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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms2012In: : European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy – now introduces a new series of events, focusing on, Papendal Hotel and Conference Centre, Arnhem, The Netherlands 11–14 September 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.

  • 3.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

  • 4.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

  • 5.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The energy service gap: What does it mean?2011In: ECEEE 2011 Summer Study; Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society: Conference proceedings, Stockholm Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, p. 649-656Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the formulation of the 2020-targets, the EU has set as objective to reduce the use of primary energy with 20 % by2020. The target is supposed to be reached through increasedenergy efficiency. Despite a large potential for energy efficiency, cost effective measures are not always implemented which isexplained by market failures and barriers to energy efficiency. This difference between potential energy-efficiency and what is actually implemented, is referred to as the energy-efficiencygap.

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been put forth asa potential means of overcoming this gap to energy-efficiency.Well-functioning markets for ESCOs are therefore addressedas one of the key elements in the Energy Services Directive(ESD), a tool for the economy to move towards increased energy efficiency and sustainability. In other words, the developmentof the energy service market is of crucial importance if a Member State is to achieve the ambitious 2020-target.

    The aim of this article is to analyse the market for energyservices towards industrial small- and medium sized Enterprises(SMEs). Focus will be on the Swedish market, howevergeneral conclusions may be drawn from this example. A large part of the potential for energy services is not being implemented today - this is identified as the energy-service gap. The gap is explained by transaction cost economics; relatively hightransaction costs for consulting ESCOs inhibit further marketdevelopment. The ESCO market in Sweden is estimated, by the Swedish state, to still be immature but have potential forfurther development. A government report does not identify the market barriers on the energy service market as market failures. By introducing market development mechanisms (e.g.standardized contracts and an accreditation system) the state could decrease the transaction and thus the energy service gap. Reducing the energy-service gap could be a cost effective wayof reducing the energy efficiency gap and reach the 2020-target.

  • 6.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Extending the Energy efficiency gap2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.

  • 7.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An integrated dataset of energy efficiency measures published as linked open data2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1125-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an extensive energy efficiency potential, measures are sometimes not adopted due to barriers, such as lack of information. An integrated database of available energy efficiency measures, which has not existed previously, is one step towards overcoming such barriers. To address this, we present a dataset (i.e., data-base) integrating energy efficiency data from Sweden (from the Swedish Energy Agency) and the USA (from the Department of Energys Industrial Assessment Centers), and publishing the data on the Web, using standardized Web languages and following the principles and best practices of so-called linked data. Additionally, several demonstration interfaces to access the data are provided, in order to show the potential of the result. These are entirely novel results, since this is the first dataset we are aware of that publishes this type of data using linked data principles and standards, thus integrating data from entirely different sources making them jointly searchable and reusable. Our results show that such data integration is possible, and that the integrated dataset has several benefits for different categories of users, e.g., supporting industry and energy efficiency auditors in overcoming the information barrier for investment in energy efficiency measures, and supporting application developers to more easily integrate such data into support tools for energy efficiency assessment.

  • 9.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

  • 10.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Restenergi inom industrin i Östergötlands och Örebro län: Resultat av enkätundersökning av 85 företag2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under våren 2011 har Länsstyrelsen Östergötlands län och Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län inventerat restenergin inom industrin i Östergötlands och Örebro län. Enkäten som skickades ut utformades i samarbete med Linköpings Universitet och skickades ut till 85 industrier i länen.

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka mängden tillgänglig restenergi i industrin inom Östergötlands och Örebro län. Enkäten syftade till att få fram värmetillgången inom företagen, dels total tillgång i länen och dels spillvärme per län. Syftet med rapporten är också att översiktligt undersöka möjliga användningsområden för den tillgängliga restvärmen. Genom användning av energiinnehållet för uppvärmningsbehov internt eller som när-/fjärr-värme kan användningen av fossila bränslen och el minskas.

