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  • 1.
    Drotz, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean in healthcare from the employee perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Several studies may be found on how Lean production is implemented in healthcare. Most articles include single case studies and are often published in medical journals. There is however a different tradition on how research is performed in medical and management sciences. The medical studies describe the state before and after an intervention or improvement program, but rarely pay attention to the implementation process and consider such important issues such as leadership, management processes and employee's role. There is a need for more management studies on Lean healthcare that focus not only on outcomes, but also on the context and factors that influence outcomes.

    The purpose of the article is to contribute to the knowledge on how Lean production influences the daily work and routines of healthcare staff.

    1. What does it mean to employees to work in a Lean healthcare unit?
    2. How does a Lean implementation affect the role and responsibilities of the employees?

    Methodology/Approach:

    The data described in this paper comes from three case studies performed in healthcare organizations: two district care centres and one hospital unit. The data was collected through interviews, both with managers and employees, observations and document studies. The case organizations were described as successful Lean organizations and had worked with Lean for at least three years.

    Findings

    The implementation of Lean production often implies increased responsibility of employees for management of daily activities and increased participation in the improvement work. The influence of Lean on the daily work is however to great extent a matter of how the implementation is managed. In one case, Lean had been implemented by discrete projects, mainly conducted by the manager group with little effort on empowering the employees, increasing two-way communication and involvement in improvement work. Therefore, the role of the employees did not change much in conjunction with the Lean implementation. On the contrary, at another case the managers put a lot effort on coaching, developing and empowering the employees, and the improvement work had become an important working task for all employees. This led to a substantial improvement in the social climate, since the former barriers between different professions were weakened and the teamwork had increased.

    The conclusion is that there are great potential benefits with a Lean implementation for the employees, but this can only be realized if the implementation is managed with a focus on the development of employees and a more open social structure. An important method to facilitate this is improvement groups with employees from different professions and functions within the organization that has an explicit ownership of the improvements, from idea to realization.  

    Originality/Value of paper:

    Lean Healthcare is relatively a new phenomenon and more research work is needed to determine the full range of implications of the concept. The paper increases the understanding of what Lean production actually means to the healthcare staff. This knowledge is vital for the success and sustainability of Lean improvement programs in healthcare. The paper is also an inspiring source for both researchers and healthcare professional who are interested in the application of lean production in healthcare.

  • 2.
    Granfors Wellemets, U.
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lundin, R.
    The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Swartling, Dag
    The Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Technology driven change fail or suceed - Case studies of 24 Swedish companies1999In: Proceedings of QERGO, International Conference on TQM and Human Factors, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the differences between technology driven change projects that fail and those who succeed. The main differences are the motivation among the employees and the companies ability to build knowledge and to a lesser extent management involvement.

  • 3.
    Olausson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bridging R&D and Manufacturing in High Tech Product Development: Comparing the Effects of Different Sourcing Strategies2006In: the RD Management Conference in Windermere, England, July 5-7: The challenges and opportunities of RD management : new directions for research, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of whether manufacturing is conducted in-house or by external suppliers, it is necessary for the R&D department to have a basic understanding of manufacturing when developing high-tech products. This paper suggests that manufacturing is an important contributor in the development of absorptive capacity at the R&D department. Starting from a distinction between integrated and separated sourcing strategies, the paper shows how the selected sourcing strategy influences the possibilities for R&D-manufacturing interaction. The case study findings illustrate that a company that outsource manufacturing to external suppliers (separated sourcing strategy) primarily has to rely on formalized means for interaction, whereas there is a greater variety in the interaction process at a company that conducts manufacturing in-house (integrated sourcing strategy). The paper concludes by discussing how absorptive capacity is dependent on the geographical distance and organizational bonds between R&D and manufacturing, and on the management of interaction on an operational level.

  • 4.
    Olausson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Continuous learning in production processes: a comparative case study2005In: Proceedings of the 8th International QMOD conference 2005, 2005, p. 305-316Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven companies were studied with the purpose to discuss learning in production with regard to actual potential and course of action to realize the potential. The study shows that companies that focus on learning in production can reach significant improvements despite low input of resources with a payback time of often less than a year.

