selected markers, both proteins (epidermal growth factor receptor, survivin and p53), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of XRCC3, XRCC1, XPC, XPD, MDM2, p53 and FGFR4 were correlated to the response to radiotherapy and overall survival. Investigations were performed on pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients classified as responders or nonresponders to radiotherapy. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and the genotyping of specific SNPs was analyzed using PCR-RFLP or pyrosequencing. We found that survivin expression was significantly stronger in the responder group (p = 0.003) and that patients with a strong survivin expression had a significantly better overall survival (p andlt; 0.001). Moreover, downregulation of survivin by siRNA in two HNSCC cell lines significantly decreased their sensitivity to radiation. Among the SNPs analyzed, patients with the XPD Lys751Gln SNP had a significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.048), and patients with the FGFR4 Gly388Arg SNP had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.010). In conclusion, our results suggest that survivin plays an important role in the response to radiotherapy and may be a useful marker for predicting radiotherapy response in patients with HNSCC. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWhats new? Resistance to radiation therapy is a significant problem in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and has created a need for the discovery of markers predictive of radiotherapy response. One promising marker is survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Here, in pre-treatment biopsies from 40 patients with HNSCC, strong survivin expression was significantly associated with response to radiotherapy and increased overall survival. The data also indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes XPD and FGFR4 are other possible predictors of overall survival after radiotherapy.

  • 3.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of sex steroids and tamoxifen on VEGF in the breast2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breast cancer. We have applied the technique of microdialysis to provide in situ sampling of estradiol and VEGF in tumors and normal breast tissue of breast cancer patients in vivo. Furthermore, we present a novel method of culturing normal human breast tissue ex vivo.

    Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic effect of estradiol and an anti-angiogenic effect of tamoxifen in the breast. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer cells in vitro. In addition, estradiol decreased sVEGFR-1 in breast cancer cells and indirectly increased VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. Compared to estradiol treatment alone, estradiol + tamoxifen increased sVEGFR-1 and decreased VEGF in breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, estradiol + tamoxifen decreased tumor VEGF levels and tumor vasculature in human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. In breast cancer patients, a significant correlation was found between in vivo levels of estradiol and VEGF sampled by microdialysis in normal human breast tissue, suggesting that estradiol may be a potent regulator of VEGF in the breast in vivo. Tumor levels of VEGF were significantly higher than in normal breast tissue in vivo, supporting the role of VEGF in tumor angiogenesis. For studies of normal human breast, whole breast tissue may be cultured in vitro for up to one week with preserved morphology. Using this method, estradiol, and not progesterone, appears to be the main sex steroid regulator of extracellular VEGF in normal breast tissue. In conclusion, the data suggest that sex steroids and tamoxifen exert pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in normal breast tissue and breast cancer.

