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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Ethics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perrudin, Maud
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Rondeltap, Amber
    LEI, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Savigny, Jean
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    van Trijp, Hans
    Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, Group Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Nordström, Karin
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Görman, Ulf
    Ethics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 349-355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one’s health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user’s rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  • 2.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lerner, Henrik
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bo, Algers
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meat production, climate change and ethics2011In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of theInternational Society for Animal Hygiene (vol.1): “Animal Hygiene and Sustainable Livestock Production” Innovations in Hygiene, Nutrition and Housing for Healthy Food from Healthy Animals / [ed] Josef Köfer, Hermann Schobesberger, Brno, Czech Republic: Tribun EU s.r.o. , 2011, p. 209-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans contribute substantially to the emissions of carbon dioxide causing global warming, and meat producing livestock contributes to this. Estimates of the global greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector vary from 5% to 50%. Nevertheless, the emissions are in absolute terms substantial, and the issue needs to be mitigated. The present paper analyses and discusses various solutions for how to mitigate climate change to the extent it is caused by animal production. The ethical problem of mitigation of climate change, to the extent it is caused by animal production, is an extremely complex anddifficult issue. There are different views on the nature and scale of impact and different mitigation approaches, as well as different ethical aspects of the mitigation approaches.

  • 3.
    Görman, U
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordström, K
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, J
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grimaldi, K
    Eurogenetica Ltd, Burnham-on-Sea, UK .
    Mathers, J
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Perrudin, M
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Savigny, J
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Coff, C
    University College Zealand, Sorø,Denmark .
    Jönsson, H
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Juth, N
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellström, S
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Meijboom, F
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rondeltap, A
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van Trijp, H
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Is it right? The ethical and legal implications of personalised nutrition2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Algers, Bo
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Livestock’s “short shadow”?: Balancing mitigation of climate change against other values2011In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of theInternational Society for Animal Hygiene (vol.1): “Animal Hygiene and Sustainable Livestock Production” Innovations in Hygiene, Nutrition and Housing for Healthy Food from Healthy Animals / [ed] Josef Köfer, Hermann Schobesberger, Brno, Czech Republic: Tribun EU s.r.o. , 2011, p. 213-214Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Livestock has been said to cast a long shadow on climate change. However, environmental protection has also other aspects. This paper analyses one possible conflict between environmental goals in Sweden: to decrease the number of ruminants in order to minimise the impact on climate change and to maintain the number of ruminants in order to preserve biological diversity. Some Swedish stakeholders seem to argue that preserving biological diversity carries as much weight as mitigating climate change. This can be interpreted as if ruminants are considered to be good for the environment despite their impact on climate change, and thus shortening the long shadow. We point out, however, that only a fraction of ruminants are grazing pastures with high biodiversity. For most Swedish meat production, this argument is of minor importance for environmental sustainability.

  • 5.
    Lerner, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Institutionen för husjdurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Algers, Bo
    Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholders on meat production, meat consumption and mitigation of climate change: Sweden as a case2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 663-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the views of Swedish stakeholders on how to mitigate climate change to the extent it is caused by meat production. The stakeholders include meat producer organisations, governmental agencies with direct influence on meat production, political parties as well as non-governmental organisations. Representatives of twelve organisations were interviewed. Several organisations argued against the mitigation option of reducing beef production despite the higher greenhouse gas intensity of beef compared to pork and chicken meat (according to life cycle analysis). Regarding feed production some organisations proposed use of the best available industrial fertilizers, others were against all use of such fertilizers. Several organizations suggested domestic production of more protein-rich fodder and use of manure for biogas production. Regarding meat consumption the focus was on throwing away less food as waste and on eating less meat but the best (most climate friendly) meat, which was considered to be Swedish meat in contrast to imported meat. There was agreement on many issues. Most disagreement was found regarding political steering. We find many of the stakeholders' mitigation proposals regarding meat production and consumption acceptable. However, we are to some extent critical to their defence of Swedish beef production. We also point out certain problems with the suggestion to reduce consumption of imported meat but not of domestically produced meat.

  • 6.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A climate tax on meat?2012In: Climate change and sustainable development :: ethical perspectives on land use and food production: ethical perspectives on land use and food production / [ed] Thomas Potthast, Simon Meisch, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2012, p. 109-114Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a major framing condition for sustainable development of agriculture and food. Global food production is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time it is among the sectors worst affected by climate change. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of authors exploring the ethical dimensions of climate change and food. Conceptual clarifications provide a necessary basis for putting sustainable development into practice. Adaptation and mitigation demand altering both agricultural and consumption practices. Intensive vs. extensive produc.

