liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 53
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Heintz, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Förutsättningar för etablering av en nationell prioriteringskommitté i hälso- och sjukvården: Erfarenheter från andra länder2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att redovisa förutsättningar för en nationell kommitté eller motsvarande för utvärdering och prioritering vid beslut avseende införande av andra sjukvårdsteknologier än läkemedel i hälso- och sjukvården samt att presentera för- och nackdelar med olika lösningar.

    Huvuddelen av underlaget till studien kommer från intervjuer med ett flertal internationella aktörer - för att fånga ett brett faktaunderlag om hur andra länder har agerat i frågan. De länder som har ingått i studien är Australien, England, Kanada, Nederländerna, Norge, Nya Zeeland och Spanien. Utöver intervjuer med nyckelpersoner i respektive land har vi genomfört två workshops med representanter från Nationella samordningsgruppen för kunskapsstyrning. Statliga myndigheter och företrädare för medicintekniska företag har varit inbjudna att delta.

    Vi bedömer att det är realistiskt och motiverat att överväga införande av ett nationellt system för utvärdering och beslut om införande och utmönstring av icke-farmakologiska sjukvårdsteknologier. I ett sådant system förutsätts att beslut fattas av någon typ av nationell prioriteringskommitté eller nämnd, fortsättningsvis i rapporten förkortad NPK.

    Vårt uppdrag har varit att presentera och diskutera olika praktiska och principiella komponenter i ett sådant system. Hur organisationen bör utformas i detalj har vi inte tagit ställning till då frågan ligger utanför vårt uppdrag. I genomgången har vi pekat på fördelar och nackdelar med olika lösningar för de tio komponenter som vi menar utgör byggstenarna för en NPK. Baserat på dessa för- och nackdelar, men utan att ta ställning till organisatoriska eller tidsmässiga aspekter, eller omfattningen på verksamheten, så framträder för oss ett huvudalternativ. Detta huvudalternativ bör diskuteras i relation till alternativa lösningar och preciseras ytterligare.

    Med tanke på att utgångspunkten för denna rapport har varit att undersöka förutsättningar för etablering av en nationell prioriteringskommitté i hälso- och sjukvården, är det också naturligt att vi haft den nationella nivån som utgångspunkt. Varje land vi har undersökt har ett system som är utformat för att passa in i den sjukvårdsstruktur och finansiering som finns i det enskilda landet. Då ansvaret för Sveriges hälso- och sjukvård delas mellan stat och landsting, förefaller det mest adekvat att staten får ansvar för samordning, tillhandahållande av beslutsstöd och kompetens (via myndigheter och kommittéer) och att en NPK formas och drivs av staten tillsammans med sjukvårdshuvudmännen. De sistnämnda har ansvar för att producera och finansiera hälso- och sjukvården. En sådan organisation vore mest i linje med dagens sjukvårdssystem och hur finansieringsansvaret är uppdelat. Alternativet är att bilda ett nationellt organ med enbart företrädare från regioner och landsting. Mot detta talar att statens expertkompetens utnyttjas i lägre grad och att det finns en risk att regionalpolitiska hänsynstaganden kan spela en alltför stor roll.

    Med tanke på att budgetansvaret för att bekosta nya teknologier i hälso- och sjukvården i Sverige i huvudsak ligger på landstingen så förfaller det ologiskt att förorda direkt budgetansvar för NPK. Därmed inte sagt att kostnadsmedvetenhet inte är mycket viktigt i en sådan kommitté. Det bör därför vara en kommitté som kan balansera budgethänsyn med kostnadseffektivitet och rättvis fördelning av resurser.

    De flesta länder strävar mot ett system som är inkluderande när det gäller vilka typer av teknologier som ska ingå i utvärderingarna. De flesta typer av teknologier, både gamla och nya, ter sig därför som aktuella även i Sverige. Samtidigt är det tydligt att det inte går att utvärdera alla teknologier med tanke på den stora arbetsmängd detta skulle leda till. Den svenska branschorganisationen Swedish Medtech uppskattar att det idag finns cirka en halv miljon unika medicintekniska produkter och utifrån detta så förstår vi att inflödet av enbart nya medicintekniska produkter är mycket stort. Dessutom innebär många av dessa endast marginella förändringar jämfört med tidigare teknologier. Vi förespråkar ett system som prioriterar vilka teknologier som ska utvärderas baserat på deras konsekvenser (hälsoeffekt, ekonomisk omfattning, etisk kontrovers etc.) snarare än typ av teknologi eller om den är gammal eller ny. På detta sätt undviks att vissa typer av teknologier får ”fribrev” in isystemet.

    Det finns tre huvudalternativ med tanke på vem som tar fram kunskapsunderlag till utvärderingarna: 1. Enbart företagen; 2. Enbart den beslutande kommittén eller motsvarande; 3. Dessa två kombinerat. Baserat på våra erfarenheter från andra länder och även de återkopplingar vi har fått från referensgruppen tror vi att det vore olyckligt att införa ett system som helt utesluter företagen som uppgiftslämnare. Framför allt kommer NPK i sådana fall att gå miste om dataunderlag som ännu inte är publicerat men som kan vara av stor vikt för besluten. Dock behöver företagsbaserade underlag givetvis granskas av någon oberoende instans innan beslutet fattas.

    Det finns behov av tydliga incitament för att lyfta frågor till utvärdering och beslut. Erfarenheter från Västra Götalandsregionen tyder på att den startfinansieringsmodell som tillämpas där har varit ett lyckat sätt för att få in förslag på teknologier som bör utvärderas. Incitament behöver dock inte alltid vara av ekonomisk art utan kan även vara av administrativ karaktär. Registrering av alla nya teknologier (produkter och procedurer) i ett register innan de får användas skulle kunna bidra till att identifiera kandidater för utvärdering.

    Samtliga länder vi har undersökt har valt att ha flera aktörer involverade i processerna för identifiering, utvärdering, prioritering och beslut angående införande. Flera informanter har även framhållit vikten av att separera den organisation som fattar beslutet från den eller de som tar fram beslutsunderlaget för att öka legitimiteten. Det kan vara administrativt mer komplicerat med två separata organisationer men våra intryck från denna studie tyder på att denna nackdel uppvägs av de fördelar som uppnås.

    Det är en fördel om processerna för identifiering, utvärdering och beslut är så öppna som möjligt. Stor öppenhet i alla steg medför dock en stor arbetsbörda och kostnader. Frågan om öppenhet och medverkan från allmänheten förefaller vara en avvägning mellan tillräcklig grad av sekretess och öppenhet rörande både process och beslut för att uppnå legitimitet. Att vid ett eventuellt införande av NPK starta med en relativt sluten process där enbart besluten redovisas men sedan ha en tydlig ambition och plan för att bli mer öppen i hela processen efter hand kan vara en framkomlig väg. Vi bedömer att den värdegrund och det utvecklingsarbete av öppna prioriteringar som redan pågår i Sverige är av hög relevans för NPK. Vi ser därför inget behov av en särskild värdegrund för NPK, utöver den som blir resultatet av de pågående  prioriteringsdiskussionerna. Det är dock angeläget att ett eventuellt bildande av NPK föregås av framtagning av tydliga direktiv till NPK om hur den ska förhålla sig till och tillämpa riksdagens riktlinjer för prioriteringar.

    Med avseende på politisk involvering eller inte i besluten har det i samtliga länder vi har undersökt varit en tydlig politisk koppling till själva beslutet om införande eller inte av teknologin. Detta står i kontrast till hur det för närvarande fungerar i Sverige med t.ex. TLV, där besluten inte involverar politiker. I denna fråga verkar det snarare handla om att skapa ett system som gör att den kommitté eller person som ska fatta införandebeslutet har tillräckligt förtroende och legitimitet att förvalta denna uppgift. Det kan betyda att politiker inkluderas i en kommitté som befolkningsföreträdare eller representanter för den part som ansvarar för finansieringen. Lika väl kan det fungera med personer i kommittén som medverkar på personliga mandat, som har en adekvat kompetens och erfarenhet men också ett förtroende från andra att lösa uppgiften.

    Formen för ”Omprövning” är starkt sammankopplad med valet av andra strukturella komponenter. Vår utgångspunkt är dock att det bör finnas någon typ av omprövningsmekanism under processen samt efter beslut. Skulle det bli en myndighet som fattar bindande beslut på liknande sätt som TLV gör i dag bör det vara möjligt för företag att överklaga beslutet till domstol. I andra fall är det NPK som bör utveckla egna rutiner för omprövning på eget eller andras initiativ.

    Vi har i denna studie undersökt förutsättningar för etablering av en nationell prioriteringskommitté i Sverige för icke-farmakologiska sjukvårdsteknologier i hälso- och sjukvården. Arbetet har baserats på erfarenheter från länder med existerande system för beslut om införande av sjukvårdsteknologier samt diskussioner i Sverige med en referensgrupp samt styrgrupp för projektet. Vi har i vårt arbete identifierat tio viktiga komponenter för uppbyggnaden av en sådan kommitté och fört en diskussion kring dessa. Vi ser möjligheter och fördelar med att etablera en nationell prioriteringskommitté i Sverige för identifiering, utvärdering och prioritering vid beslut avseende införande av andra sjukvårdsteknologier än läkemedel i hälso- och sjukvården. För- och nackdelar med olika tänkbara lösningar har diskuterats i rapporten, medan de mer exakta formerna för en nationell prioriteringskommitté är en fråga för fortsatt utredning.