    List of papers
    1. Tamoxifen inhibits secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer in vivo
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tamoxifen inhibits secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer in vivo
    2003 (English)In: Cancer research, ISSN 0008-5472, Vol. 63, p. 8742-8748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis, including neovascularization in human breast cancer. High tissue VEGF levels appear to correlate with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival in node-positive and node-negative breast cancer patients. Hormonal regulation of VEGF expression has been demonstrated, and some reports indicate that tamoxifen, a partial estrogen receptor agonist, increases VEGF mRNA in breast cancer cells. These results appear to contradict the efficacy of tamoxifen as an adjuvant for estrogen-dependent breast cancer, yet clinical data show that tamoxifen prevents metastasis and increases overall survival. In this study, we confirmed previous studies showing that intracellular levels of VEGF in vitro increased in response to tamoxifen to levels similar to those observed after estrogen treatment. To further study hormonal effects on the release of VEGF, we used microdialysis to sample the extracellular space, where VEGF is biologically active, in solid tumors in situ. We show for the first time that tamoxifen decreased extracellular VEGF in vivo in solid MCF-7 tumors in nude mice. These in vivo findings were confirmed in vitro where extracellular VEGF in the cell culture medium was decreased significantly by tamoxifen treatment. Furthermore, we illustrate that microdialysis is a viable method that may be applied in human breast tissue to detect soluble VEGF in situ released by the tumor.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13938 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-08-29 Created: 2006-08-29 Last updated: 2009-02-12
    2. Effects of estradiol and tamoxifen on VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in breast cancer and endothelial cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of estradiol and tamoxifen on VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in breast cancer and endothelial cells
    2005 (English)In: British journal of cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, Vol. 93, no 9, p. 1005-1010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acting via the receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, is a key mediator of tumour angiogenesis. The soluble form of the VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) is an important negative regulator of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. The majority of breast cancers are oestrogen dependent, but it is not fully understood how oestrogen and the antioestrogen, tamoxifen, affect the balance of angiogenic factors. Angiogenesis is a result of the interplay between cancer and endothelial cells, and sex steroids may exert effects on both cell types. In this study we show that oestradiol decreased secreted sVEGFR-1, increased secreted VEGF, and decreased the ratio of sVEGFR-1/VEGF in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The addition of tamoxifen opposed these effects. Moreover, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) incubated with supernatants from oestradiol-treated MCF-7 cells exhibited higher VEGFR-2 levels than controls. In vivo, MCF-7 tumours from oestradiol+tamoxifen-treated nude mice exhibited decreased tumour vasculature. Our results suggest that tamoxifen and oestradiol exert dual effects on the angiogenic environment in breast cancer by regulating cancer cell-secreted angiogenic ligands such as VEGF and sVEGFR-1 and by affecting VEGFR-2 expression of endothelial cells.

    Keywords
    breast cancer, flt-1, flk-1, KDR, MCF-7, nude mice
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13939 (URN)10.1038/sj.bjc.6602824 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-29 Created: 2006-08-29
    3. In vivo measurement of tumor estradiol and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in breast cancer patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vivo measurement of tumor estradiol and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in breast cancer patients
    2008 (English)In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 73, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Angiogenesis, crucial for tumor progression, is a process regulated in the tissue micro-environment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulatory factor of angiogenesis and a negative prognostic indicator of breast cancer. VEGF is biologically active in the extracellular space and hitherto, there has been a lack of techniques enabling sampling of angiogenic molecules such as VEGF in situ. The majority of breast cancers are estrogen-dependent, and estrogen has been shown to regulate VEGF in normal breast tissue and experimental breast cancer. We investigated if microdialysis may be applicable in human breast cancer for sampling of extracellular VEGF in situ and to explore if there is an association with local estradiol and VEGF levels in normal and cancerous breast tissue.

    Methods: Microdialysis was used to sample VEGF and estradiol in tumors and adjacent normal breast tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. VEGF and estradiol were also measured in plasma, and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF was performed on tumor sections.

    Results: We show that in vivo levels of extracellular VEGF were significantly higher in breast cancer tumors than in normal adjacent breast tissue. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and extracellular VEGF in normal breast tissue. However, no correlation was detected between estradiol and VEGF in tumors or between tumor VEGF and plasma VEGF.

    Conclusion: We conclude that VEGF and estradiol correlates significantly in normal breast tissue. Microdialysis may be used to provide novel insight in breast tumor biology and the regulation of molecules in the extracellular space of human breast tumors in vivo.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13940 (URN)10.1186/1471-2407-8-73 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-29 Created: 2006-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Estradiol increases VEGF in normal human breast studied by whole-tissue culture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estradiol increases VEGF in normal human breast studied by whole-tissue culture
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Cell Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, Vol. 325, no 2, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on the normal breast, largely because of the lack of convenient models. We have developed a method of culturing normal breast tissue ex vivo. We have applied this method to investigate the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the key angiogenic mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the breast. Whole breast tissue was obtained from routine reduction mammoplasty. Tissue biopsies were cultured in vitro for 1–3 weeks, and the expression of luminal cytokeratin 18 was determined by immunohistochemistry. As an application, tissue biopsies were treated in vitro for 1 week with or without estradiol or estradiol and progesterone. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki–67 were analyzed, and VEGF levels were examined by quantitative immunoassay and immunohistochemistry. Whole breast tissue was cultured ex vivo for 1 week with preserved morphology. Increased detachment of the luminal epithelium was observed after 2 weeks. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal breast tissue biopsy medium. The addition of progesterone had neither stimulatory nor inhibitory effects on secreted VEGF. The method of whole breast tissue culturing thus provide a means by which to explore the biology of normal breast tissue. Our results suggest that estradiol exerts pro-angiogenic effects in normal breast by increasing levels of biologically active VEGF.