    Metod: Metoden som användes för att uppfylla ovanstående syfte är en enkätstudie. Tillsammans med Energisystem vid Linköpings universitet tog Länsstyrelsen fram en lista på frågor inför enkätutskicket. 85 företag inom Östergötlands och Örebro län valdes ut och en enkät sammanställdes av Länsstyrelsen i Östergötlands, Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län och Linköpings Universitet. Företagen är verksamma inom miljö, verkstads-, stål-, glas-, gruv-, kemi-, pappers-, drivmedel- och betongindustrin. Informationen om enkäten skickades ut under våren och sommaren via e-post och svar har inkommit från 28 företag via webbaserade enkätplattformen. Bland de 28 företagen som svarade på enkäten har 9 företag mindre än 50 anställda och ytterligare 15 företag mindre än 500 anställda.

    I den andra delen av studien studeras möjliga användningsområden för användning av den tillgängliga restenergin i länen.

  • 11.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the countrys final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 12.
    Carl-Erik, Grip
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stakeholder study on Barriers to Exergy Analysis2012In: International Conference on Applied Energy ICAE 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fuller, Robert
    et al.
    Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lessons from the greenest city2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 Urban Design Conference, Nerang, Qld. Australia, 2013, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the City of Växjö in Sweden was voted the greenest city in Europe. Over an 18-year period, greenhouse gas emissions per resident have been reduced by 41%. How has Växjö achieved this impressive result and are there any lessons that could be transferred to Australian cities? This paper describes research which compares Växjö with the Victorian City of Ballarat. The research shows that per capita emissions for Ballarat are 133% higher than those in Växjö. Upgrading the typical Ballarat home to a 6-star rating, and installing a gas-boosted solar water heater and 4.0 kW PV system on the roof could reduce per capita emissions to similar levels to those in Växjö.

  • 14.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division Heat and Power Technology, Gothenburg.
    Åsblad, Anders
    CIT Industriell Energi, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Luleå .
    Possibilities and problems in using exergy expressions in process integration2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1605-1612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy systems are complicated networks, where changes in one process influence its neighboring processes. Saving energy in one unit does not necessarily lead to energy savings for the total system. A study has been carried out on the possibility to use the exergy concept in the analysis of industrial energy systems. The exergy concept defines the quality of an amount of energy in relation to its surrounding, expressing the part that could be converted into work. The study consists of literature studies and general evaluations, an extensive case study and an interview study. In the latter it was found that non technical factors are major obstacles to the introduction of exergy.

  • 15.
    Hrustic, Adnan
    et al.
    Swerea SWECAST AB.
    Sommarin, Per
    Swerea SWECAST AB.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A simplified energy management system towards increased energy efficiency in SMEs2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1513-1520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Swedish companies have since 2003 been able to get certified by an energy management system (EEMS) and companies that have been certified, can now show savings in energy use. The downside of today's EEMs is that too few small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have chosen to certify such a system in the organization. To increase awareness and interest among SMEs, a simplified version of the EEMS would be desirable. This article presents a simplified EEMs for SMEs developed from the original European standard (SSEN 16 001). The article describes how the simple EEMS was developed and how the system was validated, i.e. how different companies responded to test-runs of the developed simplified EEMS. By testing the simplified EEMS in practice among various SMEs, different needs from the industry have been documented. The requests that were of greatest importance was how different incentives can be designed to increase the certification level, e.g. tax exemptions etc. The Swedish LTA for energy-intensive industries includes tax exemptions, as well as the certification of the European EEMS standard, and has shown to lead to large energy savings. An examples of a future energy policy could thus be a Long-Term Agreement (LTA)s program for SMEs including the simplified EEMS.