  • 2.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lägesrapport inom patientsäkerhetsområdet 2013: Bilaga 2. Landstingens och regionernas patientsäkerhetsberättelser - beskrivning och jämförande analys av uppgifter inrapporterade från vårdgivare i Sverige för åren 2010 och 2011.2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Heintz, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nationellt system för utvärdering, prioritering och införandebeslut av icke-farmakologiska sjukvårdsteknologier: en förstudie2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a national system to evaluate medical technologies other than pharmaceuticals is being considered. Several proposals advocate establishing a type of “Treatment Benefits Board”. To highlight problems and analyse the conditions for national assessments in this context, the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Medical Products Agency, the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU), and the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV) jointly appointed the Centre for Medical Technology Assessment (CMT) at Linköping University to conduct a preliminary study. The preliminary study should provide a foundation for the agencies to decide whether or not the issue needs to be investigated further.

    The preliminary study aims to develop background information concerning how Sweden and other countries currently assess, prioritise, and implement decisions involving new nonpharmaceutical health technologies. The basic questions addressed are:

    1. How can nonpharmaceutical technologies be defined and categorised for the purpose of setting parameters for an approval process?
    2. How is the current process of assessment, prioritisation, and approval in Sweden structured, focusing on SBU, the Medical Products Agency, the National Board of Health and Welfare, and TLV?
    3. How have other countries organised their systems for assessment, prioritisation, and approval of nonpharmaceutical technologies?

    Within the framework of the project it was not possible to conduct detailed, onsite studies of the healthcare systems in other countries. Hence, we relied on descriptions of other countries’ systems as reported in scientific articles, reports, and official documents available from various organisations and other sources via the Internet. In some instances the information was complemented by interviewing key individuals. The same applies to the descriptions of Swedish agencies. Information concerning the prevalence of various technologies was collected from official reports/reviews and registry data. We present information from six countries where we found sufficient information to preliminarily answer the questions we formulated in advance. The countries are Australia, New Zealand, England, Spain, Italy, Canada, and the USA.

    We draw the following conclusions from the preliminary study: It is relatively complicated to define nonpharmaceutical technologies and delineate the technologies that potentially could be subject to regulation. Our practical attempts to describe the technologies that SBU Alert has assessed show that:

    surgical and medical interventions dominate, but a relatively high number of screening programmes have also been assessed;

    • medical equipment and pharmaceuticals are the predominant input factors. Active implants and biological products are also relatively common. Assistive devices and dental products are seldom considered to be primary input factors;
    • most technologies are used primarily for treatment purposes. Diagnostic technologies are also relatively common.

    By removing pharmaceuticals from the equation and combining interventions and input factors, SBU Alert arrived at 18 different categories of health technologies that it assesses. The predominant combination is surgical intervention and biomedical equipment. This is followed by surgical intervention and insertion of active implants. In the report, we propose a way to define and classify technologies that we found to be appropriate for the purpose. This does not exclude pharmaceuticals. Rather, pharmaceuticals are included as one input factor among others.

    Another aim was to produce background information describing how Sweden and other countries currently assess, prioritise, and approve new nonpharmaceutical technologies. We identified several key components that we believe are worth considering in designing a national system for assessing, prioritising, and approving new nonpharmaceutical health technologies. These components are:

    • Organisational level – At what organisational level should the approval of nonpharmaceutical health technologies take place?
    • Scope – Should an all-inclusive or selective approach be taken towards inclusion/selection of health technologies for assessment?
    • Base package – Should there be a basic list showing what is financed with public funds, or is it sufficient to present only new decisions on the margin?
    • Diversity of actors – Should a single actor, or many actors, be responsible for assessment, prioritisation, and decisions regarding financing?
    • Fact producer – Who would be most appropriate to manage the factual information base?
    • Transparency – How transparent should one be in presenting the decisionmaking process and its results?
    • Political involvement – How politically independent should the decisions be?
    • Budgetary responsibility – Should the unit that recommends or decides on approval have a budgetary responsibility?
    • New and old – Should the decisions apply both to introducing new technology and phasing out old technology?
    • Fundamental values – Should there be an explicit set of fundamental values for prioritisation, and how should it be formulated?
    • Appeals – Should there be a mechanism to appeal decisions?

    To summarise, we see a trend in other countries towards an increasing level of assessment and prioritisation in decisions regarding the introduction of nonpharmaceutical health technologies. Our preliminary impression is that nearly every system that we studied continues to develop and remains “a work in progress”. For instance, in Australia and New Zealand official inquiries are under way to suggest or present proposals for improvement.

    Our studies of systems in different countries, although limited, indicate there is no perfect system to copy directly. The way in which the various systems are organised is somewhat related to how health care is organised in the respective countries and how many resources they have decided to dedicate to this purpose. The results from our preliminary study show, however, that several countries have more experience in “approving” nonpharmaceutical-based technologies than what we have in Sweden. The most interesting countries are England, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia. Spain could also be of interest. Hence, there is good reason to consider what might be the best way to analyse these countries’ systems in detail and complement this information with data from other nations that we were unable to include in the preliminary study, e.g. the Netherlands and Israel.

    To more rigorously analyse other systems, if this project is continued, investigators should probably start from one or more models for a Swedish mechanism. To arrive at one or more tentative models in this context, the county councils should be involved in the project. The format could be a workshop that engages representatives from public agencies, county councils, and professional associations, where they jointly outline conceivable models that could then be analysed and discussed in light of the experiences of other nations.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Thérèse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hälsoekonomisk effektanalys av forskning inom programmet Innovationer för framtidens hälsa2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet i denna rapport är att undersöka vad de forskningsprojekt som erhållit medel från VINNOVA har resulterat i och om resultaten har omsatts i praktiken inom hälsooch sjukvården eller kommersiellt, men också att beräkna hälsoekonomiska effekter när det är möjligt. När det gäller programmet Innovationer för framtidens hälsa inkluderades de projekt som erhållit medel från VINNOVA mellan åren 2009 och 2013 och som avslutats fram till augusti 2013. Dessa uppgick till 19 stycken och spänner över ett brett spektra av medicinska och hälsorelaterade tillämpningsområden och befinner sig i olika faser i forskningen. Projekten representerar en blandning av tillämpad forskning och forskning på en mer grundläggande nivå.

    Projektens utveckling har analyserats utifrån en innovations- och spridningsprocess, om det finns visade hälsoeffekter och hälsoekonomiska effekter analyseras även dessa. Alla projekt, med undantag från ett, har genererat minst en produkt. Fyra forskningsprojekt har genererat två produkter, därför har totalt 23 produkter klassificerats. Projektens innovationsprocess har analyserats utifrån en innovationstrappa bestående av sju steg. Typvärdet för projektens förflyttning uppgår till ett steg, totalt har nio projekt förflyttat sig ett steg. Det därefter mest frekventa värdet är två steg, totalt åtta projekt har förflyttat sig två steg. Den största förflyttningen var fem steg, från steg ett till steg sex. Utfallet för projektens spridningsprocess gällande hälsoekonomiska effekter beskrivs nedan:

    • Två projekt har resulterat i en etablerad produkt med avläsbara hälsoeffekter. (A)
    • Tre projekt har resulterat i en produkt som befinner sig i en tidig spridningsfas i hälso- och sjukvården. (C)
    • Tio projekt har resulterat i en produkt som hittills endast använts i forskningssyfte eller för forskningsändamål. (D)
    • Sex projekt har resulterat i kunskaper som med stor sannolikhet kan vidareförädlas till en produkt. (E)
    • Två projekt har resulterat i kunskaper som har öppnat upp för vidare/fördjupad forskning. (F)

    Inget av de studerade projekten har klassificerats i kategori B eller G, dvs. forskning som lett till en etablerad produkt men utan hälsoeffekter respektive forskning som inte bidragit till en produkt eller kunskaper som kommer att leda till en produkt. Majoriteten av projekten har resulterat i en produkt som hittills endast använts i forskningssyfte för forskningsändamål eller en färdig produkt avsedd att användas endast för forskningsändamål.

    Hälsoekonomiska analyser genomfördes på grundval av de två projekt som genererat hälsoeffekter. Uppskattningen av hälsoekonomisk effekt bör tolkas med försiktighet då beräkningarna är baserade på antaganden med många osäkerheter.

    • Screeningsinstrumentet WINROP är ett datorprogram som avgör vilka nyfödda barn som ligger i riskzonen för att utveckla ögonsjukdomen prematuritetsretinopati (ROP). En fördel med metoden är att, för barnen, besvärande ögonundersökningar kan undvikas. Baserat på antalet för tidigt födda barn år 2012, skulle även en kostnadsbesparing på cirka 2,6 miljoner kronor per år kunna åstadkommas.
    • Lungtransplantationssystemet Vivoline LS1 används för att utvärdera, rekonditionera och förvara lungor inför en transplantation. Systemet möjliggör att fler lungor kan bli tillgängliga för transplantation. Uträkningar pekar på att Vivoline LS1 skulle kunna generera en samhällsvinst på mellan 9 och 51 miljoner kronor per år. Osäkerheten i beräkningen beror på stora variationer i kostnader för en lungtransplantation vilken kan bero på komplexiteten i processen.

    Vidare gjordes en långtidsuppföljning av sju projekt som bedömdes lovande i en tidigare effektanalys från 2009. Ingen av de inkluderade teknologierna hade avvecklats och de flesta hade genomgått en teknisk och marknadsmässig utveckling. Ett projekt fick vid uppföljningen klass A istället för B.

    Analysen visar att det går att härleda forskningens effekter och att effekterna blir tydligare med tiden. Uppföljningen av de avslutade projekten inom programmet Innovationer för framtidens hälsa visar en viss måluppfyllelse av programmets kortsiktiga mål och det ser lovande ut även för de långsiktiga.