  • 5.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Building capability for Employee-Driven Innovation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI) is a companywide approach where ideas are generated and implemented by a single employee or by the joint efforts of two or more employees who have not been deliberately assigned to carry out innovative work. This paper aims to contribute to knowledge about the underlying mechanisms necessary for building EDI capability in an organisation. Two types of organisational structures supporting EDI were identified: participation through suggesting improvements, and participation through teams. The key managerial approaches for enabling EDI are: creating motivation, empowerment and autonomy; collaboration and teamwork; open climate and communication; management support; and organisational learning.

  • 6.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Successful to Sustainable Lean Production: The Case of a Lean Prize Award Winner2018In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 9-10, p. 996-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many improvement programmes often fail to sustain over an extended period of time. Previous research suggests that a similar set of factors influence the success and sustainability of an improvement programme. The purpose of this paper is to make a distinction between the success and sustainability of improvement programmes, and to identify mechanisms that specifically contribute to the sustainability. In this paper, we study a sustainable improvement programme from the perspective of complexity theories that stress the importance of studying change as a dynamic process of interacting elements and events unfolding in time. We conducted a longitudinal, in-depth case study of a Swedish Lean Prize Award Winner where a Lean improvement programme was studied over 9 years. An improvement programme is successful if goals are achieved and the targeted problems are resolved. Furthermore, the first-order sustainability means the ability to sustain results and the second-order sustainability means the ability to keep an improvement programme alive. The lessons identified from complexity theories, such as destabilising the organisation, ensuring novelty and constant flow of change or self-organisation at the team level, are examples of mechanisms important to achieve the sustainability of the improvement programme.

  • 7.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drotz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Daily Round of Lean Leaders - a Go to Gemba Study2012In: Proceedings of the 15th QMOD-ICQSS conference / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of managerial practices and leadership in Lean organisations. The results presented in this paper are based on five case studies. The manager’s role changed radically with the implementation of Lean production. The focus in managerial tasks changed from managing processes to developing and coaching people. Supporting structures were developed to empower employees and give them more responsibility for the daily management activities. These supporting structures included visual control, goal deployment, short daily meetings, two-way communication flow, and a system of continuous improvement. Many leadership behaviours exhibited by Lean managers can be classified as transformational leadership behaviours. However, the need for transformational leadership behaviours was smaller, if the supporting management structure was strong. Our final conclusion is that the more successful case is a leader supported by the system than a system supported by leader.

  • 8.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drotz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Daily Round of Lean Leaders - a Go to Gemba Study2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of managerial practices and leadership in Lean organisations. The results presented in this paper are based on five case studies. The manager’s role changed radically with the implementation of Lean production. The focus in managerial tasks changed from managing processes to developing and coaching people. Supporting structures were developed to empower employees and give them more responsibility for the daily management activities. These supporting structures included visual control, goal deployment, short daily meetings, two-way communication flow, and a system of continuous improvement. Many leadership behaviours exhibited by Lean managers can be classified as transformational leadership behaviours. However, the need for transformational leadership behaviours was smaller, if the supporting management structure was strong. Our final conclusion is that the more successful case is a leader supported by the system than a system supported by leader.

  • 9.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drotz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The daily work of Lean leaders – lessons from manufacturing and healthcare2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 886-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of managerial practices and leadership in Lean organisations. The results presented here are based on five case studies. The manager's role changed radically with the implementation of Lean production. The focus in managerial tasks changed from managing processes to developing and coaching people. Supporting structures were developed to empower employees and give them more responsibility for daily management activities. These supporting structures included visual control, goal deployment, short daily meetings, two-way communication flow, and a system of continuous improvement. Many leadership behaviours exhibited by Lean managers can be classified as transformational leadership behaviours. However, the need for transformational leadership behaviours was smaller, if the supporting management structure was strong.

  • 10.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bringing it back home - A study in insourcing cases in 7 Swedish companiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing has increased rapidly in volume and scope during the last 10 years (Bedford, 1996 and Bailey et al., 1998). There is a risk that new concept that has worked well in one business may not be successful when transplanted elsewhere (Cox, 1996) and massive outsourcing has in some cases has failed to achieve anticipated savings (Berggren & Bengtsson, 2004). This has led to that the outsourcing trend has weakened and there are several examples of companies that are insourcing. An activity, once outsourced is not so easily insourced again since the structures and conditions surrounding the activity has changed (Wasner, 1999). Because of this the description and analysis of insourcing cases is an interesting area to study. There is however very limited number of papers that build theoretical framework regarding insourcing so the theoretical base will be outsourcing theory.

