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  • 1.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi
    University of Tehran Medical Science.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Shahed University.
    Genistein ameliorates learning and memory deficits in amyloid beta((1-40)) rat model of Alzheimers disease2011In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, ISSN 1074-7427, E-ISSN 1095-9564, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 270-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increased beta-amyloid (A beta) deposition and neuronal dysfunction leading to impaired learning and recall. Ageing, heredity, and induced oxidative stress are among proposed risk factors. The increased frequency of the disease in women also suggests a role for estrogen in development of AD. In the present study, effects of the phytoestrogen genistein (10 mg/kg) on learning and memory impairments was assessed in intrahippocampal A beta((1-40))-injected rats. The estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant was injected intracerebroventricularly in a group of A beta-lesioned rats. The A beta-injected animals exhibited the following: lower spontaneous alternation score in Y-maze tasks, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test, and fewer correct choices and more errors in the RAM task. Genistein, but not genistein and fulvestrant, significantly improved most of these parameters. Measurements of oxidative stress markers in hippocampal tissue of A beta-injected rats showed an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite content, and a reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Genistein significantly attenuated the increased MDA content but did not affect the nitrite content or SOD activity. These results indicate that genistein pretreatment ameliorates A beta-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats through an estrogenic pathway and by inducing attenuation of oxidative stress.

  • 2.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Ilam University of Medical Science, Iran .
    Rezakhani, Arjang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turkina, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Shahed University, Iran .
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Amyloid Beta1-40-Induced Astrogliosis and the Effect of Genistein Treatment in Rat: A Three-Dimensional Confocal Morphometric and Proteomic Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Astrocytes are highly involved in regulation and homeostasis of the extracellular environment in the healthy brain. In pathological conditions, these cells play a major role in the inflammatory response seen in CNS tissues, which is called reactive astrogliosis and includes hypertrophy and proliferation of astrocytes. Here, we performed 3D confocal microscopy to evaluate the morphological response of reactive astrocytes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in rats, to the presence of Aβ1–40 in the rat brain before and after treatment with genistein. In 50 astrocytes per animal, we measured the volume and surface area for the nucleus, cell body, the entire cell, the tissue covered by single astrocytes and quantified the number and length of branches, the density of the astrocytes and the intensity of GFAP immunoreactivity. Injecting Aβ1–40 into the brain of rats caused astrogliosis indicated by increased values for all measured parameters. Mass spectrometric analysis of hippocampal tissue in Aβ1–40-injected brain showed decreased amounts of tubulins, enolases and myelin basic protein, and increased amounts of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2. In Aβ1–40-injected rats pretreated with genistein, GFAP intensity was decreased to the sham-operated group level, and Aβ1–40-induced astrogliosis was significantly ameliorated.

  • 3.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rezakhani, Arjang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahed University, Iran.
    Joghataei, Mohammad T.
    Iran University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Protocol for Three-dimensional Confocal Morphometric Analysis of Astrocytes2015In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 106, p. e53113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As glial cells in the brain, astrocytes have diverse functional roles in the central nervous system. In the presence of harmful stimuli, astrocytes modify their functional and structural properties, a condition called reactive astrogliosis. Here, a protocol for assessment of the morphological properties of astrocytes is presented. This protocol includes quantification of 12 different parameters i.e. the surface area and volume of the tissue covered by an astrocyte (astrocyte territory), the entire astrocyte including branches, cell body, and nucleus, as well as total length and number of branches, the intensity of fluorescence immunoreactivity of antibodies used for astrocyte detection, and astrocyte density (number/1,000 mu m(2)). For this purpose three-dimensional (3D) confocal microscopic images were created, and 3D image analysis software such as Volocity 6.3 was used for measurements. Rat brain tissue exposed to amyloid beta(1-40) (A beta(1-40)) with or without a therapeutic intervention was used to present the method. This protocol can also be used for 3D morphometric analysis of other cells from either in vivo or in vitro conditions.

  • 4.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rezakhani, Arjang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Department of Physiology, Neurophysiology Research Group, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
    Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi
    Cellular and Molecular Research Center & Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genistein inhibits Aβ1-40-induced astrogliosis: A three-dimensional confocal morphometric analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Astrocytes are highly involved in regulation and homeostasis of the extracellular environment in the healthy brain. In pathological conditions, these cells play a major role in the inflammatory response seen in CNS tissues, which is called reactive astrogliosis and includes hypertrophy, proliferation, and remodeling. Here, we performed 3D confocal microscopy to evaluate the morphology of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive) astrocytes in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease, and we also assessed the effect of the antiinflammatory agent genistein on amyloid-beta-induced astrogliosis. In 50 astrocytes/animal, we measured the area and volume of the nucleus, cell body, astrocyte (soma and branches) and territory (tissue covered by each astrocyte), and total length of the branches. Moreover, we quantified the intensity of GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Injecting amyloid beta (Aβ)1–40 into the brain caused astrogliosis, observed as significantly higher GFAP intensity in the hippocampus, and also led to significant enlargement of astrocytes in this area, indicated by increased values for all the above-mentioned parameters. In Aβ1–40-injected rats pretreated with genistein, GFAP intensity was decreased to the level seen in the shamoperated group, and Aβ1–40-induced enlargement of astrocytes was significantly inhibited. Interestingly, genistein also ameliorated the astrogliosis that was initiated by mechanical injury caused by insertion of the injection needle into the brain tissue. This  was indicated by the observation that the mean cell body volume and area of astrocytes were significantly smaller in the genistein-treated rats, even in comparison with the sham-operated animals.

  • 5.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Shahed University.
    Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genistein inhibits aggregation of exogenous amyloid-beta(1-40) and alleviates astrogliosis in the hippocampus of rats2012In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1429, p. 145-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We addressed the question of whether injection of Amyloid beta (Aβ)(1-40) in the rat brain is associated with pathology in the hippocampus, and if genistein has any protective effect against the neuronal damage caused by Aβ(1-40). Genistein is a plant-derived compound with a structure similar to that of the female sex hormone estrogen and it was recently shown that pretreatment with a single dose of genistein ameliorated learning and memory deficits in an (Aβ)(1-40) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report that injection of the amyloid peptide into the hippocampus of rats led to formation of Aβ(1-40) positive aggregates close to the lateral blade of the dentate gyrus (DGlb). We also observed the following in the hippocampus: extensive cell death in the DGlb (P<0.0001), CA1 (P=0.03), and CA3 (P=0.002); an increased number of iNOS-expressing cells (P=0.01) and gliosis. Genistein given to rats by gavage 1h before injection of Aβ(1-40) inhibited the formation of Aβ(1-40) positive aggregates in the brain tissue and led to increased number of nNOS(+) (P=0.0001) cells in the hippocampus compared to sham-operated genistein-treated controls. Treatment with genistein also alleviated the extensive astrogliosis that occurred in Aβ(1-40)-injected hippocampus to a level similar to that observed in sham-operated rats. We conclude that the neurons in the DGlb are most sensitive to Aβ(1-40), and a single dose of genistein can ameliorate Aβ(1-40) induced pathology.

  • 6.
    Ghofrani, Saeed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cellular and Molecular Research Center and Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi
    Cellular and Molecular Research Center and Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
    Khamse, Safoura
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Roghani, Mehrdad
    Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
    Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms2015In: European Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0014-2999, E-ISSN 1879-0712, Vol. 764, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway.

  • 7.
    Goncalves, Nadia P.
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark; Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    El Soury, Marwa
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Ulrichsen, Maj
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Richner, Mette
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Xiao, Junhua
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Wood, Rhiannon J.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Andersen, Olav M.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Coulson, Elizabeth J.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Raimondo, Stefania
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Murray, Simon S.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Vaegter, Christian B.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark; Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Is Independent From Schwann Cell p75(NTR) Expression2019In: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5102, E-ISSN 1662-5102, Vol. 13, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schwann cell reprogramming and differentiation are crucial prerequisites for neuronal regeneration and re-myelination to occur following injury to peripheral nerves. The neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) has been identified as a positive modulator for Schwann cell myelination during development and implicated in promoting nerve regeneration after injury. However, most studies base this conclusion on results obtained from complete p75(NTR) knockout mouse models and cannot dissect the specific role of p75(NTR) expressed by Schwann cells. In this present study, a conditional knockout model selectively deleting p75(NTR) expression in Schwann cells was generated, where p75(NTR) expression is replaced with that of an mCherry reporter. Silencing of Schwann cell p75(NTR) expression was confirmed in the sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro, without altering axonal expression of p75(NTR). No difference in sciatic nerve myelination during development or following sciatic nerve crush injury was observed, as determined by quantification of both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fiber densities, myelinated axonal diameter and myelin thickness. However, the absence of Schwann cell p75(NTR) reduced motor nerve conduction velocity after crush injury. Our data indicate that the absence of Schwann cell p75(NTR) expression in vivo is not critical for axonal regrowth or remyelination following sciatic nerve crush injury, but does play a key role in functional recovery. Overall, this represents the first step in redefining the role of p75(NTR) in the peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the Schwann cell-axon unit functions as a syncytium, with the previous published involvement of p75(NTR) in remyelination most likely depending on axonal/neuronal p75(NTR) and/or mutual glial-axonal interactions.