    Slutsatser

    • Sjutton av de nitton projekten i programmet Innovationer för framtidens hälsa har efter kort tid utvecklats positivt utifrån ett innovationsperspektiv.
    • Tio projekt har resulterat i en eller flera produkter som hittills använts i forskningssyfte dvs. produkterna är fortfarande föremål för kliniska prövningar eller är enbart avsedda att användas för forskningsändamål.
    • Två projekt har visat hälsoekonomiska effekter.
    • Finansieringen från VINNOVA upplevdes ha haft stor betydelse för projekten.
    • I långtidsuppföljningen av projekt som tidigare erhållit medel från VINNOVA och NUTEK har projekten utvecklats vidare sedan den tidigare uppföljningen och det finns exempel på hälsoekonomiska effekter.
    • Det är fördelaktigt att beskriva forskningsprojekten utifrån både ett effekt- och innovationsprocessperspektiv.
    • Ett bättre stöd för kommersialisering och implementering efterlyses.
  • 5.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Individual variations in treatment decisions by Swedish rheumatologists regarding biological drugs for rheumatoid arthritis2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 265-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, reports indicate surprisingly large regional variation in prescription of biological drugs, despite a growing number of clinical studies describing their beneficial effects and guidelines by professional organizations and agencies. Our objective was to ascertain whether there is also variation between individual rheumatologists in prescribing biologics to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate reasons for treatment choices.

    Methods: Ten hypothetical patient cases were constructed and presented to 26 rheumatologists in five regions in Sweden. The cases were based on actual cases and were thoroughly elaborated by a senior rheumatologist and pre-tested in a pilot study. The respondents were asked whether they would treat the patients with a biological agent (YES/NO) and to explain their decisions.

    Results: The response rate was 26/105; 25%. Treatment choices varied considerably between the rheumatologists, some prescribing biologics to 9/10 patients and others to 2/10. In five of the ten hypothetical cases, approximately half of the respondents would prescribe biologics. No regions with particularly high or low prescription were identified. Both the decision to prescribe biologics, as well as not to prescribe, were mainly motivated by medical reasons. Some rheumatologists also referred to lifestyle-related factors or social function of the patient.

    Conclusion: The choice of initiation of biologics varied substantially among rheumatologists presented with hypothetical patient cases, and there were also disparities between rheumatologists practising at the same clinic. Treatment choices were primarily motivated by medical reasons. This situation raises concerns about a lack of consensus in RA treatment strategies.

  • 6.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Physician Preferences and Variations in Prescription of Biologic Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Register-Based Study of 4,010 Patients in Sweden2015In: Arthritis care & research, ISSN 2151-464X, E-ISSN 2151-4658, Vol. 67, no 12, p. 1679-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The prescription of biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients has varied considerably across different regions. Previous studies have shown physician preferences to be an important determinant in the decision to select biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) rather than nonbiologic, synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) alone. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physician preferences are an important determinant for prescribing bDMARDs for RA patients in Sweden. Methods. Using data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, we identified 4,010 RA patients who were not prescribed bDMARDs during the period 2008-2012, but who, on at least 1 occasion, had an sDMARD prescription and changed treatment for the first time to either a new sDMARD or a bDMARD. Physician preference for the use of bDMARDs was calculated using data on each physicians prescriptions during the study period. The relationship between prescription of a bDMARD and physician preference, controlling for patient characteristics, disease activity, and the physicians local context was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. When adjusting for patient characteristics, disease activity, and the physicians local context, physician preference was an important predictor for prescription of bDMARDs. Compared with patients of a physician in the lowest preference tertile, patients of physicians in the highest and middle tertiles had an odds ratio for receiving bDMARDs of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.13-3.68) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Conclusion. Physician preference is an important determinant for prescribing bDMARDs.

  • 7.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Factors influencing rheumatologists prescription of biological treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: an interview study2014In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 9, no 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The introduction of biological drugs involved a fundamental change in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The extent to which biological drugs are prescribed to RA patients in different regions in Sweden varies greatly. Previous research has indicated that differences in health care practice at the regional level might obscure differences at the individual level. The objective of this study is to explore what influences individual rheumatologists decisions when prescribing biological drugs. Method: Semi-structured interviews, utilizing closed-and open-ended questions, were conducted with senior rheumatologists, selected through a mix of random and purposive sampling. The interview questions consisted of two parts, with a "parallel mixed method" approach. In the first and main part, open-ended exploratory questions were posed about factors influencing prescription. In the second part, the rheumatologists were asked to rate predefined factors that might influence their prescription decisions. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used as a conceptual framework for data collection and analysis. Results: Twenty-six rheumatologists were interviewed. A constellation of various factors and their interaction influenced rheumatologists prescribing decisions, including the individual rheumatologists experiences and perceptions of the evidence, the structure of the department including responsibility for costs, peer pressure, political and administrative influences, and participation in clinical trials. The patient as an actor emerged as an important factor. Hence, factors both at organizational and individual levels influenced the prescribing of biological drugs. The factors should not be seen as individual influences but were described as influencing prescription in an interactive, nonlinear way. Conclusions: Potential factors explaining differences in prescription practice are experience and perception of the evidence on the individual level and the structure of the department and participation in clinical trials on the organizational level. The influence of patient attitudes and preferences and interpretation of scientific evidence seemed to be somewhat contradictory in the qualitative responses as compared to the quantitative rating, and this needs further exploration. An implication of the present study is that in addition to scientific knowledge, attempts to influence prescription behavior need to be multifactorial and account for interactions of factors between different actors.

  • 8.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The impact of service and hearing dogs on health-related quality of life and activity level: a Swedish longitudinal intervention study2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with severe disability often require personal assistance and help from informal caregivers, in addition to conventional health care. The utilization of assistance dogs may decrease the need for health and social care and increase the independence of these individuals. Service and hearing dogs are trained to assist specific individuals and can be specialized to meet individual needs. The aim of this study was to describe and explore potential consequences for health-related quality of life, well-being and activity level, of having a certified service or hearing dog. Methods: A longitudinal interventional study with a pre-post design was conducted. At inclusion, all participants in the study had a regular (untrained) companion dog. Data were collected before training of the dog started and three months after certification of the dog. Health-related quality of life was assessed with EQ-5D-3L, EQ-VAS and RAND-36. Well-being was measured with WHO-5 and self-esteem with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In addition, questions were asked about physical activity and time spent away from home and on social activities. Subgroups were analyzed for physical service and diabetes alert dogs. Results: Fifty-five owner-and-dog pairs completed the study (30 physical service dogs, 20 diabetes alert dogs, 2 epilepsy alert dogs, and 3 hearing dogs). Initially, study participants reported low health-related quality of life compared with the general population. At follow-up, health-related quality of life measured with the EQ-VAS, well-being and level of physical activity had improved significantly. In the subgroup analysis, physical service dog owners had lower health-related quality of life than diabetes alert dog owners. The improvement from baseline to follow-up measured with EQ-5D statistically differed between the subgroups. Conclusions: The target population for service and hearing dogs has an overall low health-related quality of life. Our study indicates that having a certified service or hearing dog may have positive impact on health-related quality of life, well-being and activity level. Service and hearing dogs are a potentially important "wagging tail aid" for this vulnerable population, able to alleviate strain, increase independence, and decrease the risk of social isolation.

  • 9.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Security.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A new zero vision for Swedish patient safety - but how do we know that health care is becoming safer?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Security.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patientsäkerhet svårt att uppnå, svårt att värdera: Landstingens patientsäkerhetsberättelser granskas och diskuteras2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 20-21, p. 1028-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ansträngningarna för ökad patientsäkerhet i Sverige intensifierades 2011 i och med den nya patientsäkerhetslagen och den satsning som regeringen och SKL gjorde på prestationsbaserad ersättning till landstingen.

    Förväntningarna på ökad patientsäkerhet i Sverige är stora, men frågan är hur vi kan veta att vården blir säkrare.

    Med avstamp i ett ramverk – en vidareutveckling av Donabedians triad – och genom tillägg av en kontextuell komponent och komplettering med en lärandedimension belyses svårigheterna och möjligheterna vid utvärdering av patientsäkerhet.

    Ramverkets olika komponenter diskuteras med hänvisning till vad som redovisas i de patientsäkerhetsberättelser som landstingen har sammanställt för att beskriva sitt arbete med patientsäkerhet.

  • 11.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Implementering, kunskap och lärande - en begreppsmässig plattform2010In: Implementering: Teori och tillämpning inom hälso- & sjukvård / [ed] Per Nilsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1:1, p. 51-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor kring implementering av forskningsbaserad kunskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens verksamhet får allt större uppmärksamhet. Det så kallade gapet mellan produktion av forskningsresultat och vad som nyttiggörs i vården diskuteras i dag som ett stort problem, såväl för samhället som för de individer som inte erbjuds bästa möjliga vård. Denna bok utgör en introduktion till teoribildning och forskningsrön inom flera kunskapsområden som har relevans för frågor kring implementering inom hälso- och sjukvården. Samtliga författare är verksamma som forskare vid den tvärvetenskapliga institutionen för medicin och hälsa vid Linköpings universitet. Boken vänder sig till studenter, lärare och forskare som intresserar sig för implementeringsfrågor samt till dem som arbetar praktiskt med implementerings- och förändringsarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård. Läs mer om redaktören Läs mer om doktorandkursen IMPLEMENTERING ht 2011 Linköpings Universitet

  • 12.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Implementeringsstrategier2014In: Implementering av evidensbaserad praktik / [ed] Per Nilsen, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change2012In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 7, no 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion: Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e. g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary: Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a growing interest in applying behavioural theory in interventions to change clinical practice, the potential importance of habit has not been explored in implementation research.