  • 11.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improvement Group Development and Their use of Quality Tools - an Empirical Study2006In: 6th International CINet conference, "Continuous Innovatin - (Ways of) Making Things Happen", 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that continuous improvement is an introduction of different quality tools. In this empirical study the use of tools is very limited but the results are anyhow fairly OK. The results of different improvement groups vary substantially and the reason for this variation is mostly difference in knowledge and skill among the groups.

  • 12.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Insourcing av produktion: Erfarenheter från sex företag2005In: Alternativ till outsourcing / [ed] Lars Bengtsson, Christian Berggren, Johnny Lind, Malmö: Liber , 2005, 1, p. 100-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag som outsourcar är inte mer lönsamma. Istället är det företag som satsar på produktionsutveckling som har haft bäst ekonomisk utveckling de senaste åren. Det finns alternativ till outsourcing!Debatten om outsouring och utflyttning av industriproduktion handlar inte om protektionism och allmän globaliseringsfientlighet. Forskningen visar att det finns en outnyttjad utvecklingspotential i svensk till verkningsindustri som på långa vägar inte är tillvaratagen."Outsourcing har blivit en patentmedicin för att lösa alla tillverkningsproblem ett företag har i sin verksamhet. I verkligheten är svaret oftast inte så enkelt. Det är därför av stort värde att författarna har skapat en mera nyanserad helhetsbild av begreppet så att såväl yrkesverksamma som studenter kan få en bra överblick över området. Det är vår förhoppning att dessa insikter leder till en fortsatt kraftfull produktionsutveckling i Sverige." Johan Ancker, Teknikföretagen"Svensk industri har goda förutsättningar att konkurrera globalt. Den kommer under överskådlig tid att utgöra grunden för våra arbeten och vår välfärd. En industri utan produktion kommer knappast att kunna möta framtidens hårda kon kurrens och inte heller ge den tillväxt vi behöver. Vi måste fokusera på långsiktiga strategier som alternativ till den ensidiga kostnadsjakten som kvartalskapitalismen driver på. Då kan också en framtida industriell produktion i Sverige säkras." Göran Johnsson, ordförande Metall"Varför lägga ut tillverkning på någon annan om du själv kan tjäna pen gar på den? På Scania betraktar vi produktionen av komponenter som hyt ter, motorer, växellådor och axlar som en kärnverksamhet. Genom att ta till vara fördelarna med närheten till vår egen produktutveckling och dessutom jobba med ständiga produktivitetsförbättringar har vi lyckat s åstadkomma ett så högt förädlingsvärde inom vår egen produktion att den bidrar till bolagets goda lönsamhet. Så visst finns det alternativ till outsourcing!' Leif Östling, Scania

  • 13.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Learning and Production Improvements2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the thesis is to explore the role of learning in production improvement work.

    The research questions are:

    How does learning in production relate to investments in new machinery for existing processes and new processes?

    How is learning in production related to using production improvement methods?

    The answer to the first question is that regardless if the investment is in machinery for existing processes or new processes, learning plays an important role, both in the specification phase and in the production phase. In the specification/purchasing phase learning will lead to a better ability to specify the process equipment and to evaluate different supplier proposals. In the production phase learning can positively affect both the availability and the pace of the production process.

    The findings concerning the second question is that to be able to use improvement methods they have to be learned, and by using the methods you learn. The methods facilitate learning. It is possible to learn and improve without methods but it is not possible to use improvement methods without learning them. The ability (and willingness) to learn is more fundamental than improvement methods. Therefore production improvement projects depend more on learning ability than on improvement methods.

    When improving a production system investment in equipment and improvement methods are important. But there is a common decisive factor for both investments in equipment and improvement methods and that is the ability to learn.