  • 7.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning2006In: Reproductive Biomedicine Online, ISSN 1472-6483, E-ISSN 1472-6491, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 278-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle - as interpreted in the European Union - are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  • 8.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Animal agriculture and climate change: ethical perspectives2009In: Ethical futures: bioscience and food horizons, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers , 2009, p. 86-91Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Bör djur och människor behandlas olika eller lika?2008In: Djuren är väl också människor: en antologi om hälsa och välbefinnande i djurens och människornas värld / [ed] Bo Algers, Stefan Gunnarsson & Lennart Nordenfelt, Skara: Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2008, p. 71-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conclusions from a project on meat production and climate change2013In: Climate Change, Sustainability, and an Ethics of an Open Future, 2013, 2013, p. 104-105Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Consumer genomics companies and their appeal to empowerment2013In: Genomics and democracy: towards a 'Lingua Democratica' for the public debate on genomics / [ed] Peter Derkx, Harry Kunneman, Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2013, p. 257-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       This book addresses the ethical and political questions flowing from the vastly increased possibilities to manipulate the genetic properties of organisms, including human beings. Due to the great complexity of the scientific fields involved, these questions are framed and answered mostly by scientific experts. But the new technological possibilities and social practices connected with genetic manipulation intrude into domains that for a long time have been the provenance of religious and secular worldviews and touch upon deep-seated convictions and emotions. Moreover they are strongly influenc.

  • 12.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Consumer genomics companies as a global challenge2009In: Sources and perspectives of bioethics, 2009, p. 56-56Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Crisis management and public health: ethical principles for priority setting at a regional level in Sweden2015In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I analyse and discuss guidelines for priority setting in crisis management at a regional level in Sweden. The guidelines concern three types of crises: pandemics, large losses of electric power and interruptions in water supply. Pandemics are typical public health issues. Large losses of electric power and interruptions in water supply are in themselves not, but may have serious public health consequences. These guidelines are compared with guidelines for priority setting in health care. This is done because of the central position of health care in the management of many different types of crises. The comparison shows clear differences. In the analysis, I use a distinction between substantive principles of priority setting and process-oriented principles. Regarding substantive principles, I have found that the guidelines point in different directions. This seems acceptable, however, since they focus on different problems. Moreover, it seems possible to integrate the various context-dependent principles by relating them to higher order principles. Regarding process-oriented principles, I have found that how and to what extent these principles are applied in the guidelines vary. If we want to apply these principles in a more satisfying way, this would require a more systematic approach.

  • 14.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Djuretiska plattformar i livsmedelsbranschen2008In: Djuren är väl också människor: en antologi om hälsa och välbefinnande i djurens och människornas värld / [ed] Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber, Eve-Marie Engels, and John Tsiantis, Skara: Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet , 2008, p. 41-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Djurs integritet och förmåga till lidande2005In: Naturvetaren, ISSN 0345-8296, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ethical issues in mitigation of climate change: The option of reduced meat production and consumption2012In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 563-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I discuss ethical issues related to mitigation of climate change. In particular, I focus on mitigation of climate change to the extent this change is caused by livestock production. I support the view—on which many different ethical approaches converge—that the present generation has a moral obligation to mitigate climate change for the benefit of future generations and that developed countries should take the lead in the process. Moreover, I argue that since livestock production is an important contributing factor to climate change, we should undertake mitigation measures also in this sector and not only in, for example, the transport and energy sectors. However, technological solutions do not seem sufficient in the livestock sector, leaving us with the option of reduced meat production and consumption. In order to reach significant results in mitigation of climate change, political steering seems necessary. With this in mind, I argue in favor of a tax on meat consumption.

  • 17.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Ethics and Science2007In: Perspectives on Applied Ethics / [ed] Göran Collste, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007, p. 89-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics.

    From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and implications of that particular practice.

    The Erasmus Mundus Masters Course in Applied Ethics is supported by the European Union. The programme is a collaboration between three European universities; Linköping University, The Centre for Ap-plied Ethics, (Sweden), Utrecht University, the Ethics Institute, (The Netherlands), and the Norwegian University of Science and Technol-ogy, Department of Philosophy, Programme for Applied Ethics (Nor-way).

    Each year, the programme starts with a common introduction for all students. During this introduction, the teachers present different per-spectives on applied ethics. In this volume the introductions are pub-lished. They give a broad view of different aspects on applied ethics.