  • 8.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The structure of myelinated axons in the CNS2005In: Multiple Sclerosis As A Neuronal Disease / [ed] Stephen Waxman, New York: Elsevier Academic Press , 2005, 1, p. 1-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the role of neurons in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the changes that occur in neurons as a result of MS. It places MS in a new and important perspective that not only explains the basis for symptom production, remission, and progress in MS, but also promises to open up new therapeutic possibilities. * Brings together the latest information from clinical, pathological, imaging, molecular, and pharmacological realms to explore the neurobiology of Multiple Sclerosis* Places MS in a new and important perspective that promises to open up new therapeutic avenues* Superbly illustrated and referenced

  • 9.
    Jamali, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Continuous glucose monitoring system signals the occurrence of marked postprandial hyperglycemia in the elderly2005In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 509-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether dysglycemic episodes occur in institutionalized elderly persons and, if that is the case, to determine whether such episodes are related to meal patterns. Another objective was to investigate the feasibility of subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose measurements in the elderly using a Medtronic MiniMed (Sylmar, CA) continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS®). Methods: Nine nursing home residents (74-95 years old) without known diabetes or other metabolic disorders were included. The s.c. glucose level was measured for 3 days with the Medtronic MiniMed CGMS. Capillary blood glucose was measured four times daily with a Glucometer Elite® device (Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany). Body mass index and basal metabolic rate were calculated, and food intake was recorded. Results: The s.c. glucose level fluctuated noticeably over time, 22.5% of the values recorded during the 3-day period were ≥8 mmol/L, and values <3.5 mmol/L were rarely seen. A marked (>5 mmol/L) and short-term (2-4 h) increase in s.c. glucose was seen after a meal. The mean capillary blood glucose concentration was 7.5 ± 1.8 mmol/L. Capillary blood glucose ≥8 mmol/L was recorded on 32.5% of the measurement occasions, and no values were <3.5 mmol/L. The s.c. glucose values agreed with corresponding capillary blood glucose levels (mean r = 0.75, range 0.43-0.86). Five participants consumed less energy than recommended according to their age, weight, and physical activity level. Conclusions: Postprandial hyperglycemia frequently occurs in elderly people living in nursing homes. The CGMS is convenient to use to detect hyperglycemia in this age group.

  • 10.
    Jamali, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Continuous monitoring of the subcutaneous glucose level in freely moving normal and diabetic rats and in humans with Type I diabetes2002In: Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory animals are extensively used in diabetic research. However, it is not known whether the glucose dynamics in laboratory animals are similar to the dynamics in humans. The aim of the present study is to see whether the Medtronic MiniMed continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring system can be used to record fluctuations of the glucose level in freely moving normal and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The monitoring system was applied during 3 days to normal and diabetic hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic rats treated with insulin implants. Corresponding data from type 1 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were selected retrospectively in order to note the similarities and differences. In normal rats the subcutaneous glucose level varied slightly (median = 111 mg/dL). In hyperglycemic rats the subcutaneous glucose values fluctuated markedly around a median of 226 mg/dL. The fluctuations formed a short-wave pattern with a low amplitude, superimposed on a long-wave pattern with a high amplitude. The subcutaneous glucose profile seen in type 1 diabetic patients (median = 180 mg/dL) was similar to that observed in hyperglycemic rats. In hypoglycemic rats, the subcutaneous glucose level fluctuated moderately around a median of 55 mg/dL. In these rats the fluctuations formed a short-wave pattern with low amplitude, without any obvious long-wave pattern. The subcutaneous glucose values conformed to corresponding blood glucose measurements. We conclude that the Medtronic MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system can be used to record the subcutaneous glucose level over time in freely moving rats.

  • 11.
    Jamali, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Differential neuropathies in hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic diabetic rats2006In: Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, ISSN 0022-3069, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 1118-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia on development of peripheral neuropathy in somatic motor and sensory nerves in type 1 diabetic BB/Wor rats. The animals were maintained in a hyper- or hypoglycemic state by treatment with insulin for 3 months. Nondiabetic siblings served as controls. Qualitative analysis of the gastrocnemius and sural nerves by light and electron microscopy revealed signs of Wallerian-type axonal degeneration and regeneration of large myelinated fibers in the hypoglycemic but not the hyperglycemic animals. Degeneration was more common in the gastrocnemius nerve than in the sural nerve. In hypoglycemic rats, myelinated fibers in both the gastrocnemius and sural nerves had significantly shorter internodes and smaller diameters. The decreased fiber diameter was related (r = -0.9) to the duration of severe hypoglycemia (≤2.5 mmol/L). Myelinated fiber occupancy was also decreased without any significant changes in fiber counts in both the gastrocnemius and sural nerves. In hyperglycemic rats, myelinated fibers in the sural nerve but not the gastrocnemius nerve had smaller diameters compared with controls. We conclude that hypoglycemia has a more severe impact on somatic motor nerves than on somatic sensory nerves, whereas hyperglycemia affects only somatic sensory nerves.

  • 12.
    Jamali, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cellbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hypoglycaemia causes degeneration of large myelinated nerve fibres in the vagus nerve of insulin-treated diabetic ΒB/Wor rats2005In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out whether dysglycaemia causes neuropathy in the vagus nerve of insulin-treated diabetic BB/Wor rats. Specimens were collected from the left vagus nerve proximal and distal to the level of recurrent laryngeal branch and from the recurrent branch itself in control rats and diabetic BB/Wor rats subjected to hyper- or hypoglycaemia. Myelinated and unmyelinated axons were counted and myelinated axon diameters were measured by electron microscopy. In controls, the vagus nerve proximal to the recurrent branch exhibited three regions in terms of fibre composition: part A was mainly composed of large myelinated axons, part B contained small myelinated and unmyelinated axons, and part C contained mainly unmyelinated axons. The distal level resembled part C at the proximal level and the recurrent branch resembled parts A and B. In hyperglycaemic rats, a normal picture was found at the proximal and distal levels of the vagus nerve and in the recurrent branch. In hypoglycaemic rats, signs of past and ongoing degeneration and regeneration of large myelinated axons were found at the proximal and distal levels and in the recurrent branch. We conclude that hypoglycaemia elicits degenerative alterations in large myelinated axons in the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves in diabetic BB/Wor rats. The absence of signs of neuropathy in unmyelinated and small myelinated axons suggests that the sensory and autonomic components of the nerve are less affected. In contrast, the hyperglycaemic rats examined here did not show obvious degenerative alterations.