    List of papers
    1. Technology driven change fail or suceed - Case studies of 24 Swedish companies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology driven change fail or suceed - Case studies of 24 Swedish companies
    1999 (English)In: Proceedings of QERGO, International Conference on TQM and Human Factors, 1999Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the differences between technology driven change projects that fail and those who succeed. The main differences are the motivation among the employees and the companies ability to build knowledge and to a lesser extent management involvement.

    Keywords
    change, production, robot investments
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102265 (URN)
    Conference
    The International Conference on TQM and Human Factors QERGO´99, Linköping, Sweden, June 15-17, 1999
    Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2013-12-04
    2. Bringing it back home - A study in insourcing cases in 7 Swedish companies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bringing it back home - A study in insourcing cases in 7 Swedish companies
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing has increased rapidly in volume and scope during the last 10 years (Bedford, 1996 and Bailey et al., 1998). There is a risk that new concept that has worked well in one business may not be successful when transplanted elsewhere (Cox, 1996) and massive outsourcing has in some cases has failed to achieve anticipated savings (Berggren & Bengtsson, 2004). This has led to that the outsourcing trend has weakened and there are several examples of companies that are insourcing. An activity, once outsourced is not so easily insourced again since the structures and conditions surrounding the activity has changed (Wasner, 1999). Because of this the description and analysis of insourcing cases is an interesting area to study. There is however very limited number of papers that build theoretical framework regarding insourcing so the theoretical base will be outsourcing theory.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102268 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2013-12-04
    3. Continuous learning in production processes: a comparative case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous learning in production processes: a comparative case study
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International QMOD conference 2005, 2005, p. 305-316Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven companies were studied with the purpose to discuss learning in production with regard to actual potential and course of action to realize the potential. The study shows that companies that focus on learning in production can reach significant improvements despite low input of resources with a payback time of often less than a year.

    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14225 (URN)
    Conference
    The 8th International QMOD Conference 29, June-01, July, Palermo, Italy
    Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26 Last updated: 2013-12-04
    4. Improvement Group Development and Their use of Quality Tools - an Empirical Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement Group Development and Their use of Quality Tools - an Empirical Study
    2006 (English)In: 6th International CINet conference, "Continuous Innovatin - (Ways of) Making Things Happen", 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that continuous improvement is an introduction of different quality tools. In this empirical study the use of tools is very limited but the results are anyhow fairly OK. The results of different improvement groups vary substantially and the reason for this variation is mostly difference in knowledge and skill among the groups.

    Keywords
    continuos improvement, effective groups, quality tools
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37014 (URN)33402 (Local ID)90-77360-05-0 (ISBN)33402 (Archive number)33402 (OAI)
    Conference
    7th International CINet conference, "CI and Sustainability - Designing the road ahead" 8-12 September 2006, Lucca, Italy
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-04
  • 14.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Missing link between change approaches?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards Sustainable Improvement Systems2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in general and sustainable improvements in particular are problematic areas. The failure rate is high, figures in the vicinity of 70 percent are often mentioned, but why is it so difficult to achieve sustainable improvement systems? The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to understanding of the process and its mechanisms in creating a sustainable improvement system. The research questions are:

    • What is the process for creating a sustainable improvement system?
    • hat mechanisms influence the sustainability of improvement systems?
    • How do the different mechanisms influence the sustainability of improvement systems?

    This dissertation is beyond searching for critical success factors for sustainable improvement systems but rather to identify and investigate mechanisms. Since mechanisms operate within a specific system they are by definition context dependent which critical success factors are not.

    The method used to fulfil the purpose was a series of case studies. In total 13 cases has been studied through interviews, participating in meetings, working in the organisation and shadowing.

    The research showed that there are major differences between different organisations in how they achieve a sustainable improvement system, despite this it was possible to a build a generic model. The model consists of three phases and three states.

    The phases are initiation-transition-sustain. Each phase has a certain state that need to be reached before the next phase can start. The first state which is the outcome of the first phase is that the employees regard the changes as beneficial for them. The second state is that the employees have changed their thinking and behaviour and the third state is that the improvement system is sustainable.