  • 18.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Etiska prioriteringsprinciper för länsstyrelsens krishantering2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Länsstyrelsen ska i enlighet med förordningen (2006:942) om krisberedskap och höjd beredskap efter beslut av regeringen prioritera och inrikta statliga och internationella resurser som ställs till förfogande. För kunna genomföra en sådan prioritering och inriktning behöver länsstyrelsen inledningsvis arbeta med en kunskapsuppbyggnad för att kunna belysa de etiska aspekterna av en sådan prioritering. Föreliggande kunskapsunderlag är ett första steg i dettaarbete.

  • 19.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Etiska problem i grundutbildningen - en inventering: Rapport till filosofiska fakulteten2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här utredningen fokuserar jag uteslutande på etiska problem (men jag kommer endast undantagsvis att kategorisera problemen utifrån dessa distinktioner). En ”lekmannadefinition”, som ibland förekommer, är att ett etiskt problem föreligger när något är både rätt och fel, bra och dåligt, på samma gång. Denna definition anknyter framför allt till den tredje aspekten, avvägningsproblem. Jag undersöker inte hur dålig moralen är bland dem som är involverade i grundutbildningen. Jag undersöker heller inte hur vanliga de etiska problemen upplevs vara inom olika typer av grundutbildningar. Å andra sidan tar jag enbart upp problem som kommer över en viss tröskel av realism dvs rent hypotetiska problem lämnas därhän. Syftet är att peka ut etiska problem som är viktiga att ta ställning till därför att ställningstagandet kan få praktisk betydelse.

    Under mina intevjuer har jag märkt man inom olika grundutbildningar kan ha mycket olika uppfattningar om vilka etiska problem som är särskilt viktiga. I min presentation nedan specifierar jag dock inte dylika skillnader.

    Vissa problem som jag tar upp kanske inte av alla uppfattas som etiska, utan snarare som pedagogiska, juridiska, organisatoriska, sociala, psykologiska etc. Jag vill dock hävda att även om ett problem primärt uppfattas som t ex pedagogiskt, så kan det väcka etiska följdfrågor om t ex rättvisa, integritet eller lojalitet. Det är problem som dessa jag fokuserar på. När jag nedan betecknar något som ett etiskt problem utesluter alltså inte detta att problemet kanske primärt är pedagogiskt. Detta är viktigt att notera.

  • 20.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    For Our Children: The Ethics of Animal Experimentation in the Age of Genetic Engineering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides an overview of different ethical views on animal experimentation. Special attention is given to the production and experimental use of genetically modified animals. It proposes a middle course between those positions that are very critical and those very positive. This middle course implies that animal experiments originating in vital human research interests are commonly justified, provided that animal welfare is taken seriously. Some animal experiments are not acceptable, since the expected human benefit is too low and the animal suffering too severe. This position is supported by an argument from species care according to which we have special obligations to our children and other humans due to special relations. The book tries to bridge the gap between animal ethics and animal welfare science by discussing various conceptions of animal welfare: function-centered, feeling-based, and those focusing on natural living. The theoretical starting-point is "imaginative casuistry." This approach stresses the role of moral imagination and metaphor in ethical deliberation, accepts a plurality of values, and recognizes the importance of case-by-case balancing. In the discussion of genetically modified animals, both intrinsic ethical concerns and animal welfare concerns are addressed.

  • 21.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Får forskare skada djur i djurförsök för att hjälpa svårt sjuka barn?2014In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Genes, body clocks and prevention of sleep problems2016In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronobiologists argue that their scientific findings have implications for prevention of sleep problems. They claim that some sleep problems are caused by the fact that people live against their individual body clock rather than adjusted to it. They also claim that by taking the findings of chronobiology seriously in policy-making some sleep problems can be prevented. I investigate applications of chronobiology in two social areas—school schedules and shift work—and show that in order for these applications to be justified certain implicit presumptions have to be justified. The first presumption is explanatory, namely that a chronobiological explanation is an adequate explanation of the sleep problems at hand. In addition I analyse three ethical presumptions. The first ethical presumption is that sleep is of vital value. The second is that sleep is not an exclusively private issue. The third ethical presumption is that the preventive measures to be undertaken are ethically acceptable. My main point is that it is not possible to simply “read off” policy measures from the empirical findings of chronobiology.