  • 13.
    Klionsky, Daniel J
    et al.
    Life Sciences Institute; Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology; Department of Biological Chemistry; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor, MI, USA .
    Abdalla, Fabio C
    Laboratory of Structural and Functional Biology; Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar); Campus Sorocaba; São Paulo State, Brazil .
    Abeliovich, Hagai
    Department of Biochemistry and Food Science; Hebrew University; Rehovot, Israel .
    Abraham, Robert T
    Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham
    Adeli, Khosrow
    Agholme, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Agnello, Maria
    Agostinis, Patrizia
    Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A
    Ahn, Hyung Jun
    Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia
    Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane
    Akematsu, Takahiko
    Akira, Shizuo
    Al-Younes, Hesham M
    Al-Zeer, Munir A
    Albert, Matthew L
    Albin, Roger L
    Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier
    Aleo, Maria Francesca
    Alirezaei, Mehrdad
    Almasan, Alexandru
    Almonte-Becerril, Maylin
    Amano, Atsuo
    Amaravadi, Ravi
    Amarnath, Shoba
    Amer, Amal O
    Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie
    Anantharam, Vellareddy
    Ann, David K
    Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
    Aoki, Hiroshi
    Apostolova, Nadezda
    Auberger, Patrick
    Baba, Misuzu
    Backues, Steven K
    Baehrecke, Eric H
    Bahr, Ben A
    Bai, Xue-Yuan
    Bailly, Yannick
    Baiocchi, Robert
    Baldini, Giulia
    Balduini, Walter
    Ballabio, Andrea
    Bamber, Bruce A
    Bampton, Edward T W
    Bánhegyi, Gábor
    Bartholomew, Clinton R
    Bassham, Diane C
    Bast, Robert C
    Batoko, Henri
    Bay, Boon-Huat
    Beau, Isabelle
    Béchet, Daniel M
    Begley, Thomas J
    Behl, Christian
    Behrends, Christian
    Bekri, Soumeya
    Bellaire, Bryan
    Bendall, Linda J
    Benetti, Luca
    Berliocchi, Laura
    Bernardi, Henri
    Bernassola, Francesca
    Besteiro, Sébastien
    Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid
    Bi, Xiaoning
    Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine
    Blum, Janice S
    Boise, Lawrence H
    Bonaldo, Paolo
    Boone, David L
    Bornhauser, Beat C
    Bortoluci, Karina R
    Bossis, Ioannis
    Bost, Frédéric
    Bourquin, Jean-Pierre
    Boya, Patricia
    Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël
    Bozhkov, Peter V
    Brady, Nathan R
    Brancolini, Claudio
    Brech, Andreas
    Brenman, Jay E
    Brennand, Ana
    Bresnick, Emery H
    Brest, Patrick
    Bridges, Dave
    Bristol, Molly L
    Brookes, Paul S
    Brown, Eric J
    Brumell, John H
    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola
    Brunk, Ulf T
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bulman, Dennis E
    Bultman, Scott J
    Bultynck, Geert
    Burbulla, Lena F
    Bursch, Wilfried
    Butchar, Jonathan P
    Buzgariu, Wanda
    Bydlowski, Sergio P
    Cadwell, Ken
    Cahová, Monika
    Cai, Dongsheng
    Cai, Jiyang
    Cai, Qian
    Calabretta, Bruno
    Calvo-Garrido, Javier
    Camougrand, Nadine
    Campanella, Michelangelo
    Campos-Salinas, Jenny
    Candi, Eleonora
    Cao, Lizhi
    Caplan, Allan B
    Carding, Simon R
    Cardoso, Sandra M
    Carew, Jennifer S
    Carlin, Cathleen R
    Carmignac, Virginie
    Carneiro, Leticia A M
    Carra, Serena
    Caruso, Rosario A
    Casari, Giorgio
    Casas, Caty
    Castino, Roberta
    Cebollero, Eduardo
    Cecconi, Francesco
    Celli, Jean
    Chaachouay, Hassan
    Chae, Han-Jung
    Chai, Chee-Yin
    Chan, David C
    Chan, Edmond Y
    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung
    Che, Chi-Ming
    Chen, Ching-Chow
    Chen, Guang-Chao
    Chen, Guo-Qiang
    Chen, Min
    Chen, Quan
    Chen, Steve S-L
    Chen, WenLi
    Chen, Xi
    Chen, Xiangmei
    Chen, Xiequn
    Chen, Ye-Guang
    Chen, Yingyu
    Chen, Yongqiang
    Chen, Yu-Jen
    Chen, Zhixiang
    Cheng, Alan
    Cheng, Christopher H K
    Cheng, Yan
    Cheong, Heesun
    Cheong, Jae-Ho
    Cherry, Sara
    Chess-Williams, Russ
    Cheung, Zelda H
    Chevet, Eric
    Chiang, Hui-Ling
    Chiarelli, Roberto
    Chiba, Tomoki
    Chin, Lih-Shen
    Chiou, Shih-Hwa
    Chisari, Francis V
    Cho, Chi Hin
    Cho, Dong-Hyung
    Choi, Augustine M K
    Choi, DooSeok
    Choi, Kyeong Sook
    Choi, Mary E
    Chouaib, Salem
    Choubey, Divaker
    Choubey, Vinay
    Chu, Charleen T
    Chuang, Tsung-Hsien
    Chueh, Sheau-Huei
    Chun, Taehoon
    Chwae, Yong-Joon
    Chye, Mee-Len
    Ciarcia, Roberto
    Ciriolo, Maria R
    Clague, Michael J
    Clark, Robert S B
    Clarke, Peter G H
    Clarke, Robert
    Codogno, Patrice
    Coller, Hilary A
    Colombo, María I
    Comincini, Sergio
    Condello, Maria
    Condorelli, Fabrizio
    Cookson, Mark R
    Coombs, Graham H
    Coppens, Isabelle
    Corbalan, Ramon
    Cossart, Pascale
    Costelli, Paola
    Costes, Safia
    Coto-Montes, Ana
    Couve, Eduardo
    Coxon, Fraser P
    Cregg, James M
    Crespo, José L
    Cronjé, Marianne J
    Cuervo, Ana Maria
    Cullen, Joseph J
    Czaja, Mark J
    D'Amelio, Marcello
    Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette
    Davids, Lester M
    Davies, Faith E
    De Felici, Massimo
    de Groot, John F
    de Haan, Cornelis A M
    De Martino, Luisa
    De Milito, Angelo
    De Tata, Vincenzo
    Debnath, Jayanta
    Degterev, Alexei
    Dehay, Benjamin
    Delbridge, Lea M D
    Demarchi, Francesca
    Deng, Yi Zhen
    Dengjel, Jörn
    Dent, Paul
    Denton, Donna
    Deretic, Vojo
    Desai, Shyamal D
    Devenish, Rodney J
    Di Gioacchino, Mario
    Di Paolo, Gilbert
    Di Pietro, Chiara
    Díaz-Araya, Guillermo
    Díaz-Laviada, Inés
    Diaz-Meco, Maria T
    Diaz-Nido, Javier
    Dikic, Ivan
    Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P
    Ding, Wen-Xing
    Distelhorst, Clark W
    Diwan, Abhinav
    Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan
    Dokudovskaya, Svetlana
    Dong, Zheng
    Dorsey, Frank C
    Dosenko, Victor
    Dowling, James J
    Doxsey, Stephen
    Dreux, Marlène
    Drew, Mark E
    Duan, Qiuhong
    Duchosal, Michel A
    Duff, Karen
    Dugail, Isabelle
    Durbeej, Madeleine
    Duszenko, Michael
    Edelstein, Charles L
    Edinger, Aimee L
    Egea, Gustavo
    Eichinger, Ludwig
    Eissa, N Tony
    Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan
    El-Deiry, Wafik S
    Elazar, Zvulun
    Elgendy, Mohamed
    Ellerby, Lisa M
    Eng, Kai Er
    Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart
    Engelender, Simone
    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina
    Escalante, Ricardo
    Esclatine, Audrey
    Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa
    Espert, Lucile
    Espina, Virginia
    Fan, Huizhou
    Fan, Jia
    Fan, Qi-Wen
    Fan, Zhen
    Fang, Shengyun
    Fang, Yongqi
    Fanto, Manolis
    Fanzani, Alessandro
    Farkas, Thomas
    Farré, Jean-Claude
    Faure, Mathias
    Fechheimer, Marcus
    Feng, Carl G
    Feng, Jian
    Feng, Qili
    Feng, Youji
    Fésüs, László
    Feuer, Ralph
    Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E
    Fimia, Gian Maria
    Fingar, Diane C
    Finkbeiner, Steven
    Finkel, Toren
    Finley, Kim D
    Fiorito, Filomena
    Fisher, Edward A
    Fisher, Paul B
    Flajolet, Marc
    Florez-McClure, Maria L
    Florio, Salvatore
    Fon, Edward A
    Fornai, Francesco
    Fortunato, Franco
    Fotedar, Rati
    Fowler, Daniel H
    Fox, Howard S
    Franco, Rodrigo
    Frankel, Lisa B
    Fransen, Marc
    Fuentes, José M
    Fueyo, Juan
    Fujii, Jun
    Fujisaki, Kozo
    Fujita, Eriko
    Fukuda, Mitsunori
    Furukawa, Ruth H
    Gaestel, Matthias
    Gailly, Philippe
    Gajewska, Malgorzata
    Galliot, Brigitte
    Galy, Vincent
    Ganesh, Subramaniam
    Ganetzky, Barry
    Ganley, Ian G
    Gao, Fen-Biao
    Gao, George F
    Gao, Jinming
    Garcia, Lorena
    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo
    Garcia-Marcos, Mikel
    Garmyn, Marjan
    Gartel, Andrei L
    Gatti, Evelina
    Gautel, Mathias
    Gawriluk, Thomas R
    Gegg, Matthew E
    Geng, Jiefei
    Germain, Marc
    Gestwicki, Jason E
    Gewirtz, David A
    Ghavami, Saeid
    Ghosh, Pradipta
    Giammarioli, Anna M
    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N
    Gibson, Spencer B
    Gilkerson, Robert W
    Ginger, Michael L
    Goncu, Ebru
    Gongora, Céline
    Gonzalez, Claudio D
    Gonzalez, Ramon
    González-Estévez, Cristina
    González-Polo, Rosa Ana
    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena
    Gorbunov, Nikolai V
    Gorski, Sharon
    Goruppi, Sandro
    Gottlieb, Roberta A
    Gozuacik, Devrim
    Granato, Giovanna Elvira
    Grant, Gary D
    Green, Kim N
    Gregorc, Aleš
    Gros, Frédéric
    Grose, Charles
    Grunt, Thomas W
    Gual, Philippe
    Guan, Jun-Lin
    Guan, Kun-Liang
    Guichard, Sylvie M
    Gukovskaya, Anna S
    Gukovsky, Ilya
    Gunst, Jan
    Gustafsson, Asa B
    Halayko, Andrew J
    Hale, Amber N
    Halonen, Sandra K
    Hamasaki, Maho
    Han, Feng
    Han, Ting
    Hancock, Michael K
    Hansen, Malene
    Harada, Hisashi
    Harada, Masaru
    Hardt, Stefan E
    Harper, J Wade
    Harris, Adrian L
    Harris, James
    Harris, Steven D
    Hébert, Marie-Joseé
    Heidenreich, Kim A
    Helfrich, Miep H
    Helgason, Gudmundur V
    Henske, Elizabeth P
    Herman, Brian
    Herman, Paul K
    Hetz, Claudio
    Hilfiker, Sabine
    Hill, Joseph A
    Hocking, Lynne J
    Hofman, Paul
    Hofmann, Thomas G
    Höhfeld, Jörg
    Holyoake, Tessa L
    Hong, Ming-Huang
    Hood, David A
    Hotamisligil, Gökhan S
    Houwerzijl, Ewout J
    Høyer-Hansen, Maria
    Hu, Bingren
    Hu, Chien-An A
    Hu, Hong-Ming
    Hua, Ya
    Huang, Canhua
    Huang, Ju
    Huang, Shengbing
    Huang, Wei-Pang
    Huber, Tobias B
    Huh, Won-Ki
    Hung, Tai-Ho
    Hupp, Ted R
    Hur, Gang Min
    Hurley, James B
    Hussain, Sabah N A
    Hussey, Patrick J
    Hwang, Jung Jin
    Hwang, Seungmin
    Ichihara, Atsuhiro
    Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin
    Inoki, Ken
    Into, Takeshi
    Iovane, Valentina
    Iovanna, Juan L
    Ip, Nancy Y
    Isaka, Yoshitaka
    Ishida, Hiroyuki
    Isidoro, Ciro
    Isobe, Ken-ichi
    Iwasaki, Akiko
    Izquierdo, Marta
    Izumi, Yotaro
    Jaakkola, Panu M
    Jäättelä, Marja
    Jackson, George R
    Jackson, William T
    Janji, Bassam
    Jendrach, Marina
    Jeon, Ju-Hong
    Jeung, Eui-Bae
    Jiang, Hong
    Jiang, Hongchi
    Jiang, Jean X
    Jiang, Ming
    Jiang, Qing
    Jiang, Xuejun
    Jiang, Xuejun
    Jiménez, Alberto
    Jin, Meiyan
    Jin, Shengkan
    Joe, Cheol O
    Johansen, Terje
    Johnson, Daniel E
    Johnson, Gail V W
    Jones, Nicola L
    Joseph, Bertrand
    Joseph, Suresh K
    Joubert, Annie M
    Juhász, Gábor
    Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne
    Jung, Chang Hwa
    Jung, Yong-Keun
    Kaarniranta, Kai
    Kaasik, Allen
    Kabuta, Tomohiro
    Kadowaki, Motoni
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kamada, Yoshiaki
    Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O
    Kampinga, Harm H
    Kanamori, Hiromitsu
    Kang, Chanhee
    Kang, Khong Bee
    Kang, Kwang Il
    Kang, Rui
    Kang, Yoon-A
    Kanki, Tomotake
    Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi
    Kanno, Haruo
    Kanthasamy, Anumantha G
    Kanthasamy, Arthi
    Karantza, Vassiliki
    Kaushal, Gur P
    Kaushik, Susmita
    Kawazoe, Yoshinori
    Ke, Po-Yuan
    Kehrl, John H
    Kelekar, Ameeta
    Kerkhoff, Claus
    Kessel, David H
    Khalil, Hany
    Kiel, Jan A K W
    Kiger, Amy A
    Kihara, Akio
    Kim, Deok Ryong
    Kim, Do-Hyung
    Kim, Dong-Hou
    Kim, Eun-Kyoung
    Kim, Hyung-Ryong
    Kim, Jae-Sung
    Kim, Jeong Hun
    Kim, Jin Cheon
    Kim, John K
    Kim, Peter K
    Kim, Seong Who
    Kim, Yong-Sun
    Kim, Yonghyun
    Kimchi, Adi
    Kimmelman, Alec C
    King, Jason S
    Kinsella, Timothy J
    Kirkin, Vladimir
    Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A
    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko
    Kitazato, Kaio
    Klein, Ludger
    Klimecki, Walter T
    Klucken, Jochen
    Knecht, Erwin
    Ko, Ben C B
    Koch, Jan C
    Koga, Hiroshi
    Koh, Jae-Young
    Koh, Young Ho
    Koike, Masato
    Komatsu, Masaaki
    Kominami, Eiki
    Kong, Hee Jeong
    Kong, Wei-Jia
    Korolchuk, Viktor I
    Kotake, Yaichiro
    Koukourakis, Michael I
    Kouri Flores, Juan B
    Kovács, Attila L
    Kraft, Claudine
    Krainc, Dimitri
    Krämer, Helmut
    Kretz-Remy, Carole
    Krichevsky, Anna M
    Kroemer, Guido
    Krüger, Rejko
    Krut, Oleg
    Ktistakis, Nicholas T
    Kuan, Chia-Yi
    Kucharczyk, Roza
    Kumar, Ashok
    Kumar, Raj
    Kumar, Sharad
    Kundu, Mondira
    Kung, Hsing-Jien
    Kurz, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kwon, Ho Jeong
    La Spada, Albert R
    Lafont, Frank
    Lamark, Trond
    Landry, Jacques
    Lane, Jon D
    Lapaquette, Pierre
    Laporte, Jocelyn F
    László, Lajos
    Lavandero, Sergio
    Lavoie, Josée N
    Layfield, Robert
    Lazo, Pedro A
    Le, Weidong
    Le Cam, Laurent
    Ledbetter, Daniel J
    Lee, Alvin J X
    Lee, Byung-Wan
    Lee, Gyun Min
    Lee, Jongdae
    Lee, Ju-Hyun
    Lee, Michael
    Lee, Myung-Shik
    Lee, Sug Hyung
    Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
    Legembre, Patrick
    Legouis, Renaud
    Lehmann, Michael
    Lei, Huan-Yao
    Lei, Qun-Ying
    Leib, David A
    Leiro, José
    Lemasters, John J
    Lemoine, Antoinette
    Lesniak, Maciej S
    Lev, Dina
    Levenson, Victor V
    Levine, Beth
    Levy, Efrat
    Li, Faqiang