    Keywords
    Angiogenesis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Cytokeratin 18, Extracellular expression, Luminal expression, Estradiol, Progesterone, Human
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13941 (URN)10.1007/s00441-006-0159-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-29 Created: 2006-08-29
  • 4.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    In vivo measurement of tumor estradiol and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in breast cancer patients2008In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 73, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Angiogenesis, crucial for tumor progression, is a process regulated in the tissue micro-environment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulatory factor of angiogenesis and a negative prognostic indicator of breast cancer. VEGF is biologically active in the extracellular space and hitherto, there has been a lack of techniques enabling sampling of angiogenic molecules such as VEGF in situ. The majority of breast cancers are estrogen-dependent, and estrogen has been shown to regulate VEGF in normal breast tissue and experimental breast cancer. We investigated if microdialysis may be applicable in human breast cancer for sampling of extracellular VEGF in situ and to explore if there is an association with local estradiol and VEGF levels in normal and cancerous breast tissue.

    Methods: Microdialysis was used to sample VEGF and estradiol in tumors and adjacent normal breast tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. VEGF and estradiol were also measured in plasma, and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF was performed on tumor sections.

    Results: We show that in vivo levels of extracellular VEGF were significantly higher in breast cancer tumors than in normal adjacent breast tissue. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and extracellular VEGF in normal breast tissue. However, no correlation was detected between estradiol and VEGF in tumors or between tumor VEGF and plasma VEGF.

    Conclusion: We conclude that VEGF and estradiol correlates significantly in normal breast tissue. Microdialysis may be used to provide novel insight in breast tumor biology and the regulation of molecules in the extracellular space of human breast tumors in vivo.

  • 5.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tamoxifen inhibits secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer in vivo2003In: Cancer research, ISSN 0008-5472, Vol. 63, p. 8742-8748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis, including neovascularization in human breast cancer. High tissue VEGF levels appear to correlate with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival in node-positive and node-negative breast cancer patients. Hormonal regulation of VEGF expression has been demonstrated, and some reports indicate that tamoxifen, a partial estrogen receptor agonist, increases VEGF mRNA in breast cancer cells. These results appear to contradict the efficacy of tamoxifen as an adjuvant for estrogen-dependent breast cancer, yet clinical data show that tamoxifen prevents metastasis and increases overall survival. In this study, we confirmed previous studies showing that intracellular levels of VEGF in vitro increased in response to tamoxifen to levels similar to those observed after estrogen treatment. To further study hormonal effects on the release of VEGF, we used microdialysis to sample the extracellular space, where VEGF is biologically active, in solid tumors in situ. We show for the first time that tamoxifen decreased extracellular VEGF in vivo in solid MCF-7 tumors in nude mice. These in vivo findings were confirmed in vitro where extracellular VEGF in the cell culture medium was decreased significantly by tamoxifen treatment. Furthermore, we illustrate that microdialysis is a viable method that may be applied in human breast tissue to detect soluble VEGF in situ released by the tumor.