  • 23.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Genetic Identity: Implications and Limitations2005In: Biomedicine within the limits of human existence,2005, 2005, p. 60-60Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Genetics and identity2008In: Community Genetics, ISSN 1422-2795, E-ISSN 1422-2833, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 252-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last 20 years the concepts of identity and identification have been subject to much interest in the humanities and social sciences. However, the implications of genetics for identity and identification have been largely neglected. In this paper, I distinguish various conceptions of identity (as continuity over time, as basic kind of being, as unique set of properties, and as social role) and identification (as subjective experience of identity in various senses and as social ascription of identity in various senses), and investigate systematically genetic perspectives on each of these conceptions. I stress the importance of taking the genetic perspectives seriously but also their limitations. In particular, I pinpoint conceptual problems that arise when a genetic approach to identity is adopted. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG.

  • 25.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Genetics, Identity, Identification2006In: The 8th World Congress of Bioethics,2006, 2006, p. 109-110Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur kan forskning gagna grundutbildning och grundutbildning forskning?2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I IKK:s strategiska arbete ingår satsningar på både forskningsrelaterade och pedagogiska frågor. Relevant för detta är högskolelagens betoning av att ”verksamheten skall bedrivas så att det finns ett nära samband mellan forskning och utbildning” (SFS 1992:1434, 3§). Frågan inställer sig hur en sådan koppling mellan forskning och grundutbildning kan se ut mer konkret. För att få svar på detta har jag samtalat med några erfarna forskande lärare och sammanställt deras och mina egna reflektioner till ett diskussionsunderlag. För att begränsa projektet har fokus lagts på forskning och utbildning inom filosofisk fakultet (inte utbildningsvetenskap). Huvudfrågan har varit: Hur kan forskning gagna grundutbildning och grundutbildning forskning? Tyngdpunkten ligger på den första delfrågan.

  • 27.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Implications of animal cloning and germ-line interventions: an epigenetic argument for precaution in application to humans2005In: Ethics and philosophy of emerging medical technologies,2005, 2005, p. 72-72Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meat and Global Warming: Impact Models, Mitigation Approaches and Ethical Aspects2012In: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 437-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate the ethical problem of mitigation of climate change, to the extent this change is caused by animal production. First, I give an overview of various views of the nature and scale of the impact of animal production on climate change: the life cycle model, the complex impact model and the additional emissions model. Second, I analyse various approaches to mitigation of climate change to the extent it is caused by animal production, such as different technological solutions and more or less radical proposals for reduction of livestock numbers. Third, I carry out a preliminary investigation of ethical aspects to be taken into consideration in assessing the mitigation approaches: intergenerational justice, intragenerational justice, animal welfare, potential, and feasibility. Finally, I propose a kind of 'contraction and convergence' policy, i.e., a policy of reducing meat consumption to a certain level in developed countries while allowing people in developing countries to increase their consumption up to this level.

  • 29.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture.
    Moral imagination in tissue engineering research on animal models2004In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 25, p. 1723-1734Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neither as harmful as feared by critics nor as empowering as promised by providers: risk information offered direct to consumer by personal genomics companies2014In: Journal of Community Genetics, ISSN 1868-310X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate ethical and policy aspects of the genetic services and web-rhetoric of companies offering genetic information direct to consumer, and I do so with a special focus on genetic risk information. On their websites, the companies stress that genetic risk testing for multifactorial complex medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer may empower the consumer and provide valuable input to personal identity. Critics maintain, on the other hand, that testing can be psychologically harmful, is of limited clinical and preventive value, and vulnerable to misinterpretation. I stress the importance of empirical studies in assessing the pros and cons of direct-to-consumer testing and point out that recent empirical studies indicate that this testing is neither as harmful as feared by critics nor as empowering as promised by the companies. However, the testing is not entirely harmless. Remaining problems include testing of third parties without consent and ownership of genotypic and phenotypic information. Moreover, the testing, although not particularly empowering, may still provide input to self-understanding that some people find valuable. Regarding policy-making, I suggest that self-regulation in terms of best practice guidelines may play an important role, but I also stress that national and international regulation may be necessary.

  • 31.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Personal Genomics: Consumer Genomics Companies and their Rhetoric2010In: Consumer Medicine / [ed] Aaro Tupasela, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2010, 1, p. 39-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Nordisk ministerråds komité for bioetikk (NCBio) ble etablert i 1989 for å fremme nordisk samarbeid og utveksling av informasjon om bioetikk mellom forskere, politikere, opinionsledere og myndighetene. NCBio arrangerer arbeidsmøter, konferanser og gir ut rapporter eller andre publi-kasjoner for å stimulere nordisk og internasjonal debatt om bioetikk. NCBio har to medlemmer fra hvert av de fem nordiske landene. Med-lemmene blir oppnevnt av Nordisk Ministerråd etter å ha blitt nominert av de nordiske landene. Komitéen finansieres av Nordisk Ministerråd.