    Li, Jun-Lin
    Li, Lian
    Li, Sheng
    Li, Weijie
    Li, Xue-Jun
    Li, Yan-bo
    Li, Yi-Ping
    Liang, Chengyu
    Liang, Qiangrong
    Liao, Yung-Feng
    Liberski, Pawel P
    Lieberman, Andrew
    Lim, Hyunjung J
    Lim, Kah-Leong
    Lim, Kyu
    Lin, Chiou-Feng
    Lin, Fu-Cheng
    Lin, Jian
    Lin, Jiandie D
    Lin, Kui
    Lin, Wan-Wan
    Lin, Weei-Chin
    Lin, Yi-Ling
    Linden, Rafael
    Lingor, Paul
    Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer
    Lisanti, Michael P
    Liton, Paloma B
    Liu, Bo
    Liu, Chun-Feng
    Liu, Kaiyu
    Liu, Leyuan
    Liu, Qiong A
    Liu, Wei
    Liu, Young-Chau
    Liu, Yule
    Lockshin, Richard A
    Lok, Chun-Nam
    Lonial, Sagar
    Loos, Benjamin
    Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel
    López-Otín, Carlos
    Lossi, Laura
    Lotze, Michael T
    Lőw, Peter
    Lu, Binfeng
    Lu, Bingwei
    Lu, Bo
    Lu, Zhen
    Luciano, Frédéric
    Lukacs, Nicholas W
    Lund, Anders H
    Lynch-Day, Melinda A
    Ma, Yong
    Macian, Fernando
    MacKeigan, Jeff P
    Macleod, Kay F
    Madeo, Frank
    Maiuri, Luigi
    Maiuri, Maria Chiara
    Malagoli, Davide
    Malicdan, May Christine V
    Malorni, Walter
    Man, Na
    Mandelkow, Eva-Maria
    Manon, Stéphen
    Manov, Irena
    Mao, Kai
    Mao, Xiang
    Mao, Zixu
    Marambaud, Philippe
    Marazziti, Daniela
    Marcel, Yves L
    Marchbank, Katie
    Marchetti, Piero
    Marciniak, Stefan J
    Marcondes, Mateus
    Mardi, Mohsen
    Marfe, Gabriella
    Mariño, Guillermo
    Markaki, Maria
    Marten, Mark R
    Martin, Seamus J
    Martinand-Mari, Camille
    Martinet, Wim
    Martinez-Vicente, Marta
    Masini, Matilde
    Matarrese, Paola
    Matsuo, Saburo
    Matteoni, Raffaele
    Mayer, Andreas
    Mazure, Nathalie M
    McConkey, David J
    McConnell, Melanie J
    McDermott, Catherine
    McDonald, Christine
    McInerney, Gerald M
    McKenna, Sharon L
    McLaughlin, BethAnn
    McLean, Pamela J
    McMaster, Christopher R
    McQuibban, G Angus
    Meijer, Alfred J
    Meisler, Miriam H
    Meléndez, Alicia
    Melia, Thomas J
    Melino, Gerry
    Mena, Maria A
    Menendez, Javier A
    Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S
    Menon, Manoj B
    Menzies, Fiona M
    Mercer, Carol A
    Merighi, Adalberto
    Merry, Diane E
    Meschini, Stefania
    Meyer, Christian G
    Meyer, Thomas F
    Miao, Chao-Yu
    Miao, Jun-Ying
    Michels, Paul A M
    Michiels, Carine
    Mijaljica, Dalibor
    Milojkovic, Ana
    Minucci, Saverio
    Miracco, Clelia
    Miranti, Cindy K
    Mitroulis, Ioannis
    Miyazawa, Keisuke
    Mizushima, Noboru
    Mograbi, Baharia
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Molero, Xavier
    Mollereau, Bertrand
    Mollinedo, Faustino
    Momoi, Takashi
    Monastyrska, Iryna
    Monick, Martha M
    Monteiro, Mervyn J
    Moore, Michael N
    Mora, Rodrigo
    Moreau, Kevin
    Moreira, Paula I
    Moriyasu, Yuji
    Moscat, Jorge
    Mostowy, Serge
    Mottram, Jeremy C
    Motyl, Tomasz
    Moussa, Charbel E-H
    Müller, Sylke
    Muller, Sylviane
    Münger, Karl
    Münz, Christian
    Murphy, Leon O
    Murphy, Maureen E
    Musarò, Antonio
    Mysorekar, Indira
    Nagata, Eiichiro
    Nagata, Kazuhiro
    Nahimana, Aimable
    Nair, Usha
    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki
    Nakahira, Kiichi
    Nakano, Hiroyasu
    Nakatogawa, Hitoshi
    Nanjundan, Meera
    Naqvi, Naweed I
    Narendra, Derek P
    Narita, Masashi
    Navarro, Miguel
    Nawrocki, Steffan T
    Nazarko, Taras Y
    Nemchenko, Andriy
    Netea, Mihai G
    Neufeld, Thomas P
    Ney, Paul A
    Nezis, Ioannis P
    Nguyen, Huu Phuc
    Nie, Daotai
    Nishino, Ichizo
    Nislow, Corey
    Nixon, Ralph A
    Noda, Takeshi
    Noegel, Angelika A
    Nogalska, Anna
    Noguchi, Satoru
    Notterpek, Lucia
    Novak, Ivana
    Nozaki, Tomoyoshi
    Nukina, Nobuyuki
    Nürnberger, Thorsten
    Nyfeler, Beat
    Obara, Keisuke
    Oberley, Terry D
    Oddo, Salvatore
    Ogawa, Michinaga
    Ohashi, Toya
    Okamoto, Koji
    Oleinick, Nancy L
    Oliver, F Javier
    Olsen, Laura J
    Olsson, Stefan
    Opota, Onya
    Osborne, Timothy F
    Ostrander, Gary K
    Otsu, Kinya
    Ou, Jing-hsiung James
    Ouimet, Mireille
    Overholtzer, Michael
    Ozpolat, Bulent
    Paganetti, Paolo
    Pagnini, Ugo
    Pallet, Nicolas
    Palmer, Glen E
    Palumbo, Camilla
    Pan, Tianhong
    Panaretakis, Theocharis
    Pandey, Udai Bhan
    Papackova, Zuzana
    Papassideri, Issidora
    Paris, Irmgard
    Park, Junsoo
    Park, Ohkmae K
    Parys, Jan B
    Parzych, Katherine R
    Patschan, Susann
    Patterson, Cam
    Pattingre, Sophie
    Pawelek, John M
    Peng, Jianxin
    Perlmutter, David H
    Perrotta, Ida
    Perry, George
    Pervaiz, Shazib
    Peter, Matthias
    Peters, Godefridus J
    Petersen, Morten
    Petrovski, Goran
    Phang, James M
    Piacentini, Mauro
    Pierre, Philippe
    Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie
    Pierron, Gérard
    Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit
    Piras, Antonio
    Piri, Natik
    Platanias, Leonidas C
    Pöggeler, Stefanie
    Poirot, Marc
    Poletti, Angelo
    Poüs, Christian
    Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes
    Prætorius-Ibba, Mette
    Prasad, Anil
    Prescott, Mark
    Priault, Muriel
    Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie
    Progulske-Fox, Ann
    Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula
    Przedborski, Serge
    Przyklenk, Karin
    Puertollano, Rosa
    Puyal, Julien
    Qian, Shu-Bing
    Qin, Liang
    Qin, Zheng-Hong
    Quaggin, Susan E
    Raben, Nina
    Rabinowich, Hannah
    Rabkin, Simon W
    Rahman, Irfan
    Rami, Abdelhaq
    Ramm, Georg
    Randall, Glenn
    Randow, Felix
    Rao, V Ashutosh
    Rathmell, Jeffrey C
    Ravikumar, Brinda
    Ray, Swapan K
    Reed, Bruce H
    Reed, John C
    Reggiori, Fulvio
    Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne
    Reichert, Andreas S
    Reiners, John J
    Reiter, Russel J
    Ren, Jun
    Revuelta, José L
    Rhodes, Christopher J
    Ritis, Konstantinos
    Rizzo, Elizete
    Robbins, Jeffrey
    Roberge, Michel
    Roca, Hernan
    Roccheri, Maria C
    Rocchi, Stephane
    Rodemann, H Peter
    Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago
    Rohrer, Bärbel
    Roninson, Igor B
    Rosen, Kirill
    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M
    Rouis, Mustapha
    Rouschop, Kasper M A
    Rovetta, Francesca
    Rubin, Brian P
    Rubinsztein, David C
    Ruckdeschel, Klaus
    Rucker, Edmund B
    Rudich, Assaf
    Rudolf, Emil
    Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson
    Russo, Rossella
    Rusten, Tor Erik
    Ryan, Kevin M
    Ryter, Stefan W
    Sabatini, David M
    Sadoshima, Junichi
    Saha, Tapas
    Saitoh, Tatsuya
    Sakagami, Hiroshi
    Sakai, Yasuyoshi
    Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini
    Salomoni, Paolo
    Salvaterra, Paul M
    Salvesen, Guy
    Salvioli, Rosa
    Sanchez, Anthony M J
    Sánchez-Alcázar, José A
    Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo
    Sandri, Marco
    Sankar, Uma
    Sansanwal, Poonam
    Santambrogio, Laura
    Saran, Shweta
    Sarkar, Sovan
    Sarwal, Minnie
    Sasakawa, Chihiro
    Sasnauskiene, Ausra
    Sass, Miklós
    Sato, Ken
    Sato, Miyuki
    Schapira, Anthony H V
    Scharl, Michael
    Schätzl, Hermann M
    Scheper, Wiep
    Schiaffino, Stefano
    Schneider, Claudio
    Schneider, Marion E
    Schneider-Stock, Regine
    Schoenlein, Patricia V
    Schorderet, Daniel F
    Schüller, Christoph
    Schwartz, Gary K
    Scorrano, Luca
    Sealy, Linda
    Seglen, Per O
    Segura-Aguilar, Juan
    Seiliez, Iban
    Seleverstov, Oleksandr
    Sell, Christian
    Seo, Jong Bok
    Separovic, Duska
    Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi
    Setoguchi, Takao
    Settembre, Carmine
    Shacka, John J
    Shanmugam, Mala
    Shapiro, Irving M
    Shaulian, Eitan
    Shaw, Reuben J
    Shelhamer, James H
    Shen, Han-Ming
    Shen, Wei-Chiang
    Sheng, Zu-Hang
    Shi, Yang
    Shibuya, Kenichi
    Shidoji, Yoshihiro
    Shieh, Jeng-Jer
    Shih, Chwen-Ming
    Shimada, Yohta
    Shimizu, Shigeomi
    Shintani, Takahiro
    Shirihai, Orian S
    Shore, Gordon C
    Sibirny, Andriy A
    Sidhu, Stan B
    Sikorska, Beata
    Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M
    Simmons, Alison
    Simon, Anna Katharina
    Simon, Hans-Uwe
    Simone, Cristiano
    Simonsen, Anne
    Sinclair, David A
    Singh, Rajat
    Sinha, Debasish
    Sinicrope, Frank A
    Sirko, Agnieszka
    Siu, Parco M
    Sivridis, Efthimios
    Skop, Vojtech
    Skulachev, Vladimir P
    Slack, Ruth S
    Smaili, Soraya S
    Smith, Duncan R
    Soengas, Maria S
    Soldati, Thierry
    Song, Xueqin
    Sood, Anil K
    Soong, Tuck Wah
    Sotgia, Federica
    Spector, Stephen A
    Spies, Claudia D
    Springer, Wolfdieter
    Srinivasula, Srinivasa M
    Stefanis, Leonidas
    Steffan, Joan S
    Stendel, Ruediger
    Stenmark, Harald
    Stephanou, Anastasis
    Stern, Stephan T
    Sternberg, Cinthya
    Stork, Björn
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Subauste, Carlos S
    Sui, Xinbing
    Sulzer, David
    Sun, Jiaren
    Sun, Shi-Yong
    Sun, Zhi-Jun
    Sung, Joseph J Y
    Suzuki, Kuninori
    Suzuki, Toshihiko
    Swanson, Michele S
    Swanton, Charles
    Sweeney, Sean T
    Sy, Lai-King
    Szabadkai, Gyorgy
    Tabas, Ira
    Taegtmeyer, Heinrich
    Tafani, Marco
    Takács-Vellai, Krisztina
    Takano, Yoshitaka
    Takegawa, Kaoru
    Takemura, Genzou
    Takeshita, Fumihiko
    Talbot, Nicholas J
    Tan, Kevin S W
    Tanaka, Keiji
    Tanaka, Kozo
    Tang, Daolin
    Tang, Dingzhong
    Tanida, Isei
    Tannous, Bakhos A
    Tavernarakis, Nektarios
    Taylor, Graham S
    Taylor, Gregory A
    Taylor, J Paul
    Terada, Lance S
    Terman, Alexei
    Tettamanti, Gianluca
    Thevissen, Karin
    Thompson, Craig B
    Thorburn, Andrew
    Thumm, Michael
    Tian, FengFeng
    Tian, Yuan
    Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco
    Tolkovsky, Aviva M
    Tomino, Yasuhiko
    Tönges, Lars
    Tooze, Sharon A
    Tournier, Cathy
    Tower, John
    Towns, Roberto
    Trajkovic, Vladimir
    Travassos, Leonardo H
    Tsai, Ting-Fen
    Tschan, Mario P
    Tsubata, Takeshi
    Tsung, Allan
    Turk, Boris
    Turner, Lorianne S
    Tyagi, Suresh C
    Uchiyama, Yasuo
    Ueno, Takashi
    Umekawa, Midori
    Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika
    Unni, Vivek K
    Vaccaro, Maria I
    Valente, Enza Maria
    Van den Berghe, Greet
    van der Klei, Ida J
    van Doorn, Wouter
    van Dyk, Linda F
    van Egmond, Marjolein
    van Grunsven, Leo A
    Vandenabeele, Peter
    Vandenberghe, Wim P
    Vanhorebeek, Ilse
    Vaquero, Eva C
    Velasco, Guillermo
    Vellai, Tibor
    Vicencio, Jose Miguel
    Vierstra, Richard D
    Vila, Miquel
    Vindis, Cécile
    Viola, Giampietro
    Viscomi, Maria Teresa
    Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V
    von Haefen, Clarissa
    Votruba, Marcela
    Wada, Keiji
    Wade-Martins, Richard
    Walker, Cheryl L
    Walsh, Craig M
    Walter, Jochen
    Wan, Xiang-Bo
    Wang, Aimin
    Wang, Chenguang
    Wang, Dawei
    Wang, Fan
    Wang, Fen
    Wang, Guanghui
    Wang, Haichao
    Wang, Hong-Gang
    Wang, Horng-Dar
    Wang, Jin
    Wang, Ke
    Wang, Mei
    Wang, Richard C
    Wang, Xinglong
    Wang, Xuejun
    Wang, Ying-Jan
    Wang, Yipeng
    Wang, Zhen
    Wang, Zhigang Charles
    Wang, Zhinong
    Wansink, Derick G
    Ward, Diane M
    Watada, Hirotaka
    Waters, Sarah L
    Webster, Paul
    Wei, Lixin
    Weihl, Conrad C
    Weiss, William A
    Welford, Scott M
    Wen, Long-Ping
    Whitehouse, Caroline A
    Whitton, J Lindsay
    Whitworth, Alexander J
    Wileman, Tom
    Wiley, John W
    Wilkinson, Simon
    Willbold, Dieter
    Williams, Roger L
    Williamson, Peter R
    Wouters, Bradly G
    Wu, Chenghan
    Wu, Dao-Cheng
    Wu, William K K
    Wyttenbach, Andreas
    Xavier, Ramnik J
    Xi, Zhijun
    Xia, Pu
    Xiao, Gengfu
    Xie, Zhiping
    Xie, Zhonglin
    Xu, Da-zhi
    Xu, Jianzhen
    Xu, Liang
    Xu, Xiaolei
    Yamamoto, Ai
    Yamamoto, Akitsugu
    Yamashina, Shunhei
    Yamashita, Michiaki
    Yan, Xianghua
    Yanagida, Mitsuhiro
    Yang, Dun-Sheng
    Yang, Elizabeth
    Yang, Jin-Ming
    Yang, Shi Yu
    Yang, Wannian
    Yang, Wei Yuan
    Yang, Zhifen
    Yao, Meng-Chao
    Yao, Tso-Pang
    Yeganeh, Behzad
    Yen, Wei-Lien
    Yin, Jia-jing
    Yin, Xiao-Ming
    Yoo, Ook-Joon
    Yoon, Gyesoon
    Yoon, Seung-Yong
    Yorimitsu, Tomohiro
    Yoshikawa, Yuko
    Yoshimori, Tamotsu
    Yoshimoto, Kohki
    You, Ho Jin
    Youle, Richard J
    Younes, Anas
    Yu, Li
    Yu, Long
    Yu, Seong-Woon
    Yu, Wai Haung
    Yuan, Zhi-Min
    Yue, Zhenyu
    Yun, Cheol-Heui
    Yuzaki, Michisuke
    Zabirnyk, Olga
    Silva-Zacarin, Elaine
    Zacks, David
    Zacksenhaus, Eldad
    Zaffaroni, Nadia
    Zakeri, Zahra
    Zeh, Herbert J
    Zeitlin, Scott O
    Zhang, Hong
    Zhang, Hui-Ling
    Zhang, Jianhua
    Zhang, Jing-Pu
    Zhang, Lin
    Zhang, Long
    Zhang, Ming-Yong
    Zhang, Xu Dong
    Zhao, Mantong
    Zhao, Yi-Fang
    Zhao, Ying
    Zhao, Zhizhuang J
    Zheng, Xiaoxiang
    Zhivotovsky, Boris
    Zhong, Qing
    Zhou, Cong-Zhao
    Zhu, Changlian
    Zhu, Wei-Guo
    Zhu, Xiao-Feng
    Zhu, Xiongwei
    Zhu, Yuangang
    Zoladek, Teresa
    Zong, Wei-Xing
    Zorzano, Antonio
    Zschocke, Jürgen
    Zuckerbraun, Brian
    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy2012In: Autophagy, ISSN 1554-8627, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 445-544Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

  • 14.
    Klionsky, Daniel J.
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; University of Michigan, Life Sciences Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, USA .
    Boman, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kurz, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Zughaier, Susu M.
    Emory University, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)2016In: Autophagy, ISSN 1554-8627, E-ISSN 1554-8635, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-222Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Autophagy in insulin-induced hypoglycaemic neuropathy2011In: PATHOLOGY, ISSN 0031-3025, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Autophagy in neurons has been linked to a growing number of pathological conditions in the CNS, but the role of this process in peripheral neuropathy has received little attention. This study aimed to determine whether autophagy is involved in development of peripheral neuropathy in hypoglycaemic diabetic rats. Methods: The lateral plantar nerves, ventral roots, and dorsal roots of insulin-treated diabetic hypoglycaemic rats were examined for structural signs of autophagy by electron microscopy. Results: Autophagy-associated vacuoles were found in myelinated axons exhibiting early pathological changes but not in the associated Schwann cells. When the damaged axons degenerated, their associated Schwann cells gradually died and were cleared from the endoneurium by macrophages. During axonal regeneration, extensive signs of autophagy-related structures such as autophagophores appeared in regenerating axons and in the cytoplasm of the associated Schwann cells in the Band of Bungner. Conclusion: Autophagy occurs in hypoglycaemic peripheral nerves in association with axonal de- and regeneration. The extensive signs of autophagy in regenerated axons suggest that autophagy may play a role in survival of the new axons.

  • 16.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hypoglycaemic neuropathy: Experimental studies in diabetic rats treated witn insulin implants2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes secondary complications such as peripheral neuropathy. it is generally believed that diabetic neuropathy is due to chronic hyperglycaemia. In order to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy many workers have examined nerves from diabetic rats. While most workers say that animals with high blood glucose levels develop neuropathy, some investigators report that the peripheral nerves are normal in hyperglycaemic rats. Hypoglycaemia may also cause neuropathy. The general aim of the present study is to examine the long-term relation between glycaemia and peripheral neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats. This necessitated establishment of a treatment regime allowing long-term survival of these sick animals.

    We found that maintenance of diabetic BB/Wor rats on an eu/hyperglycaemic or an eu-/hypoglycaemic regime with insulin implants worked well for our purpose.

    Unexpectedly, light and electron microscopic examination of plantar nerves in eu-/hyperglycaemic diabetic rats showed a normal picture. But, nerves from eu-/hypoglycemic rats showed severe qualitative changes, interpreted as axonal de- and regeneration. The total number of axons  was subnormal and the myelinated fibres were shifted towards smaller diameters. Hence, eu-/hypoglycaemic diabetic BB/Wor rats but not eu-/hyperglycaemic animals, develop a neuropathy in their plantar nerves.

    The immunohistochemical occurrence of epidermal protein gene product 9.5 immunoreactive axon profiles was normal in heel skin biopsies from eu/hypoglycaemic rats, but many profiles were short and thin. The content of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in skin biopsies was subnormal. The occurrence of end plate axon terminals labeled with antibodies against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein was subnormal in sections from a plantar muscle of eu-/hypoglycaemic rats. Moreover, the end plate axon terminals were abnormally small. Hence, the hypoglycaemic neuropathy seen in plantar nerve trunks of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants is accompanied by mild alterations in the epidermal innervation of plantar skin and a more obviously abnormal nerve terminal pattern in plantar muscle.

    Electron microscopic examination of L5 dorsal roots from eu/hypoglycaemic rats showed a normal morphology and normal numbers of axons. In L5 ventral roots the picture varied: in 2 rats it was normal and 3 rats showed signs of axonal degeneration. The L5 dorsal root ganglion and the L5 ventral horn showed a normal picture. Hence, eu-/hypoglycaemia affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons. Moreover, the degree of ventral root pathology is variable and sensory and motor neuron perikarya are not affected.

    List of papers
    1. Neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants
    1998 (English)In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 144-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To elucidate the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy many workers have examined nerve specimens from diabetic rats. While most workers found that animals with high blood glucose levels develop neuropathy, some researchers report that the peripheral nerves are normal in hyperglycaemic rats. Hypoglycaemia may also cause neuropathy. Some workers suggest that neuropathy is linked to fluctuations of the blood glucose level. In the present study we examine plantar nerves of diabetic BB/ Wor rats maintained on an eu-/hyperglycaemic or an eu-/ hypoglycaemic regime with insulin implants. Treatment with implants worked well. Light microscopic examination of nerve fibres in non-diabetic control rats and in eu-/ hyperglycaemic diabetic rats showed a normal picture. Preparations from eu-/hypoglycemic rats showed irregular myelin sheaths and signs of Wallerian degeneration. The lengths and diameters of the largest internodes were significantly subnormal. We conclude, that periodic moderate hypoglycaemia, but not periodic moderate hyperglycaemia, elicits neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants.

    Keywords
    Neuropathy, Hypoglycaemia, Hyperglycaemia, Insulin, BB/Wor rat
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79476 (URN)10.1007/s004010050874 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-08-03 Created: 2012-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants: Electron microscopic observations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants: Electron microscopic observations
    1998 (English)In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that causes long-term secondary complications such as neuropathy. The occurrence of diabetic neuropathy has generally been thought of as being associated with hyperglycaemia. However, in a previous light microscopic examination of plantar nerves in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants we found that eu-/hyperglycaemic rats present a normal picture, whereas eu-/hypoglycaemic rats show severe changes. The aim of the present work is to supplement our previous light microscopic report with electron microsocpic data from the lateral plantar nerve of normal, eu-/hyperglycaemic and eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats. Under the electron microscope lateral plantar nerves collected from eu-/hyperglycaemic rats presented a qualitatively normal picture. In addition, the fibre numbers and the size distribution of the myelinated fibres were normal. In contrast, specimens from eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats showed severe qualitative changes, interpreted as signs of axonal de- and regeneration. The total number of axons was somewhat subnormal and the sizes of the myelinated fibres were strongly shifted towards smaller diameters. These data confirm our previous light microscopic observations. We conclude that eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants, but not similarly treated eu-/hyperglycaemic animals, develop a neuropathy in their plantar nerves.

    Keywords
    Neuropathy, Hypoglycemia, Insulin, implant, Rat, Electron microscopy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79477 (URN)10.1007/s004010050875 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-08-03 Created: 2012-08-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Hypoglycaemic neuropathy: Occurrence of axon terminals in plantar skin and plantar muscle of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypoglycaemic neuropathy: Occurrence of axon terminals in plantar skin and plantar muscle of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants
    2000 (English)In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally believed that diabetic neuropathy is due to chronic hyperglycaemia. However, experience from insulinoma patients and experimental studies show that hypoglycaemia may also cause neuropathy. Accordingly, the plantar nerves of diabetic eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants exhibit a distinct neuropathy. To what extent hypoglycaemic neuropathy affects axon terminals in skin and muscle is unknown. In the present study we examine the occurrence of epidermal axon profiles and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in plantar skin, and of end plate axon terminals in a plantar muscle of diabetic BB/Wor rats subjected to long periods of hypoglycaemia. The number of protein gene product-immunoreactive axon profiles was found to be normal in heel skin biopsy specimens from eu-/hypoglycaemic rats, but many profiles were short and thin. The content of CGRP in the skin biopsy samples was significantly below normal. After staining with antibodies against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein, the occurrence of end plate axon terminals was significantly reduced in sections from the flexor hallucis brevis muscle of eu-/hypoglycaemic rats. Moreover, the end plate axon terminals tended to be abnormally small in these rats. We conclude that the hypoglycaemic neuropathy seen in plantar nerve trunks of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants is accompanied by mild alterations in the epidermal innervation of plantar skin and a more obviously abnormal nerve terminal pattern in plantar muscle.

    Keywords
    Hypoglycaemia, Glabrous skin, Nerve fibre, Plantar muscle, Motor end plate
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25083 (URN)10.1007/PL00007435 (DOI)9513 (Local ID)9513 (Archive number)9513 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons
    2000 (English)In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that hyperglycaemia underlies diabetic neuropathy. However, low blood glucose values may also cause pathological changes in peripheral nerves and in neuronal perikarya. This study examined spinal roots, dorsal root ganglia and the ventral horn at the segmental level L5 in long-term insulin-treated eu-/hypoglycaemic diabetic rats with an obvious plantar nerve pathology. The purpose was to determine whether hypoglycaemic neuropathy affects sensory and/or motor neurons at root and/or perikaryal levels. Electron microscopic examination of dorsal roots from eu-/hypoglycaemic rats showed a normal qualitative morphology and normal numbers of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. In ventral roots the picture varied. Whereas two rats exhibited an essentially normal morphology, three rats presented moderate or marked signs of pathology such as clusters of small and medium-sized myelinated axons, medium-sized myelinated axons with abnormally thin sheaths, large unmyelinated axons and signs of past or ongoing axonal degeneration. Light microscopic examination of the L5 dorsal root ganglion and ventral horn showed a qualitatively normal picture in eu-/hypoglycaemic rats and the mean number of large ventral horn neurons per section was normal. These results suggest that the type of eu-/hypoglycaemia examined here affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons, that the degree of ventral root pathology is variable and that sensory and motor neuron perikarya do not appear to be affected.

    Keywords
    Hypoglycaemia, Neuropathy, Spinal roots, Dorsal root ganglion, Ventral horn
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25276 (URN)10.1007/s004010000204 (DOI)9716 (Local ID)9716 (Archive number)9716 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 17.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons2000In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that hyperglycaemia underlies diabetic neuropathy. However, low blood glucose values may also cause pathological changes in peripheral nerves and in neuronal perikarya. This study examined spinal roots, dorsal root ganglia and the ventral horn at the segmental level L5 in long-term insulin-treated eu-/hypoglycaemic diabetic rats with an obvious plantar nerve pathology. The purpose was to determine whether hypoglycaemic neuropathy affects sensory and/or motor neurons at root and/or perikaryal levels. Electron microscopic examination of dorsal roots from eu-/hypoglycaemic rats showed a normal qualitative morphology and normal numbers of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. In ventral roots the picture varied. Whereas two rats exhibited an essentially normal morphology, three rats presented moderate or marked signs of pathology such as clusters of small and medium-sized myelinated axons, medium-sized myelinated axons with abnormally thin sheaths, large unmyelinated axons and signs of past or ongoing axonal degeneration. Light microscopic examination of the L5 dorsal root ganglion and ventral horn showed a qualitatively normal picture in eu-/hypoglycaemic rats and the mean number of large ventral horn neurons per section was normal. These results suggest that the type of eu-/hypoglycaemia examined here affects ventral root axons but not dorsal root axons, that the degree of ventral root pathology is variable and that sensory and motor neuron perikarya do not appear to be affected.

  • 18.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology.
    Hypoglycemic neuropathy2001In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 413-421Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoglycemia is a relatively common condition primarily affecting diabetic patients treated with insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs and insulinoma patients. Clinical experience and experimental studies show that hypoglycemia may cause alterations both in the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system. Hypoglycemic effects on the CNS include various symptoms such as irritability and lack of concentration, disruption of cognitive functions, convulsions and unconsciousness. As for pathology, a loss of neurons has been noted, being more obvious in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus than in the brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Myelin damage and glial changes have also been observed in the CNS. The development of pathological changes in the brain has mainly been studied on autopsy material from patients who died in insulin coma and in animals exposed to a severe hypoglycemia and showing an isoelectric electroencephalogram. It has been suggested that hypoglycemic loss of neurons in the brain is related to excititoxic actions of aspartate on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. With respect to the PNS, scattered clinical observations in humans and experimental studies in animals show that hypoglycemia causes a distal axonopathy including both degenerative and regenerative events. In this respect, motor axons seem to be more vulnerable than sensory axons. Animal experiments show that a peripheral neuropathy may develop even in cases with a mild hypoglycemia compatible with a generally normal behavior. The cellular mechanisms behind the development of hypoglycemic. PNS alterations are unknown. To elucidate the pathophysiology of hypoglycemic neuropathy more basic research is needed.

  • 19.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neurologic damage in hypoglycemia.2014In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 126, p. 513-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoglycemia occurs in diabetic patients as a consequence of treatment with hypoglycemic agents, in insulinoma patients as a result of excessive insulin production, and in infants as a result of abnormal regulation of metabolism. Profound hypoglycemia can cause structural and functional disturbances in both the central (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The brain is damaged by a short and severe episode of hypoglycemia, whereas PNS pathology appears after a mild and prolonged episode. In the CNS, damaged mitochondria, elevated intracellular Ca2(+) level, released cytochrome c to the cytosol, extensive production of superoxide, increased caspase-3 activity, release of aspartate and glutamate from presynaptic terminals, and altered biosynthetic machinery can lead to neuronal cell death in the brain. Considering the PNS, chronic hypoglycemia is associated with delayed motor and sensory conduction velocities in peripheral nerves. With respect to pathology, hypoglycemic neuropathy in the PNS is characterized by Wallerian-like axonal degeneration that starts at the nerve terminal and progresses to a more proximal part of the axon, and motor axons to the muscles may be more severely damaged than sensory axons. Since excitatory neurotransmitters primarily involve the neuron in the CNS, this "dying back" pattern of axonal damage in the PNS may involve mechanisms other than excitotoxicity.

  • 20.
    Mohseni, Simin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Badii, Medeea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kylhammar, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomsen, Niels O. B.
    Department of Hand Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Karl‐Fredrik
    Vascular Department of Angiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Malik, Rayaz A.
    Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar; Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester University Hospitals.
    Rosén, Ingmar
    Department of Neurophysiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Department of Hand Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Translational Medicine – Hand Surgery, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden .
    Longitudinal study of neuropathy, microangiopathy, and autophagy in sural nerve: Implications for diabetic neuropathy2017In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e00763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The progression and pathophysiology of neuropathy in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is poorly understood, especially in relation to autophagy. This study was designed to assess whether the presence of autophagy-related structures was associated with sural nerve fiber pathology, and to investigate if endoneurial capillary pathology could predict the development of T2DM and neuropathy. Sural nerve physiology and ultrastructural morphology were studied at baseline and 11 years later in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT, and T2DM. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower sural nerve amplitude compared to subjects with NGT and IGT at baseline. Myelinated and unmyelinated fiber, endoneurial capillary morphology, and the presence and distribution of autophagy structures were comparable between groups at baseline, except for a smaller myelinated axon diameter in subjects with T2DM and IGT compared to NGT. The baseline values of the subjects with NGT and IGT who converted to T2DM 11 years later demonstrated healthy smaller endoneurial capillary and higher g-ratio versus subjects who remained NGT. At follow-up, T2DM showed a reduction in nerve conduction, amplitude, myelinated fiber density, unmyelinated axon diameter, and autophagy structures in myelinated axons. Endothelial cell area and total diffusion barrier was increased versus baseline. We conclude that small healthy endoneurial capillary may presage the development of T2DM and neuropathy. Autophagy occurs in human sural nerves and can be affected by T2DM. Further studies are warranted to understand the role of autophagy in diabetic neuropathy.

  • 21.
    Mohseni, Simin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hypoglycaemic neuropathy in BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants: Electron microscopic observations1998In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that causes long-term secondary complications such as neuropathy. The occurrence of diabetic neuropathy has generally been thought of as being associated with hyperglycaemia. However, in a previous light microscopic examination of plantar nerves in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants we found that eu-/hyperglycaemic rats present a normal picture, whereas eu-/hypoglycaemic rats show severe changes. The aim of the present work is to supplement our previous light microscopic report with electron microsocpic data from the lateral plantar nerve of normal, eu-/hyperglycaemic and eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats. Under the electron microscope lateral plantar nerves collected from eu-/hyperglycaemic rats presented a qualitatively normal picture. In addition, the fibre numbers and the size distribution of the myelinated fibres were normal. In contrast, specimens from eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats showed severe qualitative changes, interpreted as signs of axonal de- and regeneration. The total number of axons was somewhat subnormal and the sizes of the myelinated fibres were strongly shifted towards smaller diameters. These data confirm our previous light microscopic observations. We conclude that eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants, but not similarly treated eu-/hyperglycaemic animals, develop a neuropathy in their plantar nerves.

  • 22.
    Mohseni, Simin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants1998In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 144-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To elucidate the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy many workers have examined nerve specimens from diabetic rats. While most workers found that animals with high blood glucose levels develop neuropathy, some researchers report that the peripheral nerves are normal in hyperglycaemic rats. Hypoglycaemia may also cause neuropathy. Some workers suggest that neuropathy is linked to fluctuations of the blood glucose level. In the present study we examine plantar nerves of diabetic BB/ Wor rats maintained on an eu-/hyperglycaemic or an eu-/ hypoglycaemic regime with insulin implants. Treatment with implants worked well. Light microscopic examination of nerve fibres in non-diabetic control rats and in eu-/ hyperglycaemic diabetic rats showed a normal picture. Preparations from eu-/hypoglycemic rats showed irregular myelin sheaths and signs of Wallerian degeneration. The lengths and diameters of the largest internodes were significantly subnormal. We conclude, that periodic moderate hypoglycaemia, but not periodic moderate hyperglycaemia, elicits neuropathy in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants.

  • 23.
    Mohseni, Simin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lillesaar, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hypoglycaemic neuropathy: Occurrence of axon terminals in plantar skin and plantar muscle of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants2000In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 257-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally believed that diabetic neuropathy is due to chronic hyperglycaemia. However, experience from insulinoma patients and experimental studies show that hypoglycaemia may also cause neuropathy. Accordingly, the plantar nerves of diabetic eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants exhibit a distinct neuropathy. To what extent hypoglycaemic neuropathy affects axon terminals in skin and muscle is unknown. In the present study we examine the occurrence of epidermal axon profiles and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in plantar skin, and of end plate axon terminals in a plantar muscle of diabetic BB/Wor rats subjected to long periods of hypoglycaemia. The number of protein gene product-immunoreactive axon profiles was found to be normal in heel skin biopsy specimens from eu-/hypoglycaemic rats, but many profiles were short and thin. The content of CGRP in the skin biopsy samples was significantly below normal. After staining with antibodies against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein, the occurrence of end plate axon terminals was significantly reduced in sections from the flexor hallucis brevis muscle of eu-/hypoglycaemic rats. Moreover, the end plate axon terminals tended to be abnormally small in these rats. We conclude that the hypoglycaemic neuropathy seen in plantar nerve trunks of diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants is accompanied by mild alterations in the epidermal innervation of plantar skin and a more obviously abnormal nerve terminal pattern in plantar muscle.

  • 24.
    Moula, A
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Mohseni, Semin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Starrin, B
    Karlstad University.
    Scherp, HÅ
    Karlstad University.
    Puddephatt, AJ
    Lakeland University, Ontario, Canada.
    The intelligent method of learning2010In: Reclaiming children and youth, ISSN 1089-5701, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 26-31Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 25. Osman, Ayman A. M.
    et al.
    Dahlin, Lars B.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Niels O. B.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Sweden.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Autophagy in the posterior interosseous nerve of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an ultrastructural study2015In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 625-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We addressed the question of whether the autophagy pathway occurs in human peripheral nerves and whether this pathway is associated with peripheral neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. By using electron microscopy, we evaluated the presence of autophagy-related structures and neuropathy in the posterior interosseous nerve of patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in patients with no diabetes (controls). Autophagy-related ultrastructures were observed in the samples taken from all patients of the three groups. The number of autophagy-associated structures was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the nerves of patients with type 1 than type 2 diabetes. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of fascicle area, diameter of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, the density of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres and the g-ratio of myelinated fibres were performed. We found degeneration and regeneration of a few myelinated axons in controls, and a well-developed neuropathy with the loss of large myelinated axons and the presence of many small ones in patients with diabetes. The pathology in type 1 diabetes was more extensive than in type 2 diabetes. The results of this study show that the human peripheral nerves have access to the autophagy machinery, and this pathway may be regulated differently in type 1 and type 2 diabetes; insulin, presence of extensive neuropathy, and/or other factors such as duration of diabetes and HbA(1c) level may underlie this differential regulation.

  • 26.
    Samuelsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Osman, Ayman A. M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Angeria, Maria
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Risling, Mårten
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Press, Rayomand
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Study of Autophagy and Microangiopathy in Sural Nerves of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy.2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0163427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-five percent of polyneuropathies are idiopathic. Microangiopathy has been suggested to be a possible pathogenic cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Dysfunction of the autophagy pathway has been implicated as a marker of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, but the autophagy process is not explored in the peripheral nervous system. In the current study, we examined the presence of microangiopathy and autophagy-related structures in sural nerve biopsies of 10 patients with CIAP, 11 controls with inflammatory neuropathy and 10 controls without sensory polyneuropathy. We did not find any significant difference in endoneurial microangiopathic markers in patients with CIAP compared to normal controls, though we did find a correlation between basal lamina area thickness and age. Unexpectedly, we found a significantly larger basal lamina area thickness in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher density of endoneurial autophagy-related structures, particularly in patients with CIAP but also in patients with inflammatory neuropathy, compared to normal controls. It is unclear if the alteration in the autophagy pathway is a consequence or a cause of the neuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CIAP is primarily caused by a microangiopathic process in endoneurial blood vessels in peripheral nerves. The significantly higher density of autophagy structures in sural nerves obtained from patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy vs. controls indicates the involvement of this pathway in neuropathy, particularly in CIAP, since the increase in density of autophagy-related structures was more pronounced in patients with CIAP than those with inflammatory neuropathy. To our knowledge this is the first report investigating signs of autophagy process in peripheral nerves in patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy.

  • 27.
    Sepehr, Arian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lactate damages primary hippocampal neurons in vitro.2010In: Cell biology international, ISSN 1095-8355, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, rat primary cultures were used to study the effect of lactate on the survival of hippocampal neurons in the presence or absence of glucose. Our results showed no extensive cell damage under glucose-free conditions compared with glucose-rich conditions. Addition of 10 and 50 mM lactate to glucose-free and glucose-rich media increased the cell damage significantly, as observed by morphology and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The results of the present study suggest that primary neurons in vitro are not sensitive to glucose deficiency and the presence of lactate damages the neurons in a concentration-dependent manner.

  • 28.
    Sepehr, Arian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neuron survival in vitro is more influenced by the developmental age of the cells than by glucose condition2009In: Cytotechnology (Dordrecht), ISSN 0920-9069, E-ISSN 1573-0778, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the sensitivity to varying glucose conditions differs for the peripheral and central nervous system neurons at different developmental stages. Ventral horn neurons (VHN) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) from rats of different postnatal ages were exposed to glucose-free or glucose-rich culture conditions. Following 24 h at those conditions, the number of protein gene product 9.5 positive (PGP(+)) DRG neurons and choline acetyltransferase positive (ChAT(+)) VHN were counted and their neurite lengths and soma diameters were measured. For both DRG and VHN, the highest number of cells with and without neurite outgrowth was seen when cells from postnatal day 4 donors were cultured, while the lowest cell numbers were when neurons were from donors early after birth and grown under glucose-free conditions. The length of the neurites and the soma diameter for VHN were not affected by either glucose level or age. DRG neurons, however, exhibited the shortest neurites and smallest soma diameter when neurons were obtained and cultured early after birth. Our results indicate that survival of neurons in vitro is more influenced by the developmental stage than by glucose concentrations.

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