  • 14.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Garpenby, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Avslutande reflektioner2010In: Implementering: Teori och tillämpning inom hälso- & sjukvård / [ed] Per Nilsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1:1, p. 259-263Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor kring implementering av forskningsbaserad kunskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens verksamhet får allt större uppmärksamhet. Det så kallade gapet mellan produktion av forskningsresultat och vad som nyttiggörs i vården diskuteras i dag som ett stort problem, såväl för samhället som för de individer som inte erbjuds bästa möjliga vård. Denna bok utgör en introduktion till teoribildning och forskningsrön inom flera kunskapsområden som har relevans för frågor kring implementering inom hälso- och sjukvården. Samtliga författare är verksamma som forskare vid den tvärvetenskapliga institutionen för medicin och hälsa vid Linköpings universitet. Boken vänder sig till studenter, lärare och forskare som intresserar sig för implementeringsfrågor samt till dem som arbetar praktiskt med implementerings- och förändringsarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård. Läs mer om redaktören Läs mer om doktorandkursen IMPLEMENTERING ht 2011 Linköpings Universitet

  • 15.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Förklaringsfaktorer för implementeringsutfall - ett ramverk2010In: Implementering: Teori och tillämpning inom hälso- & sjukvård / [ed] Per Nilsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1:1, p. 71-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor kring implementering av forskningsbaserad kunskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens verksamhet får allt större uppmärksamhet. Det så kallade gapet mellan produktion av forskningsresultat och vad som nyttiggörs i vården diskuteras i dag som ett stort problem, såväl för samhället som för de individer som inte erbjuds bästa möjliga vård. Denna bok utgör en introduktion till teoribildning och forskningsrön inom flera kunskapsområden som har relevans för frågor kring implementering inom hälso- och sjukvården. Samtliga författare är verksamma som forskare vid den tvärvetenskapliga institutionen för medicin och hälsa vid Linköpings universitet. Boken vänder sig till studenter, lärare och forskare som intresserar sig för implementeringsfrågor samt till dem som arbetar praktiskt med implementerings- och förändringsarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård. Läs mer om redaktören Läs mer om doktorandkursen IMPLEMENTERING ht 2011 Linköpings Universitet

  • 16.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cairney, Paul
    University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research2013In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Many of society’s health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science.

    Discussion

    Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature.

    Summary

    There are many common issues in policy implementation research and implementation science. Research in both fields deals with the challenges of translating intentions into desired changes. Important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research.

  • 17.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of Patient Safety - Perceptions of Swedish Patient Safety Experts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Facilitators and barriers influencing patient safety in Swedish hospitals: a qualitative study of nurses' perceptions2014In: BMC nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 13, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sweden has undertaken many national, regional, and local initiatives to improve patient safety since the mid-2000s, but solid evidence of effectiveness for many solutions is often lacking. Nurses play a vital role in patient safety, constituting 71% of the workforce in Swedish health care. This interview study aimed to explore perceived facilitators and barriers influencing patient safety among nurses involved in the direct provision of care. Considering the importance of nurses with regard to patient safety, this knowledge could facilitate the development and implementation of better solutions.

    METHODS: A qualitative study with semi-structured individual interviews was carried out. The study population consisted of 12 registered nurses at general hospitals in Sweden. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The nurses identified 22 factors that influenced patient safety within seven categories: 'patient factors', 'individual staff factors', 'team factors', 'task and technology factors', 'work environment factors', 'organizational and management factors', and 'institutional context factors'. Twelve of the 22 factors functioned as both facilitators and barriers, six factors were perceived only as barriers, and four only as facilitators. There were no specific patterns showing that barriers or facilitators were more common in any category.

    CONCLUSION: A broad range of factors are important for patient safety according to registered nurses working in general hospitals in Sweden. The nurses identified facilitators and barriers to improved patient safety at multiple system levels, indicating that complex multifaceted initiatives are required to address patient safety issues. This study encourages further research to achieve a more explicit understanding of the problems and solutions to patient safety.

  • 19.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Factors influencing patient safety in Sweden: perceptions of patient safety officers in the county councils2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    National, regional and local activities to improve patient safety in Sweden have increased over the last decade. There are high ambitions for improved patient safety in Sweden. This study surveyed health care professionals who held key positions in their county council’s patient safety work to investigate their perceptions of the conditions for this work, factors they believe have been most important in reaching the current level of patient safety and factors they believe would be most important for achieving improved patient safety in the future.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of 218 health care professionals holding strategic positions in patient safety work in Swedish county councils. Using a questionnaire, the following topics were analysed in this study: profession/occupation; number of years involved in a designated task on patient safety issues; knowledge/overview of the county council’s patient safety work; ability to influence this work; conditions for this work; and the importance of various factors for current and future levels of patient safety.

    Results

    The response rate to the questionnaire was 79%. The conditions that had the highest number of responses in complete agreement were “patients’ involvement is important for patient safety” and “patient safety work has good support from the county council’s management”. Factors that were considered most important for achieving the current level of patient safety were root cause and risk analyses, incident reporting and the Swedish Patient Safety Law. An organizational culture that encourages reporting and avoids blame was considered most important for improved patient safety in the future, closely followed by improved communication between health care practitioners and patients.

    Conclusion

    Health care professionals with important positions in the Swedish county councils’ patient safety work believe that conditions for this work are somewhat constrained. They attribute the current levels of patient safety to a broad range of factors and believe that many different solutions can contribute to enhanced patient safety in the future, suggesting that this work must be multifactorial.

  • 20.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collaboration between academia, manufacturers and healthcare services for development and adoption of medical devices with regard to costs and effects2009In: IFMBE World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, München: Springer , 2009, p. 138-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for new medical devices depends on evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness as well as ethical criteria based on patients needs and severity of disease. HTA is therefore increasingly used to provide appraisals for decision makers. In comparison to pharmaceuticals, medical devices face difficulties in providing studies with high evidence. There are, however, new promising developments in health economics and in the systems for valuing evidence which may improve the possibility of quicker appraisal of medical devices. This development, comprising Bayesian modeling and revision of systems for grading evidence, may be used in an iterative procedure to anticipate the market potential and to contribute to finding an optimal time when the implementation of a new device is worthwhile. In such a system, researches, developers and manufacturers, and healthcare services should gain from strengthened collaboration.

  • 21.
    Ridelberg, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Landstingens och regionernas patientsäkerhetsberättelser: Systematisk sammanställning och jämförande analys av uppgifter inrapporterade från vårdgivare i Sverige för åren 2010, 2011 och 20122014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige fick en ny patientsäkerhetslag 2011 (PSL 2010:659) i syfte att göra vården säkrare. Bland annat ställer lagen krav på att vårdgivare sammanställer en Patientsäkerhetsberättelse (PSB) årligen. Förra året gjordes en första granskning av de PSB som skrevs för år 2010 samt 2011. Uppdraget var att beskriva och jämföra innehållet från landstingens och regionernas PSB för verksamhetsåren 2010 och 2011 utifrån perspektiven struktur, process och resultat. För detta ändamål utarbetades en utvärderingsmodell som använ des i arbetet.

    Denna rapport bygger på den tidigare utarbetad e och testad e modell en och avser att ge en bild av patientsäkerhetsarbetet inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård med utgångspunkt i de PSB som vårdgivarna har sammanställt för år 2012 samt att göra en jämförelse med innehållet i tidigare PSB. Analysen har gjorts med kvantitativ innehållsanalys.

    Granskningen visar att 2012 års PSB har högre täckningsgrad av variabler i jämförelse med 2010 och 2011. Resultatet visar att många variabler har tagits med i redovisningen men att det ibland inte är tydligt beskrivet vad som har gjorts eller vilka strukturer redovisningen faktiskt syftar på. Det är även tydligt att landstingen har haft vägledning av de grundläggande och prestationsbaserade krav som SKL haft uppställda för 2012 år s patientsäkerhetsarbete utifrån överenskommelsen med regeringen, vilket även framkom i 2011 års PSB.

    Av sammanlagt 5 2 undersökta patientsäkerhetsvariabler inom struktur (n=18 ), process (n=25) och resultat (n=9) som beskrivs fullständigt eller delvis i PSB år 2012, har olika landsting/regioner redovisat olika många möjliga variabler, med ett högsta värde av 44 av 52 och lägsta 28 av 5 2.

    Konceptet PSB är unikt internationellt sett och ger en god bild av hur man arbetar med patientsäkerhetsfrågor i landstingen/regionerna, men det finns också en utvecklingspotential. Vi bedömer att PSB i dagsläget inte riktigt håller måttet för att utöva myndighetstillsyn då det fortfarande kan vara svårt att få en tydlig bild av vad som faktiskt görs inom olika landsting/regioner. PSB har blivit mer informativa 2012 än tidigare år men saknar enhetlighet vad gäller rapporterade variabler och rapporterade resultatmått. Ytterligare utveckling av SKL:s mall skulle kunna underlätta landstingens arbete med att sammanställa PSB och förbättra förutsättningarna för jämförelser mellan landsting/regioner och över tid

  • 22.
    Ridelberg, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Patient safety work in Sweden: quantitative and qualitative analysis of annual patient safety reports.2016In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, no 98, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is widespread recognition of the problem of unsafe care and extensive efforts have been made over the last 15 years to improve patient safety. In Sweden, a new patient safety law obliges the 21 county councils to assemble a yearly patient safety report (PSR). The aim of this study was to describe the patient safety work carried out in Sweden by analysing the PSRs with regard to the structure, process and result elements reported, and to investigate the perceived usefulness of the PSRs as a tool to achieve improved patient safety.