    List of papers
    1. Two views on Lean production: Alternative interpretations of the Toyota production system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two views on Lean production: Alternative interpretations of the Toyota production system
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has attracted a lot of attention, both in academia and in practice. However, there are many views about what Lean production actually is. One view focuses solely on using various tools to reduce waste, while an alternative view also focuses on changing an organization’s culture and developing employees. These two divergent views on Lean production represent the starting point of this paper, the purpose of which is to discuss the two different views and exemplify their practical implications. Four case studies were conducted and the results show that in practice there are two types of Lean: the more technical focused Scientific Management Lean (SM-Lean) and the more social-focused Human Lean (H-Lean). The primary difference between the two types is how they view employee development.

    Keywords
    Lean production, employee development, Lean culture, sustainable improvements
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100159 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Continuous improvement put into practice: Alternative approaches to get a successful quality program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous improvement put into practice: Alternative approaches to get a successful quality program
    2009 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge about what distinguishes effective continuous improvement (CI) approaches and to explain some of the mechanisms which create a successful quality program.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical data were collected from interviews with employees at several levels in seven companies. The companies were deliberately selected to represent different types of resource consumption and outcome from a quality program.

    Findings – The implementation approaches of the studied companies were classified according to four different categories: parallel, integrated, coordinated and project approaches. Companies that adopt a project approach tend to fail to achieve anything more than minor improvements, while companies that take parallel and coordinated approaches realise significant improvements but use more resources than companies that utilise an integrated approach.

    Practical implications – This paper illustrates and explains why the project approach ought to be avoided. The paper also highlights the benefits of an integrated approach that is focused on learning.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to theory and practice by providing an empirically-based explanation for the outcome of alternative implementations of CI in practice.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009
    Keywords
    Continuous improvement, Efficiency of quality program, Implementation approach, Quality programs
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100160 (URN)10.1108/17566691111182870 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Management Initiation of Continuous Improvement from a Motivational Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management Initiation of Continuous Improvement from a Motivational Perspective
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1927-033X, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many continuous improvement (CI) initiatives fail since management is unsuccessful in motivating the employees to actively participate in CI activities. In such cases CI often is run by managers and the power of wide participation is lost. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms behind motivating employees to participate in CI work. The paper is based on findings from three different cases of highly successful CI organizations within different areas. The findings are that the mechanisms behind motivation for CI can be divided into respect for people and improvement system organization. Within respect for people, there need to be meaningfulness and trust, employees need to be seen as individuals, be given problem based training and education, and be given increased authority and responsibility. Within the organization of the improvement system, crucial areas are: Communication; visualization; and cross-functional, cross-professional improvement work. The paper not only shows which areas are important but explains why they are important from a motivation-theory perspective.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, 2013
    Keywords
    Motivation, Continuous improvement, Lean production
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100162 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. From Successful to Sustainable Lean Production: The Case of a Lean Prize Award Winner
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Successful to Sustainable Lean Production: The Case of a Lean Prize Award Winner
    2018 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 9-10, p. 996-1011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many improvement programmes often fail to sustain over an extended period of time. Previous research suggests that a similar set of factors influence the success and sustainability of an improvement programme. The purpose of this paper is to make a distinction between the success and sustainability of improvement programmes, and to identify mechanisms that specifically contribute to the sustainability. In this paper, we study a sustainable improvement programme from the perspective of complexity theories that stress the importance of studying change as a dynamic process of interacting elements and events unfolding in time. We conducted a longitudinal, in-depth case study of a Swedish Lean Prize Award Winner where a Lean improvement programme was studied over 9 years. An improvement programme is successful if goals are achieved and the targeted problems are resolved. Furthermore, the first-order sustainability means the ability to sustain results and the second-order sustainability means the ability to keep an improvement programme alive. The lessons identified from complexity theories, such as destabilising the organisation, ensuring novelty and constant flow of change or self-organisation at the team level, are examples of mechanisms important to achieve the sustainability of the improvement programme.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2018
    Keywords
    Lean production, Improvement program, sustainability
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100163 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2018.1486539 (DOI)000442759900003 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2008-01958
    Note