  • 6.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ulrika W.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of estradiol and tamoxifen on VEGF, soluble VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 in breast cancer and endothelial cells2005In: British journal of cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, Vol. 93, no 9, p. 1005-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acting via the receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, is a key mediator of tumour angiogenesis. The soluble form of the VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) is an important negative regulator of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. The majority of breast cancers are oestrogen dependent, but it is not fully understood how oestrogen and the antioestrogen, tamoxifen, affect the balance of angiogenic factors. Angiogenesis is a result of the interplay between cancer and endothelial cells, and sex steroids may exert effects on both cell types. In this study we show that oestradiol decreased secreted sVEGFR-1, increased secreted VEGF, and decreased the ratio of sVEGFR-1/VEGF in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The addition of tamoxifen opposed these effects. Moreover, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) incubated with supernatants from oestradiol-treated MCF-7 cells exhibited higher VEGFR-2 levels than controls. In vivo, MCF-7 tumours from oestradiol+tamoxifen-treated nude mice exhibited decreased tumour vasculature. Our results suggest that tamoxifen and oestradiol exert dual effects on the angiogenic environment in breast cancer by regulating cancer cell-secreted angiogenic ligands such as VEGF and sVEGFR-1 and by affecting VEGFR-2 expression of endothelial cells.

  • 7.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ulrika W.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Huss, Fredrik R. M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Unit . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estradiol increases VEGF in normal human breast studied by whole-tissue culture2006In: Cell Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, Vol. 325, no 2, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on the normal breast, largely because of the lack of convenient models. We have developed a method of culturing normal breast tissue ex vivo. We have applied this method to investigate the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the key angiogenic mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the breast. Whole breast tissue was obtained from routine reduction mammoplasty. Tissue biopsies were cultured in vitro for 1–3 weeks, and the expression of luminal cytokeratin 18 was determined by immunohistochemistry. As an application, tissue biopsies were treated in vitro for 1 week with or without estradiol or estradiol and progesterone. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki–67 were analyzed, and VEGF levels were examined by quantitative immunoassay and immunohistochemistry. Whole breast tissue was cultured ex vivo for 1 week with preserved morphology. Increased detachment of the luminal epithelium was observed after 2 weeks. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal breast tissue biopsy medium. The addition of progesterone had neither stimulatory nor inhibitory effects on secreted VEGF. The method of whole breast tissue culturing thus provide a means by which to explore the biology of normal breast tissue. Our results suggest that estradiol exerts pro-angiogenic effects in normal breast by increasing levels of biologically active VEGF.

  • 8.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Oda, Husam
    Cty Hosp Ryhov, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Lindström, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Tumor cell expression of CD163 is associated to postoperative radiotherapy and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery2018In: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0171-5216, E-ISSN 1432-1335, Vol. 144, no 7, p. 1253-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer cell fusion with macrophages results in highly tumorigenic hybrids that acquire genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. Macrophage traits, exemplified by CD163 expression, in tumor cells are associated with advanced stages and poor prognosis in breast cancer (BC). In vitro data suggest that cancer cells expressing CD163 acquire radioresistance. Tissue microarray was constructed from primary BC obtained from 83 patients treated with breast-conserving surgery, 50% having received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and none of the patients had lymph node or distant metastasis. Immunostaining of CD163 in cancer cells and macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma were evaluated. Macrophage:MCF-7 hybrids were generated by spontaneous in vitro cell fusion. After irradiation (0, 2.5 and 5 Gy gamma-radiation), both hybrids and their maternal MCF-7 cells were examined by clonogenic survival. CD163-expression by cancer cells was significantly associated with MI and clinicopathological data. Patients with CD163-positive tumors had significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) after RT. In vitro generated macrophage:MCF-7 hybrids developed radioresistance and exhibited better survival and colony forming ability after radiation compared to maternal MCF-7 cancer cells. Our results suggest that macrophage phenotype in tumor cells results in radioresistance in breast cancer and shorter DFS after radiotherapy.