    Methods

    The study was based on two sources of data: patient safety reports obtained from county councils in Sweden published in 2014 and a survey of health care practitioners with strategic positions in patient safety work, acting as key informants for their county councils. Answers to open-ended questions were analysed using conventional content analysis.

    Results

    A total of 14 structure elements, 31 process elements and 23 outcome elements were identified. The most frequently reported structure elements were groups devoted to working with antibiotics issues and electronic incident reporting systems. The PSRs were perceived to provide a structure for patient safety work, enhance the focus on patient safety and contribute to learning about patient safety.

    Conclusion

    Patient safety work carried out in Sweden, as described in annual PSRs, features a wide range of structure, process and result elements. According to health care practitioners with strategic positions in the county councils’ patient safety work, the PSRs are perceived as useful at various system levels.

  • 23.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    An overview of temperature monitoring devices for early detection of diabetic foot disorders2010In: EXPERT REVIEW OF MEDICAL DEVICES, ISSN 1743-4440, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 711-718Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetic foot complications are associated with substantial costs and loss of quality of life. This article gives an overview of available and emerging devices for the monitoring of foot temperature as a means of early detection of foot disorders in diabetes. The aim is to describe the technologies and to summarize experiences from experimental use. Studies show that regular monitoring of foot temperature may limit the incidence of disabling conditions such as foot ulcers and lower-limb amputations. Infrared thermometry and liquid crystal thermography were identified as the leading technologies in use today. Both technologies are feasible for temperature monitoring of the feet and could be used as a complement to current practices for foot examinations in diabetes.

  • 24.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att utvärdera medicintekniska produkter är som att skjuta på rörliga mål2011In: Pharma Industry, ISSN 1403-7416, no 2, p. 14-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag presenteras många innovativa produkter på sjukvårdsmarknaden utan att följas av ett kunskapsunderlag som gör det möjligt att ens göra en uppskattning av teknologins värde i termer av patientnytta, vårdprocessnytta eller samhällsnytta. Det beror bland annat på en rad svårigheter att utvärdera medicintekniska produk-ter. Kerstin Roback, universitetslektor vid Linköpings universitet, föreslår att man i stället borde använda sig av en ordnad införandeprocess och frångå kraven på att informationen alltid ska vara statistiskt signifikant och fastställd i randomiserade kontrollerade studier.

  • 25.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Innovationsresistens vid implementering av medicinsk teknik2010In: Implementering: Teori och tillämpning inom hälso- & sjukvård / [ed] Per Nilsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2010, 1:1, p. 109-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor kring implementering av forskningsbaserad kunskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens verksamhet får allt större uppmärksamhet. Det så kallade gapet mellan produktion av forskningsresultat och vad som nyttiggörs i vården diskuteras i dag som ett stort problem, såväl för samhället som för de individer som inte erbjuds bästa möjliga vård. Denna bok utgör en introduktion till teoribildning och forskningsrön inom flera kunskapsområden som har relevans för frågor kring implementering inom hälso- och sjukvården. Samtliga författare är verksamma som forskare vid den tvärvetenskapliga institutionen för medicin och hälsa vid Linköpings universitet. Boken vänder sig till studenter, lärare och forskare som intresserar sig för implementeringsfrågor samt till dem som arbetar praktiskt med implementerings- och förändringsarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård. Läs mer om redaktören Läs mer om doktorandkursen IMPLEMENTERING ht 2011 Linköpings Universitet

  • 26.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Medical Device Innovation: The integrated processes of invention, diffusion and deployment2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased use of medical devices has been assumed to be a major cause of rising healthcare expenditures. Nations around the world are trying to keep costs down, but strong incentives still exist for the development and use of new devices. Innovation is, however, never exclusively good or bad and it is not easy to evaluate the net effect. Theories and empirical research on innovation have been produced for more than 100 years. In this, the diffusion of innovations has attracted the most interest, while other areas, such as the integration of technologies, have been less thoroughly researched.

    This thesis presents a model of medical device innovation in hospitals – from the first idea and invention effort to regular use of a new technology. The suggested model is built on three fundaments: (1) academic innovation literature, (2) empirical studies, and (3) observations of on-going innovation processes. The model is a synthesis of the accumulated knowledge in different innovation research traditions, and of empirical studies of the Swedish healthcare system and the medical device industry. The aim is to give a comprehensive picture of the innovation process, and to provide a theoretical model, which can be used for studying and influencing the paths of medical device innovations into healthcare practice.

    In order to achieve a balanced rate of change, with long-term societal benefits, an inter-disciplinary approach is necessary in the planning and regulation of medical device innovation. The new model combines academic views with political/entrepreneurial and healthcare views. Innovation, in this model, is suggested to occur in three integrated activity domains: invention, diffusion, and deployment. A great number of factors that influence these activities are investigated and described, and different roles and incentives are discussed. Deviations from traditional innovation theory are for example: (a) integration of invention activities as having an impact on later events; (b) inclusion of the inventor/developer as a main actor also in the diffusion and deployment domains; (c) increased focus of the concept of technology cluster innovation, and (d) the rationality of use and abandonment of knowledge as factors to be included in the estimation of consequences of innovation.

    Finally, the thesis suggests a number of model and methodology improvements and policy implications for management of innovation in hospitals.

    List of papers
    1. Transfer of health care technology in university-industry research collaboration environment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transfer of health care technology in university-industry research collaboration environment
    2001 (English)In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2001, Vol. 4, p. 3938-3941Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional innovation research has focused on the diffusion process and adoption of new technologies. This paper deals with health care technology in the early innovation stages preceding targeted development and marketing. A model of early research processes in the biomedical field and determinants of technology transfer will be presented. The study material is eleven projects in the Competence Center Noninvasive Medical Measurements (NIMED), Linkoping University, which is a collaboration center where academic researchers cooperate with industry and clinical departments. Data collection was made through semi-structured interviews. A qualitative approach has been adopted for data analysis. Research initiatives of the investigated projects do in most cases originate in the academic knowledge base and earlier connections in industry and health care play an important role in the formation of cooperation constellation. A number of internal factors are perceived as positive to project advancement, such as stable economy, proximity to clinical departments, and positive feedback from collaboration partners. Significant negative factors are all related to changes in cooperation structure. Clusters of related projects seem to be beneficial to research work and is an evident external factor which has to be added in a new model of technology transfer.

    National Category
    Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14140 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-13 Created: 2006-11-13
    2. A New Fiberoptical Respiratory Rate Monitor for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Fiberoptical Respiratory Rate Monitor for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Pediatric Pulmonology, ISSN 8755-6863, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique for respiratory rate measurement in the neonatal intensive care unit, fiberoptic respirometry (FORE), was tested using a specially designed nasal adapter. The aim was to investigate the system's accuracy and compare it to the transthoracic impedance (TTI) method and manual counting (MC). Further, the relationship between accuracy and degree of body movement was investigated. Seventeen neonates of median gestational age 35 weeks were included in the study. Video recordings (synchronized with data recordings) were used for classification of body movement. Breaths per minute data were obtained for 23-32-min periods per child, and a subset of these included MC performed by experienced nurses. A Bland-Altman analysis showed low accuracy of both FORE and TTI. A >20% deviation from MC was found in 22.7% and 23.8% of observations for the two methods, respectively. Both methods had accuracy problems during body movement. FORE tended to underestimate respiratory rate due to probe displacement, while TTI overestimated due to motion artefacts. The accuracy was also strongly subject-dependent. The neonates were undisturbed by the FORE device. In some cases, though, it was difficult to keep the adapter positioned in the airway. Further development should, therefore, focus on FORE adapter improvements to maintain probe position over time.

    Keywords
    respiratory rate, neonatal monitoring, prematurity, optical sensors, intensive care, apnea
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14141 (URN)10.1002/ppul.20137 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-13 Created: 2006-11-13 Last updated: 2009-05-29
    3. Home informatics in healthcare: Assessment guidelines to keep up quality of care and avoid adverse effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Home informatics in healthcare: Assessment guidelines to keep up quality of care and avoid adverse effects
    2003 (English)In: Technology and Health Care - European Society for Engineering and Medicine, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 195-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an ageing population and improved treatment possibilities, a shortage in hospital beds is a fact in many countries. Home healthcare schemes using information technology (IT) are under development as a response to this and with the intention to produce a more cost-effective care. So far it has been shown that home healthcare is beneficial to certain patient groups. The trend is a widening of the criteria for admission to home healthcare, which means treatment in the home of more severe conditions that otherwise would require in-hospital care. Home informatics has the potential to become a means of providing good care at home. In this process, it is important to consider what new risks will be encountered when placing electronic equipment in the home care environment. Continuous assessment and guidance is important in order to achieve a safe and effective care. Based on a review of current knowledge this paper presents an inventory of risks and adverse events specific to this area. It was found that risks and adverse events could stem from technology in itself, from human-technology interaction conditions or from the environment in which the technology is placed. As a result from the risk inventory, this paper proposes guidelines for the planning and assessment of IT-based hospital-at-home schemes . These assessment guidelines are specifically aimed at performance improvement and thus to be considered a complement to the more general guidelines on telehomecare adopted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA) in October 2002.