    I denne redigerte boken presenterer vi synspunkter fra flere av de invi-terte foredragsholderne på to av konferansene våre i 2009. Den første konferansen ble avholdt i januar i Århus, Danmark. Den omhandlet gene-tisk selvtesting og fokuserte på utviklingen av genetiske tester som selges på internett og sendes direkte til forbrukerne. Den andre konferansen ble avholdt i mai i Sigtuna, Sverige, og den omhandlet medisinsk turisme. Begge konferansene har til felles at de fokuserer på det vi har kalt "con-sumer medicine" eller på norsk "forbrukermedisin". På hvert sitt område utforsket konferansene produksjon og salg av medisinske varer og tjenes-ter som tilbys pasienter over hele verden. Disse pasientene blir imidlertid i stadig større grad sett på som forbrukere av disse varene og tjenestene. Det tradisjonelle synet på pasienter som passive mottakere av helsetjenes-ter har i løpet av det siste tiåret gradvis blitt endret mot at pasienter er aktive forbrukere som tar et sterkere ansvar for behandling og oppfølg-ning av egen sykdom. Dette drastiske skiftet bringer imidlertid med seg en rekke utfordringer som det er behov for å utforske nærmere.

    Med stadig flere nye produkter og tjenester på det åpne markedet, øker behovet for å se nøye på hvilke konsekvenser dette får for enkeltindivi-der, bestemte grupper og samfunnet som helhet. De to konferansene om genetisk selvtesting og helseturisme identifiserte flere viktige utfordring-

    Consumer Medicine 12

    er. Dette viser at det er behov for å se nærmere på konsekvensene av denne utviklingen.

    NCBio håper at denne boken blir en viktig ressurs for dere som er in-teressert i utviklingen og konsekvensene av forbrukermedisin. Spesielt håper vi at boken kan bidra til å synliggjøre noen av de mest sentrale temaene og utfordringene knyttet til styringen av denne utviklingen.

  • 32.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Personal health monitoring: ethical considerations for stakeholders2013In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 156-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper has three purposes: to identify and discuss values that should be promoted and respected in personal health monitoring, to formulate an ethical checklist that can be used by stakeholders, and to construct an ethical matrix that can be used for identifying values, among those in the ethical checklist, that are particularly important to various stakeholders.

    Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of values that empirical studies have found important to various stakeholders in personal health monitoring, the author constructs an ethical checklist and an ethical matrix. The author carries out a brief conceptual analysis and discusses the implications.

    Findings – The ethical checklist consists of three types of values: practical values that a technical product in personal health monitoring must have, quality of life values to be promoted by the development and use of the product, and moral values to be respected in this development and use. To give guidance in practice, the values in the checklist must be interpreted and balanced. The ethical matrix consists of the values in the checklist and a number of stakeholders.

    Originality/value – The overall ambition is to suggest a way of categorizing values that can be useful for stakeholders in personal health monitoring. In order to achieve this, the study takes empirical studies as a starting-point and includes a conceptual analysis. This means that the proposals are founded on practice rather than mere abstract thinking, and this improves its usability.

  • 33.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Prenatal genetic counselling: conceptual and ethical issues2008In: The Janus Face of Prenatal Diagnostics / [ed] Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber, Eve-Marie Engels, and John Tsiantis., London: Karnac , 2008, 1, p. 307-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coping with modern technology (genetics, biotechnology etc.) has become a major issue of people living in the 21st century. This technology creates new chances and possibilities but also new dangers and ethical concerns. This book investigates ethical dilemmas connected to these new technologies in a field of prenatal and genetic research that seems particularly challenging: prenatal diagnostics. In the last decades enormous progress has been made in diagnosing genetically based diseases and other serious prenatal abnormalities. Despite intensive world-wide research, several problems have emerged and still wait to be answered. The most prominent aim of the book is to address major ethical dilemmas in the context of genetic and prenatal diagnosis, and by that means help to create greater awareness of and sensitivity to these dilemmas among various segments of the societies.