  • 9.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Tiefenböck, Katharina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Thunell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Farnebo, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Nuclear expression of WRAP53 beta is associated with a positive response to radiotherapy and improved overall survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma2015In: Oral Oncology, ISSN 1368-8375, E-ISSN 1879-0593, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Today there are no reliable predictive markers for radiotherapy response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), leading to both under-and over-treatment of patients, personal suffering, and negative socioeconomic effects. Inherited mutation in WRAP53 beta (WD40 encoding RNA Antisense to p53), a protein involved in intracellular trafficking, dramatically increases the risk of developing HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether WRAP53 beta can predict response to radiotherapy in patients with HNSCC. Materials and methods: Tumor biopsies from patients with HNSCC classified as responders or non-responders to radiotherapy were examined for the expression of the WRAP53 beta protein and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the corresponding gene employing immunohistochemistry and allelic discrimination, respectively. In addition, the effect of RNAi-mediated downregulation of WRAP53 beta on the intrinsic radiosensitivity of two HNSCC cell lines was assed using crystal violet and clonogenic assays. Results: Nuclear expression of WRAP53 beta was significantly associated with better response to radiotherapy and improved patient survival. Downregulation of WRAP53 beta with siRNA in vitro enhanced cellular resistance to radiation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nuclear expression of WRAP53 beta promotes tumor cell death in response to radiotherapy and is a promising predictor of radiotherapy response in patients with HNSCC.

  • 10.
    Garvin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Resveratrol induces apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in human breast cancer xenografts in vivo2006In: Cancer Letters, ISSN 0304-3835, E-ISSN 1872-7980, Vol. 231, no 1, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and wine, is considered a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. Resveratrol has been shown to induce transcription via both ERα and ERβ. We observed significantly lower tumor growth, decreased angiogenesis, and increased apoptotic index in ERα- ERβ+ MDA-MB-231 tumors in resveratrol-treated nude mice compared with controls. In vitro we found a significant increase in apoptosis in resveratrol-treated MDA-MB-231 cells in addition to significantly reduced extracellular levels of VEGF. This study supports the potential use of resveratrol as a chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancers. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Jedlinski, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Johansson, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cetuximab sensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts is associated with treatment-induced reduction of EGFR, pEGFR, and pSrc2017In: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, ISSN 0904-2512, E-ISSN 1600-0714, no 9, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate in vitro drug sensitivity testing of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)cell lines in an in vivo xenograft model, and to identify treatment-induced changes in the EGFR signaling pathway that could be used as markersfor cetuximab treatment response.

    METHODS: The in vitro cetuximab sensitivity of two HNSCC cell lines, UT-SCC-14 and UTSCC-45, was assessed using a crystal violet assay. In order to determine the corresponding in vivo sensitivity, UT-SCC-14 and UT-SCC-45 xenografts were generated in female BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mice. Mice were given three injections of intraperitoneal cetuximab or PBS and the tumor volume was recorded continuously. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR), phosphorylated Src (pSrc), and Ki67 was investigated by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: The treatment sensitive UT-SCC-14 cells were found to have an intrinsic cetuximab sensitivity (ICmabS) of 0.15 whereas the ICmabS of the insensitive cell line UT-SCC-45 was 0.78. The corresponding size ratio between untreated and cetuximab treated xenografts was 0.22 and 0.83 for UT-SCC-14 and UT-SCC-45, respectively. UT-SCC-14 cells had a higher baseline expression of pEGFR as compared to UT-SCC-45. Furthermore, in UT-SCC-14 xenografts there was a decrease in EGFR, pEGFR and pSrc upon cetuximab treatment. In contrast, a slight cetuximab-induced increase in EGFR, pEGFR and pSrc was observed in treatment-resistant UT-SCC-45 xenografts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro treatment sensitivity was reproduced in the in vivo model and cetuximab sensitivity was found to associate with a treatment-induced reduction in pEGFR and pSrc.