    Keywords
    assessment, home informatics, hospital-at-home, telehomecare
    National Category
    Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14142 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-13 Created: 2006-11-13
    4. Adoption of medical devices: Perspectives of professionals in Swedish neonatal intensive care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adoption of medical devices: Perspectives of professionals in Swedish neonatal intensive care
    2007 (English)In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 157-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in biomedical engineering enable us to treat increasingly severe conditions. This implies an increased need for regulation and priority setting in healthcare, to ensure appropriate safety cautions and to avoid accelerating expenditures. This interview study investigates the mechanisms behind the adoption and use of medical devices through the subjective experiences of hospital staff working with devices for neonatal intensive care. The adoption was found to be primarily initiated by vendor activities, but professionals preferably sought information about functionality from close colleagues. Full integration of devices was sometimes not achieved, and even though the adopting units had good introduction routines, there was no systematic follow-up of how adopted devices had been integrated in the work practices. Diffusion variations were, however, mainly found for temporarily tested devices and not for permanently available technologies. Three factors were found to be the major explanatory variables of the adoption of medical devices: (1) the subjective expected value of the device, (2) information and learning, and (3) the innovativeness of the adopting unit.

    Keywords
    Diffusion, innovation, adoption, medical devices, neonatal intensive care, decision-making, healthcare management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14143 (URN)130.236.83.89 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-13 Created: 2006-11-13 Last updated: 2009-05-12
  • 27.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värmemätning för diagnos av begynnande fotproblem vid diabetes: Metodöversikt samt försöksanvändning av fotindikatorn SpectraSole Pro 10002009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetic foot complications impose a major economic burden to society and lead to decreased quality of life for the patients. Preventive measures and effective diagnostic methods are necessary to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower limb amputations. This report covers a systematic review of the scientific literature on temperature measurements for prevention of diabetic foot disorders and a feasibility study of a new LCT-technology that shows the warmth distribution of the feet. The target readers for the report are decision makers, medical professionals and patients.

    The epidemiology of the diabetic foot is explored as well as guidelines and current practices for prevention and treatment. Further are the costs of diabetic foot ulcers estimated, based on the literature, and the value of early diagnosis is discussed. There is, however, a large variation in the basic data, depending on variations in study populations and country of origin in the included literature, which has lead to fairly indefinite estimates. Foot ulcer costs in Sweden are estimated to 851 - 1625 million SEK each year. The average cost for a case of foot ulcer, from diagnosis to healing, is 99 000 - 189 000 SEK. The highest costs are for hospitalisation, while prevention and diagnostic measures incur relatively small expenses. This means that reduction of hospital admissions through preventive care has a potential to be cost effective. Implementation of multi-disciplinary foot-care teams during the past years has led to dramatic reductions in the frequency of lower limb amputations, but there is still a lot to be gained by early diagnosis and prevention. The estimated number of foot ulcers in Sweden today is 8600. With an amputation incidence of 15 % this indicates that 1300 ulcers each year will result in an amputation, incurring costs estimated to be 324 - 601 million SEK.

    Studies show that increased temperature can be used as a predictive sign of future ulceration of the diabetic foot. The patient seldom feels pain because of peripheral neuropathy, and thus, temperature can be an important indicator of foot disorders that otherwise would have passed undetected. Recommendations about temperature evaluation are given in consensus statements and guidelines, in Sweden and elsewhere, but instrumental measurements are seldom performed. Scanning with an IR-thermometer is one available, but time consuming, method and today's practice is palpation of the foot temperature.

    Studies of daily home monitoring of foot temperature points at a more than 60 % decreased incidence of ulcers. There is, however, nothing in the studied literature to indicate that the method has been adopted for standard use anywhere. There are mainly two technologies for temperature measurement that have had an experimental clinical application. They are scanning with IR-thermometer and liquid crystal thermography (LCT). Both technologies have low costs and are easy to use.

    Results that have not been published previously are reported from the feasibility study of the new LCT foot indicator SpectraSole Pro 1000. The patients initially had their foot status determined in a standard examination, according to current practice, and were thereafter examined with the LCT instrument. Findings from the examinations with SpectraSole Pro 1000 were then analysed and compared to the preceding ordinary examinations. 69 examinations were performed in 65 patients. An examination with SpectraSole Pro 1000 was considered easy and quick to perform and the instrument clearly visualised problem areas of the foot, which might motivate patients to a higher compliance and contribute to a better foot-related behaviour.

    SpectraSole Pro 1000 detected 75 % of the foot problems among the patients in the three groups with the worst foot status. Among all patients the instrument detected six cases that had been missed in the ordinary examination. This leads to the conclusion that the foot indicator gives additional information, but cannot replace the standard inspection of the foot. To be able to assess how the incidence of ulcers and amputations is influenced, a larger trial must be performed in the primary care setting, preferably with a long term follow up to assess the outcome of prevented foot complications.

    Based on the studied literature, the conclusion can be drawn that regular temperature monitoring of diabetic feet probably is of value. However, temperature monitoring can only be a complement to the current practice for foot examination. If temperature monitoring was to be included in a regular practice, costs for determination of foot status and primary foot care would increase, while potential savings would be on specialist care and hospitalisation. A rapid diagnosis and early intervention is crucial for the healing of lesions of the diabetic foot and a redistribution of resources to early interventions might be necessary.

  • 28.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based disinvestment as a tool for sustained healthcare quality2012In: "HTA in Integrated Care for a Patient Centered System", Barcelona: Elsevier, 2012, p. 54-54Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ordnad utmönstring av hälso- och sjukvårdsmetoder2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It is a great challenge to provide a sustainable health care that maintain high quality and is available on equal terms for all citizens.

    Disinvestment in health care implies that existing health care services/interventions are removed from the publicly funded supply of health care or that they will be restricted in use. Quality improvements are continuously performed and unnecessary, harmful or ineffective services are replaced with new and better ones. This is generally not perceived as disinvestment. With time, however, a situation arises where it will be difficult to find "unnecessary, harmful or ineffective" care. This implies that clear priorities must be set for the provision of care and that evidence based disinvestment will be a necessary component to ensure the quality of care within limited budgets.

    The aim of this report on evidence based disinvestment is to describe how this is perceived and performed in Sweden's county councils and regions. We also give a brief overview of international disinvestment initiatives. The concept of disinvestment is illustrated by a number of ongoing or completed disinvestment initiatives and through a tentative framework for disinvestment in a Swedish context. The work has four parts:

    • An interview study for mapping disinvestment activities in Sweden
    • Case studies of active disinvestment
    • An overview of disinvestment initiatives internationally
    • A description of disinvestment processes and different types of disinvestment in a schematic framework

    Methods

    An initial literature search was performed in 2012 as a basis for a minor pilot study and to provide an introduction to the subject. The literature search was supplemented with new search terms in 2013 and 2015. The interviews were conducted by telephone with experts at Sweden's county councils and regions. A questionnaire was constructed to be used as an interview template and to serve as an e-mail survey in case any of our informants preferred this.

    Results

    In Sweden, open discussions on disinvestment of health care practices began in the early 2000s, which led to several counties starting to sketch on disinvestment policies. Few policies were, however, realized in practice. Organized disinvestment occurs in some counties/regions in the context of more general improvement or prioritization efforts and the term disinvestment is not always used. The majority of our respondents still thought that disinvestment was a significant issue requiring special attention.

    An evidence based disinvestment is always active, that is, it includes a conscious decision to stop using, restrict the use of, or withdraw resources from existing healthcare practices. The disinvestment work, however, was in most cases not clearly organized. The most active disinvestment work occurs where there is a priority setting committee or a group for evidence based adoption and disinvestment.

    This report describes disinvestment components and sub-processes in a schematic framework. The character of these processes was in large mapped by the interviews. Interview results were then synthesized with information from the literature into a tentative description of evidence based disinvestment. Whatever the causes and goals with disinvestment, the same problems arise and the work follows in large the same steps or sub-processes. Broadly, these sub-processes are:

    • identification of disinvestment objects
    • choice and preparation/assessment of disinvestment proposals
    • decision making
    • implementation of decisions and
    • follow-up and possible revision of decided disinvestments

    One of the sub-processes, that so far received little attention in Sweden, is how disinvestment decisions are implemented in operational health care. We have chosen to develop this in the framework as it seems to be an area on the rise internationally. There is a range of strategies and practical measures to facilitate and accelerate a desired change. This has been thoroughly investigated regarding implementation of new methods. Such strategies are based on different mechanisms to eliminate barriers and utilize facilitators.

    To illustrate the results presented in the report we present four cases of disinvestment in a little more detail. These are examples of how practices are identified as disinvestment objects, the preparation of cases, implementation of decisions, and of controversies that might arise. The cases have been selected to show the variation in types of disinvestment objects and the outcomes of disinvestment initiatives.

    Disinvestment has gained increased interest internationally in recent years. The problem of rising health care costs is present everywhere in the world and disinvestment is discussed in many countries. Early on, the focus was on disinvestment for greater efficiency. Then the trend turned to re-assessment of old services to be able to make evidence-based disinvestments. This resulted in so-called "low-value-lists" and "do-notdo" recommendations. Today, the focus is on measurable outputs of different disinvestment initiatives and studies have shown that compliance with "low-value-lists" is modest.

    Conclusions

    There are many indications that the future will call for efficient disinvestment processes to obtain a sustainable health care financing. Our study shows that disinvestment is used both for efficiency reasons and for cost control.