  • 16.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Anders
    Tuenter, Gerard
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Björkman, Thomas
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Moberg, Johanna
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Swedish energy manager networks for energy-intensive industry as a driver for improved energy efficiency2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential for improved energy efficiency in industryis large, deployment of measures is often inhibited by a numberof barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, a number ofenergy end-use policies is functioning in Sweden, the two largestbeing a Voluntary Agreements (VA) for energy-intensiveindustry, an energy audit program, and in addition, various energymanager networks for improved energy efficiency. Whilethe two former have been evaluated and are well-known, theSwedish energy efficiency networks have so far neither beenpresented nor evaluated previously. The aim of this paper is topresent the current Swedish energy efficient network, and theirrole in the energy policy mix from a theoretical viewpoint. TheSwedish energy network, Energiintensiven consisting of about100 companies from the major electricity-intensive sectors isadministrated by the Swedish Energy Agency. Participatingcompanies are all part of the Swedish VA, the PFE. In additionthe aluminum companies have an energy network (GeniAl),one network is functioning among Swedish saw mills (EESI), aswell as there is a network in the iron- and steel industry ENETSteel.Results of the paper show that despite the low emphasison networks as a part of the policy mix, the networks havean important role in overcoming barriers to energy efficiencyamong the participating companies.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    DynaMate Industrial Services AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards increased energy efficiency in industry – a manager’s perspective2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1644-1651Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is one of the major users of fossils fuels resulting in emissions of GHG (Green House Gases), leading to global climate change. One means of promoting energy efficiency in industry is energy management. The aim of this paper is to outline a number of energy management related factors which affects energy management in industry positively. The paper is a result of collaboration between industry professionals and researchers within an ongoing research project and addresses the issue using a bottom-up energy management perspective. Results indicate that that the “soft” issues of energy management play a crucial role in the success (or not) of energy management in industry, e.g. the manager’s role and attitude towards the employees cannot be understated. Instead it addresses that implementation is not only about technology but equally or even more important, concerns the diffusion and adoption of energy management practices and principals.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systemdesign för energieffektivitet - AstraZeneca och Scania i Södertälje i samarbete med Telge Nät (SEAST) – Slutrapport2011Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Opportunities using the energy system optimization tool reMIND2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a method, called MIND (Method for analyzes of INDustrial energy systems) started in the early 90ies at the division Energy Systems at Linköping University, Sweden. The software reMIND, based on the MIND method, includes a graphical user interface (Figure 1) along with a number of functions in order to analyze industrial energy systems.

    Figure 1: Graphical interface of reMIND

     

    The tool has been used in a number of different projects over the years showing great opportunities to make an impact on the energy systems. In a foundry, for example, using reMIND it was concluded that the holding furnaces would in the future be valuable to reduce electricity costs. The head of company had decided to remove the holding furnaces when investing in new furnaces, but due to the reMIND study, the decision was changed. In another study great savings has been shown when introducing a heat market in a region north of Stockholm, where several industrial- and energy companies could sell and buy heat. In the steel industry process optimization has been conducted to reduce costs. Also, in Eco-Industrial parks great synergy effects have been shown by using reMIND. In total there are around 100 publications, in whole or in part, based on modeling using reMIND (e.g. dissertations, scientific articles, reports and theses).

     

    So far, reMIND has mainly been used in the academia (Linköping University, Luleå University of Technology, University of Gävle and Chalmers University of Technology) but also Swerea MEFOS has used the tool. Just recently it has started to be used in China.

     

    The program is developed as a general tool to be able to model a variety of industries and their energy supply and use. However, it is possible to model any kind of system, but so far only energy-related problems have been modeled both in industries and district heating systems and in the integration in between. With the help of optimization routines the system cost is minimized based on the limitations and conditions the modeled company is exposed to. However, any type of minimization may be accomplished when using reMIND, e.g. minimizing CO2-emissions. It is also possible to model problems with multi-objective characters.