  • 12.
    Jerhammar, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ceder, Rebecca
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grenman, Reidar
    Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    C Grafstrom, Roland
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Fibronectin 1 is a potential biomarker for radioresistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma2010In: CANCER BIOLOGY and THERAPY, ISSN 1538-4047, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1244-1251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiotherapy remains the backbone of head and neck cancer therapy but response is sometimes impeded by tumor radioresistance. Identifying predictive biomarkers of radiotherapy response is a crucial step towards personalized therapy. The aim of this study was to explore gene expression data in search of biomarkers predictive of the response to radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Microarray analysis was performed on five cell lines with various intrinsic radiosensitivity, selected from a panel of 29 HNSCC cell lines. The bioinformatics approach included Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment profiling and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The GO-analysis detected 16 deregulated categories from which development, receptor activity and extracellular region represented the largest groups. Fourteen hub genes (CEBPA, CEBPB, CTNNB1, FN1, MYC, MYCN, PLAU, SDC4, SERPINE1, SP1, TAF4B, THBS1, TP53 and VLDLR) were identified from the IPA network analysis. The hub genes in the highest ranked network, (FN1, SERPINE1, THBS1 and VLDLR) were further subjected to qPCR analysis in the complete panel of 29 cell lines. Of these genes, high FN1 expression associated to high intrinsic radiosensitivity (p = 0.047). In conclusion, gene ontologies and hub genes of importance for intrinsic radiosensitivity were defined. The overall results suggest that FN1 should be explored as a potential novel biomarker for radioresistance.

  • 13.
    Lindström, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Midtbö, Kristine Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fusion between M2-macrophages and cancer cells results in a subpopulation of radioresistant cells with enhanced DNA-repair capacity2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 31, p. 51370-51386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell fusion is a natural biological process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages results in hybrids that acquire genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells. There is a growing body of in vitro and in vivo data indicating that this process also occurs in solid tumors and may play a significant role in tumor progression. However, investigations of the response of macrophage: cancer cell hybrids to radiotherapy have been lacking. In this study, macrophage: MCF-7 hybrids were generated by spontaneous in vitro cell fusion. After irradiation, both hybrids and their maternal MCF-7 cells were treated with 0 Gy, 2.5 Gy and 5 Gy.-radiation and examined by clonogenic survival and comet assays at three time points (0 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Compared to maternal MCF-7 cells, the hybrids showed increased survival fraction and plating efficiency (colony formation ability) after radiation. The hybrids developed less DNA-damage, expressed significantly lower residual DNA-damage, and after higher radiation dose showed less heterogeneity in DNA-damage compared to their maternal MCF-7 cells. To our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates that macrophage: cancer cell fusion generates a subpopulation of radioresistant cells with enhanced DNA-repair capacity. These findings provide new insight into how the cell fusion process may contribute to clonal expansion and tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, our results provide support for cell fusion as a mechanism behind the development of radioresistance and tumor recurrence.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Ulrika W.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    MMP‐2 and MMP‐9 activity is regulated by estradiol and tamoxifen in cultured human breast cancer cells2007In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 253-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex steroids play a dominant role in breast carcinogenesis by still largely unknown mechanisms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been extensively studied in the context of matrix biology but it is not known if sex steroids affect MMPs in breast cancer. MMPs degrade extracellular matrix components enabling tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but may also regulate the bioavailability of a variety of biologically active molecules such as anti-angiogenic fragments, which may be beneficial for the host. This study shows that estradiol and tamoxifen regulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in ER + PR + human breast cancer cells. The main finding was a significant effect of tamoxifen exposure, which increased intracellular and secreted protein levels whereas estradiol induced a significant decrease. The overall net effect of these alterations resulted in increased MMP-2/MMP-9 activity by tamoxifen treatment, which also significantly increased extracellular endostatin levels. We conclude that estradiol and tamoxifen have the ability to modulate MMP-2/MMP-9 activity, and endostatin levels in human breast cancer in vitro. The results suggest a possible role of MMP modulation associated with a generation of anti-angiogenic fragments in the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in breast cancer.