  • 34.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prenatal Genetic Counselling: Reflections on Drawing Policy Conclusions from Empirical Findings2011In: Ethical Dilemmas in Prenatal Diagnosis / [ed] Fischmann T, Hildt E, Dordrecht: Springer , 2011, p. 109-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological developments in the life sciences confront us with new facets of a Faustian seduction. Are we „playing God“ more and more, as claimed by critical authors of modernity? Achievements in genetic research produce ethical dilemmas which need to be the subject of reflection and debate in modern societies. Denial of ambivalences that ethical dilemmas arouse constitutes a threat to societies as well as to individuals. The book presents a compilation of some of the results of the interdisciplinary European study “Ethical Dilemmas Due to Prenatal and Genetic Diagnostics” (EDIG), which investigated some of these dilemmas in detail in a field which is particularly challenging: prenatal diagnosis. When results from prenatal diagnosis show fetal abnormalities, women and their partners are confronted with ethical dilemmas regarding: the right to know and the right not to know; decision-making about the remainder of the pregnancy and the desire for a healthy child; responsibility for the unborn child, for its well-being and possible suffering; life and death. This book provides answers from an ethical, psychoanalytical and medical viewpoint.

  • 35.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Privacy by design in personal health monitoring2015In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 148-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  • 36.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Privacy by design in personal health monitoring: possibilities and limitations2013In: Innovation in Health Care and the Life Sciences, 2013, p. 51-51Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Recension av Veronica Johansson: Stimulating the Brain: Ethical Perspectives on Deep Brain Stimulation and Nano Scaled Brain Machine Interfaces2015In: Svensk teologisk kvartalskrift, ISSN 0039-6761, Vol. 91, no 1-2, p. 85-86Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remote monitoring or close encounters?: Ethical considerations in priority setting regarding telecare2014In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 325-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly in society is growing rapidly, leading to increasing health care costs. New remote monitoring technologies are expected to lower these costs by reducing the number of close encounters with health care professionals, for example the number of visits to health care centres. In this paper, I discuss issues of priority setting raised by this expectation. As a starting-point, I analyse the recent debate on principles for priority setting in Sweden. The Swedish debate illustrates that developing an approach to priority setting is an ongoing process. On the basis of this analysis, I conclude that several different ethical principles, and specifications of these principles, can be appealed to for giving priority—over close encounters—to a large-scale introduction of remote monitoring technologies in health care services to elderly people, but also that many specifications can be appealed to against giving such priority. I propose that given the different views on principles, it is necessary to develop fair procedures of deliberation on these principles and their application, in particular in order to reach agreement on exactly how much resources should be allocated to remote monitoring and how much to close encounters. I also present a few points to consider in a large-scale introduction of remote monitoring.

  • 39.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remote monitoring or close encounters?: On priority-setting in home-based health care2011In: 25th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care 17 – 20 August, 2011: Priorities in Medicine and Health Care, 2011, p. 61-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years, we have seen an avalanche of new technologies for personal health monitoring of patients and elderly people in their homes. A driving force behind this development is the demographic time-bomb, i.e., the substantial demographic shift that is underway in terms of a rapidly growing proportion of elderly in society. Health care decision-makers argue that in order to provide good care to these elderly people it will be increasingly necessary to provide this care at home through personal health monitoring rather than at institutions. This is necessary for reasons of cost and efficiency. Critics maintain, on the other hand, that we must never forget the needs of the patients and the elderly. They may not want a technological invasion of their homes leading to reduced personal contacts with care providers. In this paper, I discuss issues of priority-setting raised by this new development. It appears that four clusters of values are relevant: (1) independence and privacy, (2) health security and safety, (3) social contact with relatives and care providers, and (4) reasonable costs and efficiency. I argue that we should be aware of the variety of preferences of individual care recipients. To some patients and elderly people the independent living made possible by remote monitoring is more important than social contact with care providers, to others social contact is more valuable than independence. We should take the preferences of this latter category seriously. I therefore support an approach that is more sensitive to individual differences than the approach of more generally replacing close encounters by remote monitoring.

  • 40.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sleep problems: a plurality of determinants and remedies2016In: "Ethics and Social Determinants of Health" 30th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are extremely serious from a societal point of view. A substantial portion of the population in many countries suffers from sleep problems. Sleep problems may directly or indirectly cause health problems. They may have harmful consequences in terms of accidents and reduced productivity. The economic costs in society are immense. However, the causal background to sleep problems is often complex. Various determinants contribute and interact. This does not exclude that some determinants are more crucial than others in particular cases. In some cases sleep problems are caused by distinct medical disorders. In other cases they have psychosocial causes related to, for example, personal economic problems or stress at work. A special category of social determinants consists of societal activities that disturb people’s normal sleep rhythms such as shift work. In these cases there is a discrepancy between an individual’s body clock (a biological determinant) and the social clock (a social determinant). Given this plurality of determinants of sleep problems, a plurality of potential remedies emerges. However, what is considered to be a key determinant may vary from one case to another, and this suggests in turn that the key remedy may also vary from one case to another. In my philosophical discussion of these issues I make three proposals. First, I propose an explanatory pluralism. Different explanations are adequate in different contexts given the epistemic interests in those particular contexts. No explanation of sleep problems is the most adequate in every context. Second, I propose a kind of interactionism that recognizes that biological determinants sometimes limit social malleability. The variation in sleep patterns among different cultures and within particular societies indicates the existence of some malleability in how and when we meet our sleep needs, but the existence and function of body clocks indicate that there are certain limits to malleability. Third, I propose that in searching for ethically acceptable remedies for sleep problems we should take this explanatory pluralism and this kind of interactionism seriously.