     

    The structure of the problem is represented by branches (e.g. electricity) and nodes (e.g. process lines). Each node includes numerous functions describing the functionality of the node. Time is divided into time steps to consider the dynamics of the system.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact and process evaluation of the Swedish national energy audit program for small and medium-sized industries2012In: eceee 2012 Industrial Summer Study: Conference proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012, Vol. 1, p. 73-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2006 the EU adopted the so-called Energy End-Use efficiency and Energy Services Directive that gives energy audit programs a central role for promoting energy efficiency. As a consequence Sweden launched a program to support implementations of energy audits in Swedish companies, the so-called energy audit checks, in April 2010. The program is constructed so that a company that performs an energy audit gets subsidy of 50 % of the audit cost, up to a maximum value of 3300 EUR, when performed an approved energy audit. The program targets small and medium sized companies, as the maximum subsidy indicates. The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation of the initial phase of this Swedish energy audit program. The results include bottom-up data on potentials and outcome of the program and comparison with other previous programs. Expected results, in addition to bottom-up data, will include the need to involve regional and municipal actors in the program, a need for formulation of program goals and a need for a standardized energy audit tool. The energy efficiency potential for the 300 energy audits approved so far in the program is estimated to around 20 %. 1000-2000 energy audits are estimated to be approved within the program, which makes it by far the largest Energy audit program in Sweden. The already funded energy audits indicate an implementation rate of the proposed measures of 20-40 %.

  • 21.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 22.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

  • 23.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrlandslänens förutsättningar att uppnå klimat- och energimålen år 20202010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hotet om globala klimatförändringar till följd av ökade utsläpp av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid, som i sin tur är en konsekvens av användningen av fossila bränslen, har fått beslutsfattare att agera. EU har antagit mål om en halvering av utsläppen av växthusgaser fram till 2050. EU:s mål fram till år 2020, de s.k. 20-20-20-målen. Dessa mål innebär att Sverige som medlemsland och dess olika län bör ha ett långsiktigt planeringsperspektiv. I detta långsikta perspektiv utgör regionala klimat- och energistrategier en mycket viktig del där antagna mål inom EU och Sverige, leder till konkreta åtgärder och prioriteringar. Syftet med detta arbete har varit att analysera de fem redovisade regionala potentialbedömningarna från Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Norrbotten, Västerbotten, och Jämtland. Syftet har delats upp i två antal forskningsfrågor, 1) Är de redovisade regionala potentialbedömningarna fram till år 2020 rimliga?; 2) Hur de områden som EU och Sverige angett som prioriterade fram till år 2020 påverkar de redovisade potentialbedömningarnar?

    Analysen visar att länens arbete med potentialbedömningar av tillförsel av förnybar energi överlag uppvisar god kvalité men detta underlag bör kompletteras med bedömningar över effektivare användning av energi. Vidare föreslås vissa revideringar av de redovisade potentialbedömningarna avseende solcellsteknik och kraftvärme. I underliggande rapport har även underlag för vilken energieffektivitet som länen bör ha för år 2020 presenterats. Den samlade bedömningen är att utmaningen beträffande effektivare energianvändning inom Norrlandslänen är större än för Riket som helhet. Det krävs således krafttag från länen för att uppnå de av EU uppsatta målen. För att lyckas med detta är det viktigt att framtagandet av policies och åtgärdspaket sker i dialog med berörda nationella instanser såsom t.ex. Energimyndigheten, och att dessa designas i en icke projektbaserad form såsom är fallet med många policies. Djärvhet och långsiktighet vid implementering bör vara ledord i detta arbete.

    Utsläppen av koldioxid är en global miljöfråga varför arbetet med att minska utsläppen bör ha ett globalt perspektiv. Med andra ord är det mycket viktigt för Norrlandslänen att arbetet mot minskade koldioxidutsläpp, ökad andel förnybar energi, och effektivare energianvändning, de s.k. 20-20-20-målen, med ett globalt perspektiv i fokus. För länen innebär detta således att länen kan tänkas tillåtas ha högre utsläpp per capita än Riket som helhet, givet att en stor mängd förnyelsebar energi ”exporteras” utanför länsgränserna.

  • 24.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgren, Maja
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

  • 25.
    Osbeck, Sofie
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bergek, Charlotte
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Klässbo, Anders
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency opportunities within the powder coating industry2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1700-1707Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new challenge to reduce energy usage has emerged in Swedish industry because of increasing energy costs. Energy usage in the Swedish powder coating industry is about 525 GWh annually. This industry has a long and successful record of working towards reduced environmental impact. However, they have not given priority to energy saving investments. Electricity and LPG, for which end-user prices are predicted to increase by as much as 50 – 60% by 2020, are the main energy carriers used in the plants. This paper presents the results of two detailed industrial energy audits conducted with the aim of quantifying the energy efficiency potential for the Swedish powder coating industry. Energy auditing and pinch analysis methods were used to identify possible energy housekeeping measures and heat exchanging opportunities. The biggest users of energy within the plants are the cure oven, drying oven and pre-treatment units. The energy use reduction by the housekeeping measures is 8 – 19% and by thermal heat recovery an additional 8 – 13%. These measures result in an average energy cost saving of 25% and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of 30%. The results indicate that the powder coating industry has a total energy efficiency potential of at least 20%.

  • 26.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 169-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 10, p. 3255-3261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines engineering and social science approaches to enhance our understanding of industrial energy efficiency and broaden our perspective on policy making in Europe. Sustainable development demands new strategies, solutions, and policy-making approaches. Numerous studies of energy efficiency potential state that cost-effective energy efficiency technologies in industry are not always implemented for various reasons, such as lack of information, procedural impediments, and routines not favoring energy efficiency. Another reason for the efficiency gap is the existence of particular values, unsupportive of energy efficiency, in the dominant networks of a branch of trade. Analysis indicates that different sectors of rather closed communities have established their own tacit knowledge, perceived truths, and routines concerning energy efficiency measures. Actors in different industrial sectors highlight different barriers to energy efficiency and why cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not being implemented. The identified barriers can be problematized in relation to the social context to understand their existence and how to resolve them.

  • 28.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applying an interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2009In: Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Energy and IT at Alvsjo fair, Västerås/Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University , 2009, p. 97-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The aim of this article is to combine engineering- and social-science-approaches in order to enhance the understanding of energy efficiency in industry and enable a widened perspective of policy making in Europe. Can a new mutual (interdisciplinary) perspective addressing new questions contribute to increased energy efficiency in European industry?

    It is important to approach barriers or hindrances from another perspective, using non-traditional analytical tools that can contribute new understandings or questions of why a particular barrier is perceived as important in a company. To analyze a company's energy culture, that is to understand the context in which energy-efficiency goals and measures are discussed, is important to be able to take energy efficiency a step further in industry.

    In this paper we have shown that the very perception of a barrier may be a barrier itself to the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures in industry. For example, if it is argued that all barriers fit into the category of non-market failure barriers, this may lead to the non-adoption of policies towards these types of barriers. The perception of barriers, as outlined by social science researchers, may thus not be neglected and should be further emphasized in the future work of aiming towards a more energy efficient economy.

  • 29.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish energy networks among industrial SMEs2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study Proceedings: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 619-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and policy instruments for improved energy efficiency in industry have historically focused on large and energy-intensive companies, perhaps because a large part of the energy use is concentrated therein. However, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 30 % of Swedish industrial energy use. Research shows that both the relative energy efficiency potential and the cost-effectiveness for implementing energy efficiency improvement measures in industrial SMEs is higher, compared with large and energyintensive companies. A significant difference between large companies and SMEs is their management capability, i.e. the difference between how energy is governed in-house companies. One way to approach SMEs is through energy efficiency networks, where 10–15 companies work together to improve energy efficiency. The networks are driven in turn by an external actor. The model has been successfully used in 70 networks in Switzerland and more than 50 in Germany, and is now emerging as a means to improve energy efficiency in Swedish industrial SMEs as well. While energy audit programs, nationally and internationally, is a thoroughly researched subject with developed methods, etc., this is not the case with networks, and in particular the Swedish networks. The aim of this paper is to study the current Swedish energy network activity in industrial SMEs. Results show that a large potential for improvement still exists in these networks, i.e. methods and tools used are still to be developed, as well as a more structured methodology on how the network are to be managed. Including experience from other country’s networks could contribute further to more effective Swedish industrial SME energy networks.

  • 30.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service2014In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 71-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

  • 31.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

  • 32.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden2006In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1836-1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

  • 33.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and indoor environment audits2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this volume is to present the basics of our methods used within the Energy Systems Programme and to introduce how we have combined methods in earlier research. A research-oriented learning experience includes a formal and informal process of gaining and utilizing knowledge in an area of interest. In our short description of the methods, we end up with a rather formal description of the essence of each method; however, this should be seen as an introduction to methods as a whole, where the reader can deepen their understanding of a method by looking at the reference literature given. We also hope that our book will contribute to vibrant discussions within your research environment concerning the pros and cons of different methods, and the possibilities and limitations when combining different methods. We also encourage the reader to contact people familiar with a method to discuss their experiences and understand that there are lessons to be learned from them.

    In this chapter, we will introduce the methods presented here. However, we will start by introducing the system perspective and explain how to do a system analysis.

  • 34.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för energieffektivisering i svensk gjuteriindustri2005Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solding, Patrik
    Swedish Foundry Association.
    Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 672-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

  • 36.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Energy Auditing for Increased Sustainability - Methodology and Measurements2012In: Sustainable Energy: recent research / [ed] Alemayehu Gebremedhin, Rijeka: InTech Publisher , 2012, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energy efficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and its related practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturing companies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy management practices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practices in foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through their definition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 38.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energyefficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and itsrelated practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturingcompanies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy managementpractices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practicesin foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through theirdefinition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 39.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Industrial Energy Management Gap Analysis2015In: Innovative Energy & Research, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency (EE) is recognized as an essential strategy in energy and climate change mitigation policies (IPCC, 2014). Greater competition, unpredictable energy markets and control on greenhouse gas emissions, drives manufacturing industries to manage their energy demand carefully and use it efficiently. Energy management (EnM) as a cost reduction and risk protection strategy against the unpredictable energy market is a robust tool and support function which helps industries to improve their EE level. However, since energy cost in comparison with total production costs in manufacturing companies has the small portion consequently it receives little attention.

  • 40.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandin, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Research on Services in the Manufacturing Industry based on a Holistic Viewpoint and Interdisciplinary Approach2011In: Functional thinking for value creation : proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach and Christoph Herrmann, Springer, 2011, p. 27-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins by consolidating industrial challenges and research issues concerning Product/Service Systems obtained through various activities by the authors. Based on this, it points out the importance of the holistic view in further research in this area so that PSS providers do not fall into local optimization. The intent of this contribution to our research community includes shedding light on interesting issues that thus far have been relatively invisible and with narrower scope.

  • 41.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wollin, Johan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Birgitta
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Approaching Sustainable Energy Management Operations in a Multinational Industrial Corporation2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the energy efficiency improvement measures available for industrial companies remains unadopted due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. One of the main means of overcoming barriers to energy efficiency is via energy management operations. The major parts of the published scientific papers have covered energy management on a company level or on a sector level. However, so far, the literature is scarce regarding empirical studies on energy management on a corporate level. With the aim of filling the research gap, the aim of this paper is to empirically assess the performance of an in-house energy management program adoption from the year of initiation and four years ahead in the multinational company Volvo CE. The paper was conducted as a case study including a participative approach, which has not previously been done in energy management research. This paper adds value, through complementing the existing literature on energy management on a factory or sector level, by highlighting the importance of leadership, speed of execution, and cultural transformation on a corporate level.

  • 42.
    Schulze, Mike
    et al.
    EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht, EBS Business School, Strascheg Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SIIE), Rheingaustraße 1, 65375 Oestrich-Winkel, Germany.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in industry: a systematic review of previous findings and an integrative conceptual framework2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 3692-3708Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research points to a large energy efficiency potential in industry which is still left unexploited. One of the most promising means of reducing energy consumption and related energy costs is implementing an energy management. This paper provides a systematic review of existing academic journal publications on energy management in industry. Five essential key elements of an energy management based on overarching themes are identified within the body of literature (strategy/planning, implementation/operation, controlling, organization and culture) and the specific findings relating to each key element are synthesized. Subsequently a conceptual framework of an energy management is developed which illustrates that a comprehensive approach is necessary in order to effectively exploit the existing energy efficiency potential. Finally implications for further research are described.