    • Most counties/regions are using or have used disinvestment; defined as decisions to withdraw or restrict the use of services/interventions in publicly funded health care.
    • The main reasons for disinvestment is the need for: quality improvements, reallocation of resources to new practices, cost control and/or better efficiency.
    • We identified two main types of organized disinvestment in Sweden: -  evidence based adoption including disinvestment as an integral part, and - proactive identification of disinvestment objects with a subsequent assessment and prioritization of the objects.
    • Services that are withdrawn or restricted in use is a mixture of pharmaceuticals, non-pharmaceutical methods and organizational arrangements.
    • Many withdrawn services remains available as privately funded options.
    • Prioritization principles are often indicative of disinvestment work and evidence-based medicine and health technology assessment are considered as obvious components.
    • Important criteria for classification as disinvestment candidates are: - the service/intervention has adverse effects or very little clinical benefit - the service/intervention is not cost effective - the service/intervention is perceived to have negative effects on the organization and/or work environment
    • There are also services that have been removed due to ethical considerations on what publicly funded healthcare should cover.
    • Today, disinvestment takes place without sufficient openness and citizen involvement in the processes. Documentation of the work, to the extent there is any, is usually not readily accessible.

    In order to improve health care quality, and at the same time control rising costs, it will be required that disinvestment is placed on the national agenda. Ethically difficult considerations associated with disinvestment have made it a question hard to tackle for decision makers at the regional political and administrative levels. Conflicting interests may arise between the patient and the caregiver's budgetary commitment. It is not always easy to determine which interventions are medically and socially justified in the individual patient case, which induces ethical dilemmas.

    Regardless of the ethical dilemmas and difficulties that arise – and at which organizational level decisions are made – a useful working model will be required for active withdrawal of services from the supply of publicly funded health care. In our study, we have outlined a framework that describes the processes, including medical and economic as well as social and ethical aspects.

  • 30.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Early assessment of health technologies (poster): A proposed framework for case studies in a Swedish context2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Home monitoring of heart failure (poster): Early assessment of a Swedish telemonitoring system under development2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evidensgraderingssystemet GRADE: Ett sätt att granska vetenskaplig kunskap om metoder och arbetssätt i hälso- och sjukvården2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision on the introduction of new treatments and practices in healthcare are always characterized by uncertainty. The studies carried out to evaluate the pros and cons of a new method can be of different quality and thus provide more or less certain results. When the use of systematic literature reviews on health technologies took off in the 1980s, decision makers began to ask for guidance documents, which also took into account individual study quality. This initiated the development of several systems for grading of evidence.

    Grading of evidence means that the overall decision material is assigned a strength of evidence, based primarily on quality, quantity and consistency between ifferent studies. The quality of individual studies are assessed and their decision values are weighted together with additional information to obtain an overall decision making material.

    GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) is an approach developed internationally. It started as an informal collaboration between different groups interested in how to assess the value of different studies and the credibility of the overall decision basis for deciding on the introduction of new medical technologies.

    GRADE was first presented in 2004 in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), and is today the most widespread system for grading of evidence. Several international organizations, and assessment units in Europe, North America and Asia are using GRADE and in Sweden, the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) and the National Board of Health and Welfare have studied the system and integrated parts of the approach in their work. In addition to assessment of evidence quality the GRADE approach also covers development and presentation of recommendations to use or not to use the assessed methods that, based on the scientific basis, also describe the degree of confidence with which a recommendation can be given.

    At the Centre for Medical Technology Assessment (CMT), several systems of evidence-grading have been studied. However, as the systems under study clearly converged towards the GRADE approach, a sharper focus was set on a detailed study of this system and to develop a discussion paper in Swedish in order to highlight the issue of how GRADE can be used in the Swedish context for evaluation and priority setting, locally, regionally and nationally. Target groups for the report are policy makers, healthcare professionals and academic researchers with an interest in issues of evaluation and implementation of health technologies.

    The report begins with the historical background behind the development of GRADE. In Chapter 2 a description of GRADE’s working method and underlying principles is given. Chapter 3 contains a critical review of the system and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness in a Swedish evaluation perspective. Furthermore, the report contains appendices with GRADE worksheets and numerous examples of assessments using the GRADE approach.

    A GRADE-assessment consists of two parts: an evidence profile for the method in question and a recommendation regarding its use.

    The evidence profile contains a ”Quality assessment” and a ”Summary of findings.” All the important outcomes are shown in the summary and the underlying studies are graded according to design, study quality, etc. The role of the evidence profile is to inform policy and practice but it does only give guidance regarding the clinical efficacy of the interventions.

    Sweden has built a tradition of comprehensive assessment, meaning that methods are examined from a medical, economic, social and ethical perspective. Therefore, GRADE’s evidence profile is not sufficient to inform policy and practice in a Swedish perspective.

    The recommendation on the use of the investigated method is the final step in GRADE. This step is performed by a committee of experts in the healthcare system in which the method is intended to be used. A recommendation to use a method shall reflect the committee's belief that the desired effects outweigh the undesirable effects. The degree of confidence, that the most advantageous behaviour is recommended, shall also be indicated as strong or weak. The approach is structured but leaves room for subjective judgments. The recommendation is based on information in the evidence profile, and beyond that on current norms and preferences in the society, and economic aspects. The latter evaluation criteria will vary greatly depending on the country where the evaluation is made. Among other things, assessment of cost-effectiveness is not explicitly required for decision making in all countries but in reality it is not possible to work out recommendations without an element of priority setting.

    SBU has decided to use GRADE, with some modification, but only to develop an evidence profile. However, SBU attempts to make assessments that analyze all relevant aspects that may be important in decision making and therefore supplements the evidence profile with for example a cost-effectiveness analysis in some cases.

    Explicit recommendations in support of decision making are asked for in many quarters. GRADE’s methodology does not, to any great extent, facilitate the development of such recommendations. While the working method for developing the evidence profile is comprehensive, significant development efforts still remain regarding the recommendation part of the GRADE system.

    GRADE’s methodology can contribute to a more structured approach in the assessment of new technologies in health care. However, the methodology needs to approach the actual decision making a bit closer through the development of more objective assessments of values and preferences. Further, methods for priority setting are needed, as we live in a reality where resources for healthcare are limited. GRADE can be used as a platform for discussions and development towards a more comprehensive approach. An interesting progression would be to test the system for synthesis of more different types of knowledge, research as well as practitioner-based, which would make the working method useful for the evaluation and introduction of certain non-pharmacological methods where the traditional study design is not always possible to use.

  • 33.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kunskapsöversikt om samhällsekonomiska effekter av klinisk forskning2009In: Klinisk forskning: Ett lyft för sjukvården, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2009, p. 231-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of health research: measuring costs and socioeconomic effects2011In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The topic of this work is health research evaluation including basic and clinical medical research, as well as healthcare research. The main objects are to explore possible approaches for valuing research in economic terms and to prepare an analytical model for evaluation of health research using the Swedish context. The study also aims to identify potential effects and their significance, and to provide a basis for discussions about the effects of research investments.

    Methods: The study has reviewed ten articles indicating positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth. The study also developed a model applied to Swedish health research.

    Results: The review indicates that positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth, have a value that greatly exceeds the costs of the research investments. The tentative model applied to Swedish health research also indicates predominantly positive returns, but in a lower range than the review would imply. Methodological problems, however, entail major uncertainty in the cited results.

    Conclusions: Accurate determination of the economic value of research would require significantly better basic data and better knowledge of relationships between research, implementation of new knowledge, and health effects. Information in support of decisions about future allocation of research resources is preferably produced by a combination of general analyses and strategically  selected case studies.

  • 35.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Neonatal Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Adoption of medical devices: The neonatal intensive care unit as a case study2005In: 13th Nordic Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering Medical Physics,2005, Umeå: Swedish Society for Medical Engineering and Medical Physics , 2005, p. 18-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Division of Pediatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adoption of medical devices: Perspectives of professionals in Swedish neonatal intensive care2007In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 157-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in biomedical engineering enable us to treat increasingly severe conditions. This implies an increased need for regulation and priority setting in healthcare, to ensure appropriate safety cautions and to avoid accelerating expenditures. This interview study investigates the mechanisms behind the adoption and use of medical devices through the subjective experiences of hospital staff working with devices for neonatal intensive care. The adoption was found to be primarily initiated by vendor activities, but professionals preferably sought information about functionality from close colleagues. Full integration of devices was sometimes not achieved, and even though the adopting units had good introduction routines, there was no systematic follow-up of how adopted devices had been integrated in the work practices. Diffusion variations were, however, mainly found for temporarily tested devices and not for permanently available technologies. Three factors were found to be the major explanatory variables of the adoption of medical devices: (1) the subjective expected value of the device, (2) information and learning, and (3) the innovativeness of the adopting unit.

  • 37.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Division of Pediatrics County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Implementation of Technological Change in Healthcare - Experiences from neonatal intensive care2007In: Fourth Annual Meeting of Health Technology Assessment International HTAi,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 38.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Managing Technological Change in the Innovative Hospital: Experiences from Neonatal Intensive Care2006In: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 39.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hass, Ursula
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transfer of health care technology in university-industry research collaboration environment2001In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2001, Vol. 4, p. 3938-3941Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional innovation research has focused on the diffusion process and adoption of new technologies. This paper deals with health care technology in the early innovation stages preceding targeted development and marketing. A model of early research processes in the biomedical field and determinants of technology transfer will be presented. The study material is eleven projects in the Competence Center Noninvasive Medical Measurements (NIMED), Linkoping University, which is a collaboration center where academic researchers cooperate with industry and clinical departments. Data collection was made through semi-structured interviews. A qualitative approach has been adopted for data analysis. Research initiatives of the investigated projects do in most cases originate in the academic knowledge base and earlier connections in industry and health care play an important role in the formation of cooperation constellation. A number of internal factors are perceived as positive to project advancement, such as stable economy, proximity to clinical departments, and positive feedback from collaboration partners. Significant negative factors are all related to changes in cooperation structure. Clusters of related projects seem to be beneficial to research work and is an evident external factor which has to be added in a new model of technology transfer.