  • 41.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture.
    Sluttande plan i genpolitiken?2004In: Naturvetaren, ISSN 0345-8296, no 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The rhetoric appeal to identity on websites of companies offering non-health-related DNA testing2010In: Identity in the information society, ISSN 1876-0678, no 3, p. 473-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years a large number of companies have emerged offering DNA testing via the Internet “direct-to-consumer”. In this paper, I analyse the rhetoric appeal to personal identity put forward on the websites of some of these consumer genomics companies. The investigation is limited to non-health-related DNA testing and focuses on individualistic and communitarian—in a descriptive sense—visions of identity. The individualistic visions stress that each individual is unique and suggest that this uniqueness can be supported by, for example, DNA fingerprinting. The communitarian visions emphasise that individuals are members of communities, in this case genetic communities. It is suggested that these visions can be supported by, for example, various types of tests for genetic ancestry tracing. The main part of the paper is devoted to an analysis of these communitarian visions of identity and the DNA tests they refer to.

  • 43.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Web-Rhetoric of Companies Offering Home-Based Personal Health Monitoring2012In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate the web-rhetoric of companies offering homebasedpersonal health monitoring to patients and elderly people. Two main rhetoricalmethods are found, namely a reference to practical benefits and a use ofprestige words like ‘‘quality of life’’ and ‘‘independence’’. I interpret the practicalbenefits in terms of instrumental values and the prestige words in terms of finalvalues. I also reconstruct the arguments on the websites in terms of six differenttypes of argument. Finally, I articulate a general critique of the arguments, namelythat the websites neglect the context of use of personal health monitoring technologies.Whether or not a technology is good depends on the use of the technologyby a particular individual in a particular context. The technology is not good–orbad–in itself. I support this critique with a number of more specific arguments suchas the risk for reduced personal contact. For some elderly people social contact withcare providers is more valuable than the independent living made possible byremote monitoring, for others independence is more important.

  • 44.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Var går gränsen för forskarnas ansvar?2004In: Naturvetaren, ISSN 0345-8296, no 13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är DNA-testning via internet en lönsam affär?2010In: Etiska undersökningar: Om samhällsmoral, etisk teori och teologi / [ed] Elena Namli, Per Sundman, Susanne Wigorts Yngvesson, Uppsala: Uppsala University Library , 2010, 1, p. 227-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Etik är ett brett och angeläget ämne som engagerar forskare inom teologin, filosofin och samhällsdisciplinerna. Inte minst under Professor Carl-Henric Grenholms tid som ämnesföreträdare har etikforskningen i Uppsala haft en sådan bredd. Som en replik på Carl-Henric Grenholms bestående insatser har ett flertal forskare från Europa och USA bidragit med artiklar till denna hyllningsskrift.

    Tre områden har fått illustrera hans mångåriga engagemang som forskare och lärare: etisk teori, socialetik samt teologi och etik. Här analyseras frågor om religion och moral, människovärde, praktiskt förnuft, tolerans, sexualitet och lagring av kärnavfall. Antologin rymmer ett brett spektrum av artiklar skrivna med varje forskareseget temperament och stil. De bildar tillsammans ett smakprov på de områden som under några decennier präglat Carl-Henric Grenholms forskning.

  • 46.
    Nordgren, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Juengst, Eric T
    Department of Bioethics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Can genomics tell me who I am?: Essentialistic rhetoric in direct-to-consumer DNA testing2009In: New genetics and society (Print), ISSN 1463-6778, E-ISSN 1469-9915, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a high number of companies have emerged that offer online direct-to-consumer DNA testing. We investigate these consumer genomics companies through the lens of identity. We find that many of them appeal to a kind of "genetic essentialism". We suggest that this appeal is key to understanding why consumers are attracted to their services. There seem to be three very different currents within contemporary culture at work: the pre-modern search for a naturalistic understanding of identity, the modern enthusiasm for science, and the post-modern emphasis on radical individual self-determination. The support for our hypothesis comes from the companies' websites and the online testimonials of satisfied customers. We discuss the risk of distortion of the subjective experience of identity due to unreliable or uninformative test results, inadequate or misleading explanation, and the fact that the science is still too weak to yield meaningful results.

  • 47.
    Nordgren, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture.
    Röcklinsberg, Helena
    Centrum för teologi och religionsvetenskap Lunds universitet.
    Genetically modified animals in biomedical research: reflections on the results of a Swedish investigation2004In: Genetics and Health Care,2004, 2004, p. 89-89Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Nordgren, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Religion and Culture, Center for Applied Ethics.
    Röcklinsberg, Helena
    Centre for Theology and Religious Studies Lund University.
    Genetically modified animals in research: An analysis of applications submitted to ethics committees on animal experimentation in Sweden2005In: Animal Welfare, ISSN 0962-7286, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of genetically modified (GM) animals in biomedical research has increased during recent years and its ethical aspects have been subject to ongoing academic discussion. In order to reinforce this discussion, we analysed applications submitted to animal ethics committees in Sweden during 2002. The aim was to investigate the researchers' statements concerning the production and use of GM animals, as well as the committees' assessments of the applications. For our analysis, we constructed an analytic form. In part, we included the questions and categories of the mandatory application form, noting for example species, degree of severity regarding pain and distress, the management of pain, and endpoints. In addition, we included our own specific questions and categories, and classified the applications accordingly. In particular we focused on the methods of GM animal production and on the expected clinical symptoms attributable to genetic modification and experimental use. Our analysis, which was partly quantitative and partly qualitative, revealed that applications were often approved by the committees despite containing insufficient information regarding ethically relevant aspects, that the arguments for using GM animals were often unclear, and that some applicants indicated awareness of possible unintentional welfare effects attributable to genetic modification. In more than 36% of the applications, obvious or minor clinical symptoms attibutable to genetic modification were expected. However, we also noted that many applicants emphasised that certain GM animals were to be used without the expectation that the animals would display any clinical symptoms. This was obviously viewed as an ethical advantage. © 2005 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.

  • 49.
    Palm, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Verweij, Marcel
    Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ethically Sound Technology? Guidelines for Interactive Ethical Assessment of Personal Health Monitoring2013In: Interdisciplinary Assessment of Personal Health Monitoring / [ed] Silke Schmidt and Otto Rienhof, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2013, p. 105-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is facing a paradox: while governments try to curb public spending, the demands on our healthcare systems continue to rise. The use of smart technologies and innovation can help to address the challenges faced by healthcare systems today, such as an ageing population, a shortage of healthcare professionals and restrictions on financial resources. But despite increasing evidence of the benefits technology can bring, the healthcare sector has been slow to embrace the digital revolution, and has stuck to more traditional methods and models.

    This book presents selected contributions to the symposium on Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) and Ethics and future areas of PHM, which took place in advance of the 11th World Congress of Bioethics, held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in June 2012. Most of the papers present the outcomes of the European PHM-Ethics project, which conducted interdisciplinary analyses of emerging PHM applications. Additional invited contributions deal with important issues related to the project’s primary objectives and outcomes. The project is strongly associated with the new e-Health Action Plan, launched by the European Commission in December 2012, which is designed to bring the benefits of digital solutions into healthcare systems.

    The book covers a broad spectrum, ranging from the technical setup of PHM systems to ethical issues raised by PHM applications, and will be of interest to all those concerned with improving the provision of healthcare worldwide.

  • 50.
    Swartling, Ulrica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hansson, Mats
    Uppsala University.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "My parents decide if I can. I decide if I want to." Children’s views on participation in medical research2011In: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, ISSN 1556-2646, E-ISSN 1556-2654, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The participation of children in medical research raises many ethical issues, in particular regarding assent. However, little is known about children's own views on participation. This study presents results from interviews with children 10–12 years old with and without experience in a large-scale longitudinal screening study. We identified five themes: (1) knowledge about research, (2) a sense of altruism, (3) shared decision-making and right to dissent, (4) notions of integrity, privacy, and access, and (5) understanding of disease risk and personal responsibilities. We conclude that the children feel positive towards medical research, and want to take an active part in decisions and have their integrity respected. However, the study also indicates that children who had participated in longitudinal screening had a limited understanding, suggesting the vital importance of providing information appropriate to their age and maturity. This information should be provided out of respect for the children as persons, but also to promote their willingness to continue participating in longitudinal studies.                 

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