  • 15.
    Tiefenböck Hansson, Katharina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Haapaniemi, Aaro
    Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Palmgren, Bjorn
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Tarkkanen, Jussi
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Farnebo, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Munck-Wikland, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Makitie, Antti
    Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    WRAP53 beta, survivin and p16(INK4a) expression as potential predictors of radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy response in T2N0-T3N0 glottic laryngeal cancer2017In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 2062-2068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current treatment recommendation for T2-3N0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the Nordic countries comprises of radiotherapy (RT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Tumor radiosensitivity varies and another option is primary surgical treatment, which underlines the need for predictive markers in this patient population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of the proteins WRAP53 beta, survivin and p16INK4a to RT/CRT response and ultimate outcome of patients with T2-T3N0 glottic SCC. Protein expression was determined using immunohistochemistry on tumors from 149 patients consecutively treated with RT or CRT at Helsinki University Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, and Linkping University Hospital during 1999-2010. Our results demonstrate a significantly better 5-year relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival and overall survival of patients with T3N0 tumors treated with CRT compared with RT alone. Patients with tumors showing a cytoplasmic staining of WRAP53 beta revealed significantly worse DFS compared with those with nuclear staining. For survivin, we observed a trend towards better 5-year DFS in patients with strong nuclear survivin expression compared with those with weak nuclear survivin expression (p=0.091). Eleven (7%) tumors showed p16 positivity, with predilection to younger patients, and this age group of patients with p16-positive SCC had a significantly better DFS compared with patients with p16-negative SCC. Taken together, our results highlight WRAP53 beta as a potential biomarker for predicting RT/CRT response in T2-T3N0 glottic SCC. p16 may identify a small but distinct group of glottic SCC with favorable outcome. Furthermore, for T3N0 patients better outcome was observed following CRT compared to RT alone.

  • 16.
    Törnroos, Alexander
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    The number of identified lymph node metastases increases continuously with increased total lymph node recovery in pT3 colon cancer2009In: ACTA ONCOLOGICA, ISSN 0284-186X, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 1152-1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The positive correlation between the number of recovered benign lymph nodes and patient prognosis is well established for stage II colon cancer patients. One theory explaining this correlation focuses on potential understaging of cancer specimen, implying that a specimen with few examined lymph nodes is likely to be assigned a lower N-stage than the correct one. Understaging may be the result of an insufficient examination of the specimen post-operatively, whereby few lymph nodes are recovered and potential lymph node metastases are overlooked. This study aims to investigate the association between the total lymph node harvest and the number of lymph node metastases in colon cancer specimen. Material and methods. We studied the original pathology reports of 649 patients diagnosed with T3 adenocarcinoma of the colon at the Department of Clinical Pathology and Genetics at Linkoping University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden between the years 2000 and 2008. Patient demographics, specimen staging data, and lymph node recovery data were collected for each case. Results. We found a positive association between the total lymph node harvest and the number of lymph node metastases per specimen. For every additional recovered lymph node 0.17 (95% CI: 0.15-0.19) metastases were detected (pandlt;0.001). Discussion. Our results support the conclusion that there is no minimum number of recovered lymph nodes at which an accurate determination of nodal status can be assured. Rather than focusing on a recommended minimum number of nodes, efforts should be shifted towards developing methods assuring that colon cancer specimen are dissected in a standardized way that optimizes the lymph node harvest.

  • 17.
    Welander, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bohnmark, Rickard
    Cty Council Ostergotland, Dept Radiol, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Isaksson, Lars
    Cty Council Ostergotland, Dept Vasc Surg, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Wiseman, Roger W.
    University of Wisconsin, WI USA .
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Editorial Material: Germline SDHA Mutation Detected by Next-Generation Sequencing in a Young Index Patient With Large Paraganglioma2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 8, p. E1379-E1380Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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