  • 43.
    Solding, Petter
    et al.
    Swerea SWECAST AB.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moore, PR
    De Montfort University.
    Improved energy-efficient production using discrete event simulation2009In: Journal of Simulation, ISSN 1747-7778, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently considerable debate concerning increasing energy prices. For Swedish industry electricity prices have increased rapidly during the last 6 years, roughly doubling the cost. This situation has been the catalyst for significant increases in energy research and the research work presented in this paper is part of this growing body. The paper reports an approach to analyse and reduce energy use within energy-intensive industry, whereby a Swedish iron foundry is used as a test case. The results show that by using a customized simulation model a company can lower its overall energy costs through improved planning of the production process. The method formulated enables the disaggregating of energy parameters into groupings and provides examples of how the simulation model can be realized in order to account for energy usage. Different aspects of energy and power usage as well as the corresponding costs are analysed.

  • 44. Sommarin, Per
    et al.
    Svensson, Anders
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A method for bottom-up energy end-use data collection – results and experience2014In: eceee 2014 Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. However, one of the major challenges today related to improved energy efficiency in industry is the lack of well-structured bottom-up data for various sectors. The aim of this paper is to present a structured method on the collection of industrial bottom-up data, and unique results from a case study of the Swedish foundry industry where the method has been applied. Results show that the method is useful in receiving unique energy-end-use data for the industry, and shows that the energy end-use for similar companies in regard to different process-specific energy users can be very large. Results also show how different energy end-users can be categorized and thus benchmarked in a structured way. The study was a part of the project Foundrybench, with the effort to develop a guideline on how an energy audit may be carried out in the foundry industry, and to develop industry-specific key performance indicators.

  • 45.
    Svetlana, Paramonova
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patrik, Thollander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials for different motor system levels – an empirical study of PFE implemented energy efficiency measures2014In: Motor Summit 2014: 5th International Motor Summit for Energy Efficiency powered by S.A.F.E. / [ed] Rita Werle, 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is a cornerstone in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of Energy-Efficiency Measures (EEMs) is the primary means of improving IEE. However, EEMs are not always stand-alone measures. Rather, they are intertwined in the production and other sub-systems calling for a systems approach to be applied. In industry, nearly 70 percent of the power use emanates from motor systems. Electric motor systems can be categorized into three system levels: motor, core motor system, and total motor system, where the large energy-efficiency potential is to be found in the upper system levels. However, previous research has been scarce in showing on which system levels the highest potential for improved IEE is found. Based on a dataset of electric motor system measures from the Swedish energy policy program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive companies (PFE) consisting of about 1250 EEMs saving 900 GWh/year, the aim of this study is to analyze, using an extended version of the system level categorization, on which system levels the implemented measures are to be found.

  • 46.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Designing energy policies for swedish non-energy-intensive and small-and medium-sized manufacturing industries2009In: International Journal of Energy, Environment and Economics, ISSN 1054-853X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, industrial energy end-use policy activity in Sweden has been scarce, in particular towards small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises (SMEs) and non-energy-intensive manufacturers. While the other Nordic states have taken considerable actions towards the industrial sector, Sweden has not. Rising electricity prices in Sweden and the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD), among other things, address the need for the Swedish authorities to design and adopt energy policies towards the non-energy-intensive and SME industrial sectors. This chapter aims to explore this by discussing plausible policy solutions, based on current research on barriers to energy efficiency and industrial energy programs. Initially, results from the three available Swedish studies on barriers to energy efficiency for these sectors are outlined. Then, a few examples of successful and less successful actions towards the industry and in particular SMEs are presented and finally, a discussion is held regarding plausible energy end-use polices, based on the presented research. In conclusion, a highly useful approach towards non-energy-intensive manufacturers and SMEs in particular is to provide energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

  • 47.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Drivkrafter för energieffektivisering i svensk gjuteriindustri2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 48.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En översikt över hur ett energikartläggningsprogram kan utformas i en svensk kontext2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2006 antog EU det så kallade energieffektiviserings och energitjänstedirektivet (ESD). Direktivet syftar till att minska energianvändningen med 9 % fram till 2016. Basen för beräkningen ska utgöras av ett genomsnitt av den slutliga energianvändningen under perioden 2001 till och med 2005. Medlemsstaterna ska till kommissionen inge nationella energieffektiviseringsplaner där de redovisar hur besparingsmålet ska nås på nationell nivå. Den svenska propositionen, ”En sammanhållen klimat- och energipolitik – Energi (2008/09:163)” utgör den svenska handlingsplanen. Syftet med energieffektiviserings och energitjänstedirektivet är att främja kostnadseffektiv förbättring av slutanvändningen av energi i medlemsstaterna genom att (EC; 2006):

    • upprätta de vägledande mål samt de system, incitament och institutionella, ekonomiska och rättsliga ramar som är nödvändiga för att undanröja befintliga marknadshinder och brister1 som står i vägen för en effektiv slutanvändning av energi,
    • skapa förutsättningar för utvecklingen och främjandet av en marknad för energitjänster och för att ge konsumenterna tillgång till andra åtgärder för förbättrad energieffektivitet.

    Direktivet fäster stor vikt vid att den offentliga sektorn ska vara ett föredöme. Även i en av Energieffektiviseringsutredningens underlagsrapporter (Neij, 2007) ges ledarrollen, och då i synnerhet den offentliga sektorn som föredöme, en viktig roll för att överbrygga hinder till energieffektivisering.

  • 49.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy policies for Swedish non-energy-intensive and small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries2011In: Energy Policy: Economic Effects, Security Aspects and Environmental Issues / [ed] Noah B.Jacobs, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, industrial energy end-use policy activity in Sweden has beenscarce, in particular towards small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises (SMEs) andnon-energy-intensive manufacturers. While the other Nordic states have takenconsiderable actions towards the industrial sector, Sweden has not. Rising electricityprices in Sweden and the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive(ESD), among other things, address the need for the Swedish authorities to design andadopt energy policies towards the non-energy-intensive and SME industrial sectors. Thischapter aims to explore this by discussing plausible policy solutions, based on currentresearch on barriers to energy efficiency and industrial energy programs. Initially, resultsfrom the three available Swedish studies on barriers to energy efficiency for these sectorsare outlined. Then, a few examples of successful and less successful actions towards theindustry and in particular SMEs are presented and finally, a discussion is held regardingplausible energy end-use polices, based on the presented research. In conclusion, a highlyuseful approach towards non-energy-intensive manufacturers and SMEs in particular is toprovide energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

  • 50.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Policy Options for Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive and Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Industries2009In: Energy Policy: Economic Effects, Security Aspects and Environmental Issues / [ed] Noah B.Jacobs, Hauppauge NY: Nova Science Publishers , 2009, p. 1-340Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, industrial energy end-use policy activity in Sweden has been scarce, in particular towards small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises (SMEs) and non-energy-intensive manufacturers. While the other Nordic states have taken considerable actions towards the industrial sector, Sweden has not. Rising electricity prices in Sweden and the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD), among other things, address the need for the Swedish authorities to design and adopt energy policies towards the non-energy-intensive and SME industrial sectors. This chapter aims to explore this by discussing plausible policy solutions, based on current research on barriers to energy efficiency and industrial energy programs. Initially, results from the three available Swedish studies on barriers to energy efficiency for these sectors are outlined. Then, a few examples of successful and less successful actions towards the industry and in particular SMEs are presented and finally, a discussion is held regarding plausible energy end-use polices, based on the presented research. In conclusion, a highly useful approach towards non-energy-intensive manufacturers and SMEs in particular is to provide energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

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