  • 40.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herzog, Almut
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, IISLAB - Laboratory for Intelligent Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Home informatics in healthcare: Assessment guidelines to keep up quality of care and avoid adverse effects2003In: Technology and Health Care - European Society for Engineering and Medicine, ISSN 0928-7329, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 195-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an ageing population and improved treatment possibilities, a shortage in hospital beds is a fact in many countries. Home healthcare schemes using information technology (IT) are under development as a response to this and with the intention to produce a more cost-effective care. So far it has been shown that home healthcare is beneficial to certain patient groups. The trend is a widening of the criteria for admission to home healthcare, which means treatment in the home of more severe conditions that otherwise would require in-hospital care. Home informatics has the potential to become a means of providing good care at home. In this process, it is important to consider what new risks will be encountered when placing electronic equipment in the home care environment. Continuous assessment and guidance is important in order to achieve a safe and effective care. Based on a review of current knowledge this paper presents an inventory of risks and adverse events specific to this area. It was found that risks and adverse events could stem from technology in itself, from human-technology interaction conditions or from the environment in which the technology is placed. As a result from the risk inventory, this paper proposes guidelines for the planning and assessment of IT-based hospital-at-home schemes . These assessment guidelines are specifically aimed at performance improvement and thus to be considered a complement to the more general guidelines on telehomecare adopted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA) in October 2002.

  • 41.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, M
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Norrköping.
    Starkhammar, A
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Norrköping.
    Feasibility of a Thermographic Method for Early Detection of Foot Disorders in Diabetes2009In: DIABETES TECHNOLOGY and THERAPEUTICS, ISSN 1520-9156, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 663-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Foot complications due to diabetes impose a major economic burden to society and loss of health-related quality of life for the patients. Early diagnosis and intensified preventive measures have proved useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower limb amputations in diabetes, and the development of new tools for early diagnosis has therefore become an attractive option. This article covers a feasibility study of the SpectraSole (Linkoping, Sweden) Pro 1000 foot indicator, an innovation based on liquid crystal thermography. The technology identifies increases in temperature, a known indicator of inflammation. Methods: Sixty-five patients with diagnosed diabetes were examined with the foot indicator immediately after their ordinary foot examinations according to current practice, and findings from the two investigations were compared. Results: Sixty-nine examinations were performed. The foot indicator identified increased temperature in 31 cases, of which six had not been detected in the preceding ordinary examinations. The instrument was perceived as easy to use, and the thermographs could be used to visualize problem areas of the foot, which might contribute to better compliance with therapeutic advice. Conclusions: The foot indicator detected a relatively high share of the different types of complications but not all. It can be used as a complement to current practices for foot examination. The instrument provides rapid imaging of the foot temperature, and the study indicates that it yields valuable diagnostic information in early stages of foot disease.

  • 42.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Marie
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Norrköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Starkhammar, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Norrköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    A new thermographic method for early detection of foot complications in diabetes: A feasability study. Abstract no. 2752009In: International Conference on Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD), Athens, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hass, Ursula
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A New Fiberoptical Respiratory Rate Monitor for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit2005In: Pediatric Pulmonology, ISSN 8755-6863, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique for respiratory rate measurement in the neonatal intensive care unit, fiberoptic respirometry (FORE), was tested using a specially designed nasal adapter. The aim was to investigate the system's accuracy and compare it to the transthoracic impedance (TTI) method and manual counting (MC). Further, the relationship between accuracy and degree of body movement was investigated. Seventeen neonates of median gestational age 35 weeks were included in the study. Video recordings (synchronized with data recordings) were used for classification of body movement. Breaths per minute data were obtained for 23-32-min periods per child, and a subset of these included MC performed by experienced nurses. A Bland-Altman analysis showed low accuracy of both FORE and TTI. A >20% deviation from MC was found in 22.7% and 23.8% of observations for the two methods, respectively. Both methods had accuracy problems during body movement. FORE tended to underestimate respiratory rate due to probe displacement, while TTI overestimated due to motion artefacts. The accuracy was also strongly subject-dependent. The neonates were undisturbed by the FORE device. In some cases, though, it was difficult to keep the adapter positioned in the airway. Further development should, therefore, focus on FORE adapter improvements to maintain probe position over time.

  • 44.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nygren, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strategier för säker och ännu säkrare vård: Enkätstudie om landstingens patientsäkerhetsarbete2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 45, p. 2024-2027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en enkät till 216 personer med särskilt ansvar för patientsäkerhet har frågor ställts om vad som har haft betydelse och vad som kommer att ha betydelse för att uppnå en god patientsäkerhet i framtiden.

    Händelse- och riskanalyser ansågs ha varit mycket viktigt för att uppnå dagens patientsäkerhetsnivå, liksom rapportering av avvikelser och risker.

    Faktorer som ansågs mycket viktiga för att öka patientsäkerheten var främst organisationskultur, kommunikation och utbildning.

    Även förbättrad infektionskontroll och standardisering av rutiner samt bättre instruktioner och utbildning avseende medicinsk teknik var viktiga områden.

     

  • 45.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment.
    Evidensbaserad sjukvård och kommersialisering av idéer2008In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2008. Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik,2008, 2008, p. 78-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 46.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Spridning av MTP - fallstudier2004In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets riksstämma,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Hass, Ursula
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Spridning och implementering av medicintekniska produkter: Bakgrundsrapport2003Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Investering i hälsa: Hälsoekonomiska effekter av  forskning inom medicinsk teknik och innovativa livsmedel2009Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ridelberg, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fyra år med patientsäkerhetsberättelsen: sammanställning och jämförande analys av uppgifter inrapporterade från vårdgivare i Sverige 2010-20132015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige fick en ny patientsäkerhetslag 2011 i syfte att göra vården säkrare. I denna ingår att alla vårdgivare årligen ska ställ a samman en patientsäkerhetsberättelse (PSB) med början för verksamhetsåret 2010. PSB har nu skrivits för fjärde året i rad.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att utifrån innehållet i landstingens/regionernas PSB ge en bild av patientsäkerhetsarbetet inom svensk hälso- och sjukvård, under de fyra år som PSB har sammanställts. Granskning en är dels en granskning av innehållet i 2013 års PS B men också en sammanfattning av utvecklingen av patientsäkerhetsarbetet under verksamhetsåren 2010 till 2013, så som det beskrivs i PSB:erna. Innehållet har analyserats utifrån perspektiven struktur, process och resultat och jämförelser har gjorts över tid och mellan olika landsting/regioner. Liknande granskningar har tidigare gjorts vid två tillfällen och analyserna bygger på en tidigare utarbetad och testad modell i de tidigare granskningarna av landstingens/ regionernas PSB.

    En tydlig utveckling har skett över åren, både vad gäller beskrivningarna av patientsäkerhetsarbetet och vilka områden och resultat man vill lyfta fram. Granskningen visar att landstingen/regionerna har haft vägledning av de grundläggande och prestations - baserade krav som funnits för patientsäkerhetsarbetet i den överenskommelse som träffats mellan staten och SKL. Man har också följt SKL:s mall för att skriva PSB. Detta har dock inte lett till någon större samstämmighet i vad som verkligen rapporteras utan har mer varit en likriktning av rapporternas struktur. M ånga variabler som tagits med i redovisningen beskrivs dessutom i ganska vaga ordalag. Överlag har standarden dock ökat och många PSB är innehållsrika och ger en bra översikt över hur patientsäkerhetsarbetet bedrivs och vad som återstår att göra.

    Jämfört med tidigare år har PSB 2013 fokuserat mer på resultat och egenkontroll. Tidigare berätta de man att man mäter och registrerar olika saker. Nu ange r man också resultat från de olika mätningarna i en högre grad. Vidare har ledningens roll för att höja säkerheten börjat uppmärksamma, även om många också påpekar att ansvaret för att bedriva en säker vård i slutändan ligger hos enskilda medarbetare.

    Av sammanlagt 6 2 undersökta patientsäkerhetsvariabler som ingått i den landstingsvis a jämförelsen 2013 har täckningsgraden i snitt varit 6 7 %. Motsvarande, sett över hela tidsspannet 2010 - 2013 , är 63 %. Landsting en/regionerna har redovisat olika stor andel av de undersökta variablerna, med en högsta andel p å 75 % för Östergötland, räknat som ett genomsnitt över de fyra åren. Skillnaderna mellan landstingen/regionerna är dock inte stora och drygt hälften (11 st.) har ett resultat över 65 %.

    Ett fåtal mer blygsamma resultat har uppmätts där en slentrianmässig rapportering förekommer och där den relevant a information en är sparsam. Detta kan tyda på att man inte ha r integrerat PSB:n som ett instrument i patientsäkerhetsarbetet, utan har andra medel för att skapa struktur och översikt över arbetet. D e allra flesta har dock sammanställt informativa och välstrukturerade rapporter. Mot bakgrund av den utveckling som skett av PSB:n , under en relativt kort tid, kan man förmoda att den kommer att fortsätta utvecklas i en pågående dynamisk process i många landsting/regioner och med tiden få en allt viktigare roll i arbetet för att åstadkomma en säkrare vård.

  • 50.
    Schedvin, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    Hedberg, Cecilia
    Capio Vårdcentral Berga, Linköping.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ta tag i etik i diagnostiken2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 37, p. 1492-1493Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Formerna för egeninitierad, egenfinansierad, opportunistisk diagnostik bör utvecklas, utprövas och utvär-deras, anser Göran Schedvin och medförfattare. De efterlyser självsanering inom diagnostikbranschen, annars krävs ny lagsiftning på området.

12 1 - 50 of 53
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf