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  • 1.
    Abelius, Martina S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Janefjord, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Helsingborg Hospital, Helsingborg.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nilsson, Lennart J
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Placental Immune Milieu is Characterized by a Th2- and Anti-Inflammatory Transcription Profile, Regardless of Maternal Allergy, and Associates with Neonatal Immunity2015In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 73, no 5, p. 445-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: How maternal allergy affects the systemic and local immunological environment during pregnancy and the immune development of the offspring is unclear.

    METHOD OF STUDY: Expression of 40 genes was quantified by PCR arrays in placenta, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) from 7 allergic and 12 non-allergic women and their offspring.

    RESULTS: Placental gene expression was dominated by a Th2-/anti-inflammatory profile, irrespectively of maternal allergy, as compared to gene expression in PBMC. p35 expression in placenta correlated with fetal Tbx21 (ρ = -0.88, P < 0.001) and IL-5 expression in PBMC with fetal galectin1 (ρ = 0.91, P < 0.001). Increased expression of Th2-associated CCL22 in CBMC preceded allergy development.

    CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression locally and systemically during pregnancy was partly associated with the offspring's gene expression, possibly indicating that the immunological milieu is important for fetal immune development. Maternal allergy was not associated with an enhanced Th2 immunity in placenta or PBMC, while a marked prenatal Th2 skewing, shown as increased CCL22 mRNA expression, might contribute to postnatal allergy development.

  • 2.
    Abelius, Martina S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janefjord, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gene expression in placenta, peripheral and cord blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic women2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The influence of maternal allergy on the development of immune responses and allergy in the offspring is not understood.

    Objective: To investigate (i) if maternal allergy influences the gene expression locally in placenta, systemically in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and fetally in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), (ii) if the gene expression in the placenta and PBMC influences the gene expression in CBMC and (iii) how the gene expression at birth relates to allergy development during  childhood.

    Methods: A real-time PCR array was used to quantify forty immune regulatory genes in placenta, PBMC (gestational week 39) and in CBMC from 7 allergic and 12 non-allergic women and their offspring. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of Tbx21, GATA-3, Foxp3, RORC and CCL22 in CBMC, selected based on present PCR array results and previous protein findings in cord blood, in 13 children who developed and 11 children who did not develop allergy during childhood.

    Results: The gene expression profile in the placenta revealed a T-helper (Th) 2-/anti-inflammatory environment as compared with gene expression systemically, in PBMC. Maternal allergy was associated with increased expression of p35 in PBMC and CBMC and p40 in placenta. Placental p35 expression correlated with fetal Tbx21 expression (Rho=-0.88, p<0.001) and maternal IL-5 expression in PBMC with fetal Galectin-1 (Rho=0.91, p<0.001) expression. Allergy development in the children was preceded by high mRNA expression of the Th2-associated chemokine CCL22 at birth.

    Conclusion and clinical relevance: Gene expression locally and systemically during pregnancy influenced the offspring’s gene expression at birth, indicating an interplay between maternal and fetal immunity. Children developing allergy during childhood had an increased expression of the Th2-associated chemokine CCL22 at birth, indicating a Th2 skewing before disease onset. Maternal allergy was not associated with a Th2-dominance in placenta, PBMC or CBMC.

  • 3.
    Benn, CS
    et al.
    Dept of Epidemiology Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Pedersen, BV
    Dept of Epidemiology Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Filteau, SM
    Centre of International Child Health London, UK.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mammary epithelial paracellular permeability in atopic and non-atopic mothers versus childhood atopy2004In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 123-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratios are considered to be a marker of mammary epithelial paracellular permeability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal atopy and Na/K ratios in breast milk and the association between Na/K ratios in breast milk and the development of atopy in the offspring. Early and mature milk samples were obtained from 30 atopic and 43 non-atopic women. We found no differences in the Na/K ratios between atopic and non-atopic women. At 18 months of age, 22 (30%) of the children had a positive skin prick test (SPT) and 26 (36%) had symptoms of atopic diseases. Overall, high levels of Na/K compared with low and slightly raised levels of Na/K in the maternal milk tended to be associated with a positive SPT and atopic disease. However, if the mother was atopic, high levels of Na/K in early or mature milk were associated with a significantly increased risk of a positive SPT or atopic disease in the offspring [RR = 4.8 (1.9-12)] whereas no such association was observed in non-atopic mothers [RR = 0.8 (0.4-1.7), p for interaction = 0.001]. Thus, high Na/K levels in the breast milk may be associated with the development of atopy and atopic diseases in the offspring of atopic mothers.

  • 4.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    A Placebo controlled, randomized study of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) as treatment for neurodevelopmental problems in 7-year-old children and cognitive performance in relation to an age-matched control groupManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present randomized placebo controlled double-blind study was to investigate the potential effect of PUFA supplementation on cognitive and behavioural performance in children with neurodevelopmental problems at 7 years of age (n = 28) and to compare findings with an age matched healthy control group (n = 20).

    METHODS: Children were screened with parent and teacher rating scales (Conner’s and SNAP-IV), and were included if they showed a range of neurodevelopmental problems that reached ADHD criteria. The group with neurodevelopmental difficulties was randomized to treatment with an EPA rich formula (n = 13) or to placebo (n = 15). Cognitive performance was determined at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation with a cognitive test battery including executive function and theory of mind tasks.

    RESULTS: Children with neurodevelopmental problems differed from the control group regarding working memory, inhibition and language ability, but not on an advanced theory of mind task. Regarding the treatment with EPA supplement there were no significant advantages in the active treatment group compared to placebo in any of the cognitive measures or in parents or teacher rating scales.

    CONCLUSION: The significant differences in cognitive performance and rating scales between the group with neurodevelopmental problems and the healthy control group at baseline indicate problems at a clinical level and suitability for treatment. However we found no significant effects of PUFA supplementation. The study is small and limited by a number of drop-outs.

  • 5.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nutrition and theory of mind: The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the development of theory of mind2006In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast-milk provides nutrients required for the development of the brain. n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been suggested to be particularly involved. In this study levels of fatty acids in breast-milk were examined in relation to theory of mind (ToM) (n=13) and WISC-III (n=22) in six-year-old children. ToM tasks comprised four illustrated stories with questions about emotional (sad) events. Single polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were estimated as well as ratios between different fatty acids in order to describe putative associations between PUFA and psychological measures. Results show correlations between both ToM and WISC-III with single n-6 PUFA and the ratios DHA/AA and DHA/DPA. The correlations remained when socio-demographic factors were statistically controlled for. The positive findings related to the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs corroborate previous findings related to child cognitive development. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Detection of IgA antibodies to cat, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin allergens in human milk2000In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 105, no 6 part 1, p. 1236-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between the development of allergy during infancy and breast-feeding remains controversial. This controversy may be due to individual variations in the composition of human milk. Antibodies to food antigens to which the mother is commonly exposed are present in the milk, but their relationship to allergy is still unknown. IgA antibodies to inhalant allergens have not been previously detected.

    Objective: Our purpose was to analyze secretory IgA antibody levels to cat, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin allergens in colostrum and mature milk in relation to maternal allergy.

    Methods: Colostrum and samples of mature milk were obtained after 1 and 3 months of lactation from 53 nursing mothers (17 allergic and 36 nonallergic mothers) and were analyzed for total secretory IgA levels by ELISA and secretory IgA antibodies to cat, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin by an enzyme-amplified ELISA. The specificity of the assays was confirmed by inhibition experiments.

    Results: Secretory IgA to cat, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin allergens were detected in colostrum as well as mature milk. The levels of secretory IgA to ovalbumin were lower in colostrum from allergic mothers with P = .016, whereas the levels to β-lactoglobulin and cat were similar in the 2 groups. IgA antibodies to ovalbumin were detected in 94% of the colostrum samples from allergic and in all samples from nonallergic mothers, in 82% and 96%, respectively at 1 month, and 53% and 65% at 3 months. Fewer samples had detectable secretory IgA antibodies to β-lactoglobulin than to ovalbumin and cat, and only 33% and 10% of the samples from the allergic and nonallergic mothers, respectively, remained positive at 3 months. All the allergic mothers had detectable IgA to cat in colostrum, whereas 83% and 73% of the samples were positive at 1 and 3 months. The corresponding numbers were 93%, 81%, and 81% in the nonallergic mothers (not significant).

    Conclusion: Even a low level of exposure of the mucosa (eg, by inhalant allergens) can induce antibody secretion into the milk, both in allergic and nonallergic mothers. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:1236-40.)

  • 7.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Lindau, C
    Division of Paediatrics Linköping University.
    Zetterström, Olle
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Allergy Centre . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Allergy Centre UHL.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Downregulation of CXCR6 and CXCR3 in lymphocytes from birch-allergic patients2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 351-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferential expression of chemokine receptors on Th1 or Th2 T-helper cells has mostly been studied in cell lines generated in vitro or in animal models, however, results are less well characterized in humans. We determined T-cell responses through chemokine receptor expression on lymphocytes, and cytokine secretion in plasma from birch-allergic and healthy subjects. The expression of CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR6, IL-12 and IL-18R receptors was studied on CD4+ and CD8+ cells from birch-allergic (n = 14) and healthy (n = 14) subjects by flow cytometry. The concentration of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokines was measured in plasma from the same individuals using a cytometric bead array human cytokines kit. The similar expression of CCR4 in T cells from atopic and healthy individuals argues against the use of the receptor as an in vivo marker of Th2 immune responses. Reduced percentages of CD4+ cells expressing IL-18R, CXCR6 and CXCR3 were found in the same group of samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4 and IL-12 cytokines were elevated in samples from allergic individuals. Reduced expression of Th1-associated chemokine receptors together with higher levels of Th1, Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines in samples from allergic patients indicate that immune responses in peripheral blood in atopic diseases are complex and cannot be simplified to the Th1/Th2 paradigm. Not only the clinical picture of atopic diseases but also the clinical state at different time points of the disease might influence the results of studies including immunological markers associated with Th1- or Th2-type immune responses. © 2008 The Authors.

  • 8.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skarsvik, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zetterström, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Allergy Centre. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Allergy Centre UHL. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Impaired maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells from birch allergic individuals in association with birch-specific immune responses2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal activation of T lymphocytes requires a costimulatory signal provided by the interaction of molecules on the surface of T cells with their ligands expressed on dendritic cells (DC). We investigated whether DC differentiated from monocytes from healthy and birch allergic asthmatic individuals and further maturated by stimulation with cat and birch allergens and LPS differ in their phenotypic receptor expression. Similar expression of DC surface markers, including HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD83, CD1a and CD11c, was detected in monocyte-derived DC from allergic and healthy individuals. Cells from healthy donors stimulated either antigen showed a similar activation of the CD80 and double CD80/CD86 costimulatory molecules when compared with non-stimulated cells. In the case of cells from allergic individuals, birch allergen was unable to produce the same increased expression of CD80 alone or in combination with CD80/CD86, in comparison with cells stimulated with cat and LPS. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1/MCAF and MIP-1β were similar in the supernatant of non-stimulated DC from both groups of subjects. By contrast, the spontaneous secretion of IL-12p70 and TNF-α was higher in the supernatant of DC from healthy subjects when compared with that from allergic individuals. Stimulation with birch and LPS resulted in an increased secretion of IL-12p70 in samples from healthy when compared with that in allergic individuals. The results suggest an impaired specific maturation of DC from birch allergic individuals in association with birch-specific immune responses. Lower secretion of IL-12p70 from birch-stimulated DC from allergic individuals suggests that not only maturation, but also the specific Th1 function of these cells seems to be affected in those individuals.

  • 9.
    Duchen, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Are human milk polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) related to atopy in the mother and her child?2001In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 587-592Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Duchen, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and the development of atopic disease2001In: Lipids, ISSN 0024-4201, E-ISSN 1558-9307, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between polyunsaturated longchain fatty acids and atopy has been discussed for decades. Higher levels of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid and lower levels of their longer metabolites in plasma phospholipids of atopic as compared to nonatopic individuals have been reported by several, but not all, studies. Largely similar findings have been reported in studies of cell membranes from immunological cells from atopics and nonatopics despite differences in methodology, study groups, and definitions of atopy. An imbalance in the metabolism of the n-6 fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid and dihomo-?-linolenic acid, leading to an inappropriate synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGE1 was hypothesized early on but has not been corroborated. The fatty acid composition of human milk is dependent on the time of lactation not only during a breast meal but also the time of the day and the period of lactation. This explains the discrepancies in reported findings regarding the relationship between milk fatty acids and atopic disease in the mother. Prospective studies show disturbances in both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid composition between milk from atopic and nonatopic mothers. Only the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids was related to atopic development in the children, however. A relationship between lower levels of n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), and early development of atopic disease is hypothesized.

  • 11.
    Duchén, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Thorell, L
    Nucleotide and polyamine levels in colostrum and mature milk in relation to maternal atopy and atopic development in the children. 1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 88, p. 1338-1343Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Duchén, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Yuo, G
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk in relation to atopy in the mother and her child.1999In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, p. 321-323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Duchén M., Karel
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Human milk factors and atopy in early childhood1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The protective effect of breast milk against atopic manifestations in infancy, i. e. atopic eczema and food allergy, has been controversial for the last decades. Differences in the composition of human milk could explain these controversies.

    Aims: To investigate the composition of milk antibodies, such as lgE, total S-IgA and S-IgA antibodies against food and inhalant allergens (B-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin and cat allergen) in milk from atopic and non atopic mothers. To study human milk nucleotide, polyamine and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Furthermore, the composition of these factors in maternal milk were related to the development of allergic disease in the children during the first 18 months of life.

    Methods: One hundred and twenty (120) children were followed at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 3 months. Skin prick tests were petformed at 6, 12 and 18 months and the development of atopic diseases was assessed in the children. Breast milk samples were collected from their mothers at birth and monthly dming the lactation period. Total IgE antibodies were measured by RIA and S-IgA antibodies by ELISA. Milk nucleotides and polyamines were measured by HPLC and PUFA by gas chromatography.

    Results: Total IgE and total S-IgA levels were similar in colostrum from atopic and non atopic mothers, Total S-IgA levels were, however, lower in mature milk from atopic than from non atopic mothers. Levels of S-IgA antibodies against foods and cat, were similar in the two groups during the lactation period, except for low levels of anti-OVA S-lgA in colostrum of atopic mothers. Nucleotide composition was similar in milk from atopic and non atopic mothers. Low levels of putrescine and spermine were, however, found in mature milk from atopic mothers.

    Low levels of LA, LNA, n-6 LCP and n-3 LCP and particularly higher LAILNA and AA!EPA ratios were found in milk from atopic mothers at one month of lactation. Correlations between individual LCP levels were observed in milk from non atopic mothers. These correlations were absent in milk from atopic individuals, indicating a disturbed PUFA metabolism. The differences were less obvious in serum phospholipids from newboms.

    Total lgE, total S-IgA and S-IgA antibodies against foods and cat, as well as nucleotide and polyamine levels were similar in milk from mothers of allergic children. Lower levels of EPA in transitional milk and lower levels of EPA, DPA and DHA (p<0.05 for all) in mature milk were found in mothers of allergic as compared to mothers of non allergic children. Total n-6/total n-3 and AA/EPA ratios were low in both transitional and mature milk from mothers of allergic children. The disturbed correlations within the n-6 fatty acids in milk from atopic mothers were not related to the development of atopy in the children. In contrast, C20:4 n-3 correlated well to most of the n-6 fatty acid levels only in milk from non atopic mothers of non atopic children.

    The PUP A levels in serum from allergic and non allergic children were similar, except higher levels of C22:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-6 (p<0.05 for both) and higher AA!EPA ratio in serum phospho1ipids from the former group (p<0.05). Changes in levels of milk PUFA were reflected in changes in PUFA serum phospholipids, particularly for the n-6 PUPA. The AA!EPA ratio in maternal milk was related, however, to the AA/EPA only in serum from non allergic children, while this was not the case in allergic children.

    Conclusion: Low levels of anti-QV A S-IgA antibodies in colostrum and low levels of total S-IgA, putrescine and spermine in mature milk. were related to maternal atopy. Human milk IgE antibody and nucleotide composition were not related to maternal atopy. Neither of these milk factors were, however, related to development of anergic disease in children. Low levels of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in transitional milk were related to maternal atopy, particularly low levels of n-3 PUP A and high AA/EPA ratio in maternal milk and serum phospholipids in the infants were related to the development of allergy in the children. The milk PUPA composition influenced the composition of PUPA in serum phospholipids of the children. The findings are suggested to be partly related to a 8-6 desaturase dysfunction in atopic individuals.

  • 14.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Th1 and Th2 chemokines, vaccine induced 1 immunity and allergic disease in infants  after maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation2011In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 259-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether the previously reported preventive effect of maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy may be mediated by facilitating a balanced circulating Th2/Th1 chemokine profile in the infant. Vaccine-induced immune responses at 2 y of age were also evaluated. Pregnant women, at risk of having an allergic infant, were randomized to daily supplementation with 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid or placebo from the 25th gestational week through 3.5 mo of breastfeeding. Infant plasma was analyzed for chemokines (cord blood, 3, 12, 24 mo) and anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG (24 mo). High Th2-associated CC-chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) levels were associated with infant allergic disease (p < 0.05). In infants without, but not with, maternal history of allergy, the ω-3 supplementation was related to lower CCL17/CXC-chemokine ligand 11 (CXCL11) (Th2/Th1) ratios (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in nonallergic, but not in allergic infants, ω-3 supplementation was linked with higher Th1-associated CXCL11 levels (p < 0.05), as well as increased IgG titers to diphtheria (p = 0.01) and tetanus (p = 0.05) toxins. Thus, the prospect of balancing the infant immune system toward a less Th2-dominated response, by maternal ω-3 fatty acid supplementation, seems to be influenced by allergic status.

  • 15.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Pediatric Clinic, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Allergic disease in infants up to 2 yr of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation inpregnancy and lactation2011In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 505-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported a protective effect of maternal omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (x-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnancy and lactation on IgE-associated eczema and food allergy in the infant during the first year of life. Here we investigate whether the effects of the LCPUFA supplementation on IgE-associated diseases last up to 2 yr of age and assess the relationship between plasma proportions of x-3 PUFAs and the frequency and severity of infant allergic disease. 145 pregnant women, at risk of having an allergic infant, were randomized to daily supplementation with 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo starting in the 25th gestational week and continuing through 3.5 months of breastfeeding. Clinical examinations, skin prick tests and analysis of maternal and infant plasma phospholipid fatty acids and infant specific IgE were performed. No difference in the prevalence of allergic symptoms was found between the intervention groups. Thecumulative incidence of IgE-associated disease was lower in the x-3-supplemented group (6/54, 13%) compared with the placebo group (19/62, 30%, p = 0.01). Higher maternal and infant proportions of DHA and EPA were associated with lower prevalence of IgE associated disease (p = 0.01–0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Higher maternal and infant proportions of DHA and EPA were found if the infants presented none, when compared with multiple allergic symptoms, (p < 0.05) regardless of sensitization. In summary, the x-3 supplementation offered no obvious preventive effect on the prevalence of clinical symptoms of allergic disease, but the decrease in cumulative incidence of IgE-associated disease seen during the first year still remained until 2 yr of age. Furthermore, high proportions of DHA and EPA in maternal and infant plasma phospholipids were associated with less IgE-associated disease and a reduced severity of the allergic phenotype.

  • 16.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Ryhov Hospital.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 9, p. 1461-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal intake of omega-3 (-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during pregnancy has decreased, possibly contributing to a current increased risk of childhood allergy. Aim: To describe the effects of maternal -3 long-chain PUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the incidence of allergic disease in infancy. Methods: One hundred and forty-five pregnant women, affected by allergy themselves or having a husband or previous child with allergies, were included in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Daily maternal supplementation with either 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid or placebo was given from the 25(th) gestational week to average 3-4 months of breastfeeding. Skin prick tests, detection of circulating specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and clinical examinations of the infants were performed. Results: The period prevalence of food allergy was lower in the -3 group (1/52, 2%) compared to the placebo group (10/65, 15%, p andlt; 0.05) as well as the incidence of IgE-associated eczema (-3 group: 4/52, 8%; placebo group: 15/63, 24%, p andlt; 0.05). Conclusion: Maternal -3 fatty acid supplementation may decrease the risk of food allergy and IgE-associated eczema during the first year of life in infants with a family history of allergic disease.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Landgren, Magnus
    Department of Pediatrics, Mariestad, Sweden .
    Malmberg, Kerstin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Pelling, Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Strandvik, Birgitta
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 10, p. 1540-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Measure efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 0.5 g EPA or placebo (15 weeks) in 92 children (7-12 years) with ADHD. Efficacy measure was Conners Parent/Teacher Rating Scales (CPRS/CTRS). Fatty acids were analysed in serum phospholipids and red blood cell membranes (RBC) at baseline and endpoint with gas chromatography. Results: EPA improved CTRS inattention/cognitive subscale (p = 0.04), but not Conners total score. In oppositional children (n = 48), CTRS total score improved andgt;= 25% in 48% of the children receiving EPA vs. 9% for placebo [effect size (ES) 0.63, p = 0.01]. In less hyperactive/impulsive children (n = 44), andgt;= 25% improvement was seen in 36% vs. 18% (ES 0.41, n.s.), and with both these types of symptoms 8/13 with EPA vs. 1/9 for placebo improved andgt;= 25% (p = 0.03). Children responding to treatment had lower EPA concentrations (p = 0.02), higher AA/EPA (p = 0.005) and higher AA/DHA ratios (p = 0.03) in serum at baseline. Similarly, AA/EPA (p = 0.01), AA/DHA (p = 0.038) and total omega-6/omega-3 ratios (p = 0.028) were higher in RBC, probably because of higher AA (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Two ADHD subgroups (oppositional and less hyperactive/impulsive children) improved after 15-week EPA treatment. Increasing EPA and decreasing omega-6 fatty acid concentrations in phospholipids were related to clinical improvement.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Birberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Breastfeeding, very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 1/2 years of age2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1280-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Breastfeeding seems to be favorable for cognitive development. Could levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) explain this? Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited consecutively at maternity care centres. PUFA were analysed in colostrum and breast milk at 1 and 3 mo. The product-precursor ratios of n-6+n-3 PUFA were examined as measures of activity in respective steps in the fatty acid metabolic chain. Also, the quotient between DHA and AA was analysed. The children were tested with the full WISC-III at 6.5 y. Results: First, the influence of length of breastfeeding was analysed by multiple regression together with relevant cofactors (except for PUFA). In the best models, 46% of the variation in total IQ was explained. Length of breastfeeding contributed significantly to total IQ (beta = 0.228, p = 0.021), verbal IQ (beta = 0.204, p = 0.040) and performance IQ (beta = 0.210, p = 0.056). There were no significant single correlations between PUFA and measures of cognitive development. However, in multiple regression analysis of colostrum, significant beta-coefficients were found for steps 4+5 in the fatty acid metabolic chain (beta = 0.559, p = 0.002). If length of breastfeeding and gestation week were added to steps 4+5, this three-factor model could explain 67% of the variation of total IQ. Introducing length of breastfeeding and gestation week together with the quotient DHA/AA (beta = 0.510, p < 0.001) yielded a three-factor model, which explained 76% of the variation in total IQ. Conclusion: Our findings could be interpreted as supporting the importance of high levels of PUFA for cognitive development. However, the sample is small and the results must be interpreted with caution.

  • 19.
    Host, A.
    et al.
    Høst, A., Department of Pediatrics, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Halken, S.
    Department of Pediatrics, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Muraro, A.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua, Padua, Italy, Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padua, Italy.
    Dreborg, S.
    ESPACI, Lerum, Sweden.
    Niggemann, B.
    Department of Pneumology and Immunology, University Children's Hospital Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Aalberse, R.
    Department of Allergy CLB, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Arshad, S.H.
    Clinical Allergy Research Unit, St. Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom.
    Von, Berg A.
    Von Berg, A., Abt. für Kinderheilkunde, Marien-Hospital, Wesel, Germany.
    Carlsen, K.-H.
    Voksentoppen National Centre of Asthma, Allergy and Chronic, Lung Diseases in Children, Oslo, Norway.
    Duchen, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Eigenmann, P.A.
    Allergologie/Pediatrie, University of Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland.
    Hill, D.
    Department of Allergy, Royal Children's Hospital, North Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Jones, C.
    Child Health, Southampton General Hospital, (803) Centre Block, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Mellon, M.
    Kaiser Permanente San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Oldeus, G.
    Department of Paediatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Oranje, A.
    Department of Dermatology and Venerology, ErasmusMC-University Medical Center, Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Pascual, C.
    Servicio de Alergia, Hospital Infantil Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.
    Prescott, S.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Western Australia, Subiaco, WA, Australia.
    Sampson, H.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.
    Svartengren, M.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wahn, U.
    A.Z.- Kinderen, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
    Warner, J.A.
    Child Health, Southampton General Hospital, (803) Centre Block, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Warner, J.O.
    Child Health, Southampton General Hospital, (803) Centre Block, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Vandenplas, Y.
    A.Z.- Kinderen, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wickman, M.
    Department of Environmental Health, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zeiger, R.S.
    Kaiser Permanente San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children: Amendment to previous published articles in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2004, by an expert group set up by the Section on Pediatrics, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology2008In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 19, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of scientific fraud four trials have been excluded from the original Cochrane meta-analysis on formulas containing hydrolyzed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants. Unlike the conclusions of the revised Cochrane review the export group set up by the Section on Paediatrics, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SP-EAACI) do not find that the exclusion of the four trials demands a change of the previous recommendations regarding primary dietary prevention of allergic diseases. Ideally, recommendations on primary dietary prevention should be based only on the results of randomized and quasi-randomized trials (selection criteria in the Cochrane review). However, regarding breastfeeding randomization is unethical, Therefore, in the development of recommendations on dietary primary prevention, high-quality systematic reviews of high-quality cohort studies should be included in the evidence base. The study type combined with assessment of the methodological quality determines the level of evidence. In view of some methodological concerns in the Cochrane meta-analysis, particularly regarding definitions and diagnostic criteria for outcome measures and inclusion of non peer-reviewed studies/reports, a revision of the Cochrane analysis may seem warranted. Based on analysis of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies the results still indicate that breastfeeding is highly recommended for all infants irrespective of atopic heredity. A dietary regimen is effective in the prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk infants, particularly in early infancy regarding food allergy and eczema. The most effective dietary regimen is exclusively breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months or, in absence of breast milk, formulas with documented reduced allergenicity for at least the first 4 months, combined with avoidance of solid food and cow's milk for the first 4 months. © 2008 The Authors.

  • 20.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Timing of allergy-preventive and immunomodulatory dietary interventions: are prenatal, perinatal or postnatal strategies optimal?2013In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 273-278Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation and a decreased dietary ω-3/ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio, resulting in an abnormal postnatal immune maturation. The timing of allergy-preventive probiotic and ω-3 LCPUFA interventions is critical, as early-life events occurring during critical windows of immune vulnerability can have long-term impact on immune development. The maternal dietary and microbial environment during pregnancy may programme the immune development of the child. Prenatal environmental exposures may alter gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, aiming to induce physiological adaptations to the anticipated postnatal environment, but potentially also increasing disease susceptibility in the offspring if exposures are mismatched. Although the importance of fetal programming mostly has been studied in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, this hypothesis is also very attractive in the context of environmentally influenced immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on how prenatal, perinatal or postnatal ω-3 LCPUFA interventions regulate childhood immune and allergy development, and if synergistic effects may be obtained by simultaneous probiotic supplementation. We propose that combined pre- and postnatal preventive measures may be most efficacious. Increasing knowledge on the immunomodulatory effects of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions will help to direct future strategies to combat the allergy epidemic.

  • 21.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Barnkliniken Örebro.
    Mostrom, M
    Klinisk Epidemiologi Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Exclusive breastfeeding and risk of atopic dermatitis in some 8300 infants2005In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on breastfeeding and atopy in infants have yielded contradictory results. We examined the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and atopic dermatitis (AD) in a cohort of infants born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 in south-east Sweden. We evaluated the risk of AD 'at least once' or 'at least three times' during the first year of life in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding: < 4 months (short exclusive breastfeeding, SEBF) vs. ≥4 months. All data were obtained through questionnaires. Of 8346 infants with breastfeeding data, 1943 (23.3%) had suffered from AD during the first year of life. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with lower risk of AD (p = 0.868). SEBF did not influence the risk of any AD (OR = 1.03, 95% CI OR = 0.91-1.17, p = 0.614) or AD at least three times (OR = 0.97, 95% CI OR = 0.81-1.16, p = 0.755) during the first year of life. Adjustment for confounders did not change these point estimates. Neither was there any link between SEBF and risk of AD among infants with a family history of atopy [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16, 95% CI AOR = 0.90-1.48, p = 0.254]. Furred pets at home were linked to a lower risk of AD both among infants with a family history of atopy (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI AOR = 0.60-0.96, p = 0.021) and among infants with no such history (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI AOR = 0.69-0.90, p < 0.001). Infants with no family history of atopy were less prone to develop AD if parents smoked (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI AOR = 0.61-0.95, p = 0.016). This study indicates that exclusive breastfeeding does not influence the risk of AD during the first year of life, while presence of furred pets at home seems to be negatively associated with AD. Copyright © 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  • 22.
    Nystrom, A.-M.
    et al.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekvall, S.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, E.
    Department of Paediatrics, Central Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Bjorkqvist, M.
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Braathen, G.
    Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Duchen, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Enell, H.
    Department of Paediatrics, Regional Hospital of Halmstad, Sweden.
    Holmberg, E.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmlund, U.
    Department of Paediatrics, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olsson-Engman, M.
    Department of Paediatrics, Regional Hospital, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Anneren, G.
    Annerén, G., Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bondeson, M.-L.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noonan and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes: Two clinically and genetically overlapping disorders2008In: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 500-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-faciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) are related disorders associated with disrupted RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling. NS, characterised by facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects and short stature, is caused by mutations in the genes PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1. CFC is distinguished from NS by the presence of ectodermal abnormalities and more severe mental retardation in addition to the NS phenotype. The genetic aetiology of CFC was recently assigned to four genes: BRAF KRAS, MEK1 and MEK2. Methods: A comprehensive mutation analysis of BRAF, KRAS, MEK1, MEK2 and SOS1 in 31 unrelated patients without mutations in PTPN11 is presented. Results: Mutations were identified in seven patients with CFC (two in BRAF, one in KRAS, one in MEK1, two in MEK2 and one in SOS1). Two mutations were novel: MEK1 E203Q and MEK2 F57L. The SOS1 E433K mutation, identified in a patient diagnosed with CFC, has previously been reported in patients with NS. In one patient with NS, we also identified a mutation, BRAF K499E, that has previously been reported in patients with CFC. We thus suggest involvement of BRAF in the pathogenesis of NS also. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that the molecular and clinical overlap between CFC and NS is more complex than previously suggested and that the syndromes might even represent allelic disorders. Furthermore, we suggest that the diagnosis should be refined to, for example, NS-PTPN11-associated or CFC-BRAF-associated syndromes after the genetic defect has been established, as this may affect the prognosis and treatment of the patients.

  • 23.
    Sjögren, YM
    et al.
    Dept of Immunology Wennergren Inst, Stockholm.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Lindh, F
    Isosep AB Tullinge, Sweden.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Inst of Environmental Medicine KI, Stockholm.
    Sverremark-Ekström, E
    Dept of Immunology Wennergren Inst, Stockholm.
    Neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum in relation to maternal allergy and allergy development in children up to 18 months of age2007In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota in infancy and subsequent development of allergic disease. Human milk is the major food in infancy and may thus profoundly influence the composition of the gut flora. Oligosaccharides in breast milk survive the passage through the stomach and are utilized by the gut microbiota. As the relationship between breast feeding and childhood allergy is controversial we hypothesized that the composition of oligosaccharides in breast milk might explain the controversy. Nine of the most abundant neutral oligosaccharides in human milk were analysed in colostrum samples from allergic and non-allergic women and related to subsequent development of allergy in their children. The carbohydrate fraction of the colostrum was separated by gel permeation chromatography and neutral oligosaccharides, tri- to hexasaccharides were collected. Neutral oligosaccharides were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a large variation in the concentration of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum, which could not be explained by the allergic status of the women. Allergic children consumed higher amounts of neutral oligosaccharides in total, although not significantly (p = 0.12). When different oligosaccharides were analysed separately, there was no significant difference in consumption between the infants who developed atopic allergy later (n = 9) and infants who did not (n = 11). Thus, the amount of neutral oligosaccharides in colostrum does not directly correlate with maternal allergy, nor with allergy development in children up to 18 months of age. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 24.
    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M. M
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands .
    Arends, Lidia R.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus University, Netherlands Erasmus University, Netherlands .
    de Jongste, Johan C.
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands INSERM, France University of Paris 06, France .
    Arshad, S. Hasan
    St Marys Hospital, England .
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto, Portugal .
    Basterrechea, Mikel
    Public Health Div Gipuzkoa, Spain Spanish Consortium Research Epidemiol and Public Health CIBE, Spain .
    Bisgaard, Hans
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark .
    Chatzi, Leda
    University of Crete, Greece .
    Corpeleijn, Eva
    University of Groningen, Netherlands .
    Correia, Sofia
    University of Porto, Portugal .
    Craig, Leone C.
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Devereux, Graham
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Dogaru, Cristian
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Dostal, Miroslav
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Eggesbo, Merete
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Kors van der Ent, C.
    University of Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Fantini, Maria P.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Lazio Regional Health Serv, Italy .
    Frey, Urs
    University of Basel, Switzerland .
    Gehring, Ulrike
    University of Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Gori, Davide
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    van der Gugten, AnneC.
    University of Medical Centre Utrecht, Netherlands .
    Hanke, Wojciech
    Nofer Institute Occupat Med, Poland .
    Henderson, A. John
    University of Bristol, England .
    Heude, Barbara
    INSERM, France University of Paris 11, France .
    Iniguez, Carmen
    Spanish Consortium Research Epidemiol and Public Health CIBE, Spain University of Valencia, Spain University of Valencia, Spain .
    Inskip, Hazel M.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Keil, Thomas
    Charite, Germany University of Wurzburg, Germany .
    Kelleher, CecilyC.
    University of Coll Dublin, Ireland .
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    National School Public Heatlh, Greece .
    Kreiner-Moller, Eskil
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark .
    Kuehni, Claudia E.
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Kuepers, LeanneK.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands .
    Lancz, Kinga
    Slovak Medical University, Slovakia .
    Larsen, PernilleS.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Lau, Susanne
    Charite, Germany .
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mommers, Monique
    Maastricht University, Netherlands .
    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Palkovicova, Lubica
    Slovak Medical University, Slovakia .
    Pike, Katharine C.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Pizzi, Costanza
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Polanska, Kinga
    Nofer Institute Occupat Med, Poland .
    Porta, Daniela
    Lazio Regional Health Serv, Italy .
    Richiardi, Lorenzo
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Roberts, Graham
    St Marys Hospital, England .
    Schmidt, Anne
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Sram, RadimJ.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Sunyer, Jordi
    St Marys Hospital, England Spanish Consortium Research Epidemiol and Public Health CIBE, Spain Centre Research Environm Epidemiol CREAL, Spain Pompeu Fabra University, Spain Hospital del Mar, Spain .
    Thijs, Carel
    Maastricht University, Netherlands .
    Torrent, Maties
    University of Bologna, Italy .
    Viljoen, Karien
    University of Coll Dublin, Ireland .
    Wijga, Alet H.
    National Institute Public Health and Environm RIVM, Netherlands .
    Vrijheid, Martine
    St Marys Hospital, England Spanish Consortium Research Epidemiol and Public Health CIBE, Spain Centre Research Environm Epidemiol CREAL, Spain Pompeu Fabra University, Spain .
    Jaddoe, VincentW . V.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands .
    Duijts, Liesbeth
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands Erasmus MC, Netherlands .
    Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children2014In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 133, no 5, p. 1317-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. Objectives: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31 birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). Methods: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age less than 37 weeks) and low birth weight (less than 2500 g) with childhood asthma outcomes. Results: Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P less than. 05). The inverse associations of birth weight with childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.43) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67) independent of birth weight. Weaker effect estimates were observed for the associations of low birth weight adjusted for gestational age at birth with preschool wheezing (pOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21) and school-age asthma (pOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27). Conclusion: Younger gestational age at birth and higher infant weight gain were associated with childhood asthma outcomes. The associations of lower birth weight with childhood asthma were largely explained by gestational age at birth.

  • 25.
    van Vliet, J. S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Social inequality and age-specific gender differences in overweight and perception of overweight among Swedish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight among children and adolescents related to social inequality, as well as age and gender differences, may contribute to poor self-image, thereby raising important public health concerns. This study explores social inequality in relation to overweight and perception of overweight among 263 boys and girls, age 7 to 17, in Vaxjo, Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained through a questionnaire and from physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference [WC]. To assess social, age and gender differences in relation to overweight, the independent sample t- and chi-square tests were used, while logistic regression modeling was used to study determinants for perception of overweight. Results: Social inequality and gender differences as they relate to high ISO-BMI [Body Mass Index for children] and WC were associated with low maternal socioeconomic status [SES] among boys less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 65] and with low paternal education level among boys = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 39] [p less than 0.05]. One suggested explanation for this finding is maternal impact on boys during childhood and the influence of the father as a role model for adolescent boys. The only association found among girls was between high ISO-BMI in girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 74] and low paternal occupational status. Concerning perception of overweight, age and gender differences were found, but social inequality was not the case. Among boys and girls less than 13 years, perception of overweight increased only when overweight was actually present according to BMI or WC [p less than 0.01]. Girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0] were more likely to unrealistically perceive themselves as overweight or "too fat," despite factual measurements to the contrary, than boys [p less than 0.05] and girls less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 83] [p less than 0.001]. Conclusions: The association between social inequality and overweight in adolescence in this study is age-and gender-specific. Gender differences, especially in perception of overweight, tend to increase with age, indicating that adolescence is a crucial period. When planning interventions to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, parental SES as well as age and gender-specific differences in social norms and perception of body weight status should be taken into account.

  • 26.
    Voor, Tina
    et al.
    Childrens clinic of Tartu Estonia.
    Julge, Kaja
    Childrens clinic of Tartu, Estonia .
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Björksténs, Bengt
    Institutionen för Miljömedicin KI, Stockholm.
    Atopic sensitization and atopic dermatitis in Estonian and Swedish infants2005In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early life events seem to have a major impact on the development of tolerance or sensitization. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of sensitization and atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 2 years of life in Estonia and in Sweden. Methods: Two groups comprising 110 Estonian and 123 Swedish infants were followed from birth up to 2 years of age. Data about symptoms of allergy, infections and use of antibiotics were obtained by questionnaires. Clinical examinations, skin prick tests (SPTs) with food and inhalant allergens, and blood sampling for IgE analyses were carried out at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results: The cumulative incidence of AD and positive SPTs were lower in the Estonian than the Swedish infants (14% vs. 24%, P = 0.06 and 13% vs. 24%, P = 0.03), while circulating IgE antibodies were more common (39% vs. 27%, P = 0.06) and often present without any clinical significance in Estonian children. Estonian infants had respiratory illnesses more often and they had received antibiotics more frequently. Use of antibiotics increased the risk for positive SPT in the Estonian (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.1 - 2.5), but not in the Swedish infants. This may be explained by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Estonia, while in Sweden mostly penicillin was prescribed. Conclusions: The prevalence of AD and positive SPTs was lower in the Estonian than the Swedish infants, while circulating IgE antibodies were more common and often present without any clinical significance. These differences cannot simply be explained by infections, or use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the two countries, although more the natural lifestyle in Estonia may be contributing factor. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 27.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Decreased proportions of linoleic acid (LA) in cord blood samples collected between 1985 and 2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cord serum (CS) phospholipid fatty acid composition is influenced by the maternal diet during foetal life and maternal intake of LA and LNA has been shown to influence the LA and LNA levels in CS. A possible connection between the increased incidence of atopic diseases and the simultaneous increased intake of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2ω-6) and decreased intake of α-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 ω-3) in the western world has been proposed.

    The aim of this study was to explore phospholipid fatty acid proportions and total IgE levels in CS collected from 1985 to 2005 from Swedish children, in a period with increasing frequency of allergic diseases in Sweden, and reveal possible changes over time. Omega (ω)-6 and ω-3 fatty acids and total IgE antibodies were analysed with gas chromatography and UniCAP® technology respectively in a total of 300 CS samples (60 samples every fifth year).

    The proportions of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 ω-3) decreased significantly from 1985 to 2005. However, the LA/LNA ratio did increase revealing a relatively larger decrease in LNA than in LA. The proportions of both arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4 ω-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ω-3) as well as other ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids increased significantly during the same time period. No correlations were found between ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids and total IgE levels in CS from newborn infants.

  • 28.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Increased linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in Swedish cord blood samples collected between 1985 and 20052013In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 659-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cord serum (CS) phospholipid fatty acid composition is associated with maternal diet during foetal life, and maternal intake of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 omega-3) has been shown to influence the LA and LNA levels in CS. A possible connection between the increased incidence of atopic diseases and increased intake of LA and decreased intake of LNA in the Western world has been proposed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe aim of this study was to explore phospholipid fatty acid proportions and total IgE levels in CS from Swedish children, collected from 1985 to 2005, a period with increasing frequency of allergic diseases in Sweden, and reveal possible changes over time. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPhospholipid fatty acids and total IgE antibodies were analysed with gas chromatography and UniCAP(A (R)) technology, respectively, in 300 CS samples. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe proportions of LA and LNA decreased significantly from 1985 to 2005 (p andlt; 0.001 for both). However, the LA/LNA ratio did increase (p andlt; 0.001), revealing a relatively larger decrease in LNA than in LA. No correlations were found between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and total IgE antibodies in CS from newborn children. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe LA/LNA ratio increased (p andlt; 0.001) in cord serum samples collected between 1985 and 2005, and no correlations between fatty acids and total IgE were found.

  • 29.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Maternal Eicosanoid, Cytokine, and Chemokine Secretion2009In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 212-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of allergic diseases has increased, and,I relation between allergy and dietary fatty acids has been proposed. Modulation of the maternal immune function during pregnancy may have an impact on future clinical outcomes in the child. The aim of this Study was to determine the effects of omega (omega)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) Supplementation during pregnancy on the plasma fatty acid composition in relation to the maternal immune function. Pregnant women with allergic disease in their immediate family were supplemented daily with 2.7 g omega-3 LCPUFA (n = 70) or 2.8 g soybean oil as placebo (n = 75) from the 25th gestational week. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma/serum phospholipids increased in the omega-3-supplemented group, whereas arachidonic acid decreased during intervention. Lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E, secretion from whole blood culture supernatants (it = 59) decreased in a majority of the omega-3-supplemented mothers (18 of 28, p = 0.002). The decreased prostaglandin E-2, production was more pronounced among nonatopic than atopic mothers. The lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and chemokine secretion was not affected. Out results indicate that omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation during the last trimester may dampen certain immune responses involved in allergic inflammation.

  • 30.
    Warstedt, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Kroes, Hilde
    Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Vos, Arjan P.
    Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Garssen, Johan
    Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition, 6700 CA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation and immune components in breast milkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human milk transfers important immunological information from mother to child. We have previously reported lower prevalence of IgE-mediated disease at 12 months after maternal supplementation with ω-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) during pregnancy and lactation. Our aim was to explore the effect of ω-3 LCPUFA on the immune composition of human milk in relation to maternal atopy and allergic disease in the offspring. Pregnant women in families with a history of allergic disease were supplemented daily with 2.7 g ω-3 LCPUFA or 2.8 g soybean oil as placebo from late pregnancy to three months of lactation. Milk samples from colostrum (n=107), at 1 mo (n=102) and at 3 mo (n=95) were analyzed for IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40/p70, IL-13, GM-CSF, TNF, IFN-γ, PGE2, TSLP, TGF-ß2 and SIgA with multiplex assay or ELISA. The levels of several cytokines were higher in non-atopic ω-3 supplemented mothers as compared to placebo supplemented mothers regardless of atopic status. Higher levels of TGFß2 and SIgA in 3 months milk were associated with allergic disease at one year of age both with and without detectable IgE. These results suggest that ω-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy influences cytokine levels in breast milk especially in non-atopic mothers.

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