    The previous status of this publication was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Changing the Thinking and Behaviour of an individual: When Implementing Lean Production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing the Thinking and Behaviour of an individual: When Implementing Lean Production
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper consists of an introduction, and a theoretical framework treating different areas where forces can be formed. At the end of the theoretical framework a conceptual model mapping the different sources where forces can originate is presented. This is followed by a methodological part where methodological aspects are discussed. Succeeding the methodological part is the empirical part where the empirical data is presented thematically based on the conceptual model. At the end of the paper are the conclusions and managerial implications.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100164 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2015-01-19Bibliographically approved
    6. The daily work of Lean leaders – lessons from manufacturing and healthcare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The daily work of Lean leaders – lessons from manufacturing and healthcare
    2013 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 886-898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of managerial practices and leadership in Lean organisations. The results presented here are based on five case studies. The manager's role changed radically with the implementation of Lean production. The focus in managerial tasks changed from managing processes to developing and coaching people. Supporting structures were developed to empower employees and give them more responsibility for daily management activities. These supporting structures included visual control, goal deployment, short daily meetings, two-way communication flow, and a system of continuous improvement. Many leadership behaviours exhibited by Lean managers can be classified as transformational leadership behaviours. However, the need for transformational leadership behaviours was smaller, if the supporting management structure was strong.

    Keywords
    Lean leadership, Lean production, transformational leadership, managerial tasks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94169 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2013.791098 (DOI)000321238300011 ()
    Available from: 2013-06-17 Created: 2013-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Swartling, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Two views on Lean production: Alternative interpretations of the Toyota production systemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has attracted a lot of attention, both in academia and in practice. However, there are many views about what Lean production actually is. One view focuses solely on using various tools to reduce waste, while an alternative view also focuses on changing an organization’s culture and developing employees. These two divergent views on Lean production represent the starting point of this paper, the purpose of which is to discuss the two different views and exemplify their practical implications. Four case studies were conducted and the results show that in practice there are two types of Lean: the more technical focused Scientific Management Lean (SM-Lean) and the more social-focused Human Lean (H-Lean). The primary difference between the two types is how they view employee development.

  • 17.
    Swartling, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olausson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Continuous improvement put into practice: Alternative approaches to get a successful quality program2009In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge about what distinguishes effective continuous improvement (CI) approaches and to explain some of the mechanisms which create a successful quality program.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical data were collected from interviews with employees at several levels in seven companies. The companies were deliberately selected to represent different types of resource consumption and outcome from a quality program.

    Findings – The implementation approaches of the studied companies were classified according to four different categories: parallel, integrated, coordinated and project approaches. Companies that adopt a project approach tend to fail to achieve anything more than minor improvements, while companies that take parallel and coordinated approaches realise significant improvements but use more resources than companies that utilise an integrated approach.

    Practical implications – This paper illustrates and explains why the project approach ought to be avoided. The paper also highlights the benefits of an integrated approach that is focused on learning.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to theory and practice by providing an empirically-based explanation for the outcome of alternative implementations of CI in practice.

  • 18.
    Swartling, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olausson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improvemts vs resources consumption: on the impact of continuous improvement approach2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Swartling, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Changing the Thinking and Behaviour of an individual: When Implementing Lean Production2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper consists of an introduction, and a theoretical framework treating different areas where forces can be formed. At the end of the theoretical framework a conceptual model mapping the different sources where forces can originate is presented. This is followed by a methodological part where methodological aspects are discussed. Succeeding the methodological part is the empirical part where the empirical data is presented thematically based on the conceptual model. At the end of the paper are the conclusions and managerial implications.

  • 20.
    Swartling, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Management Initiation of Continuous Improvement from a Motivational Perspective2013In: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1927-033X, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many continuous improvement (CI) initiatives fail since management is unsuccessful in motivating the employees to actively participate in CI activities. In such cases CI often is run by managers and the power of wide participation is lost. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms behind motivating employees to participate in CI work. The paper is based on findings from three different cases of highly successful CI organizations within different areas. The findings are that the mechanisms behind motivation for CI can be divided into respect for people and improvement system organization. Within respect for people, there need to be meaningfulness and trust, employees need to be seen as individuals, be given problem based training and education, and be given increased authority and responsibility. Within the organization of the improvement system, crucial areas are: Communication; visualization; and cross-functional, cross-professional improvement work. The paper not only shows which areas are important but explains why they are important from a motivation-theory perspective.

1 - 20 of 20
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