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  • 1.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fixartjänster i Sveriges kommuner: Kartläggning och samhällsekonomisk analys. Regeringsuppdrag2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with so called minor home help services. These services are primarily meant for older persons with the aim to prevent injuries caused by falling in domestic environments (ones home). The minor home help services are mostly provided by the municipalities in Sweden, although it is not mandatory to provide these services. The extent of the provision and use of minor home help services has previously not been studied on a national level. The aim of this study was to delineate the minor home help services run by the municipalities in Sweden and further to examine and estimate the societal costs and consequences of providing these services.

    Out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 191 (66 %) offer minor home help services to their citizens. The tasks carried out are primarily aimed at preventing falls from furniture such as step stools or ladders, removing items that may cause falls (cords, carpets etc.) and providing an overhaul of injury risks in the home. A few municipalities also offer outdoor services such as removing snow in wintertime. In the majority of the municipalities (58 %) the services are offered free of charge but the user has to pay for the materials, in 32 % the services are completely free of charge and in 9 % of the municipalities an amount is charged for the services. The minor home help services are organized in various ways in the municipalities: the services can be completely run by the municipality where the services are carried out by one or several employed persons, by persons with disabilities (involved in daily activity programmes in the municipality) or by persons involved in work programmes; or the minor home help services can be carried out by the community rescue service or companies paid by the municipality to offer these services to the citizens. There are also organizations with volunteers that carry out minor home help services, these are however not included in the main results since the focus in this report is on municipal minor home help services. Ninety nine municipalities do not offer minor home help services to their citizens. Reasons for this are e.g. economic restraints and low demand.

    Experienced gains with minor home help services from the perspectives of the municipalities are prevention of falls, facilitation of the possibility to remain living in one’s own home, contribution to social wellbeing and being able to offer meaningful work tasks for persons in work programmes or persons with disabilities. Problems that have been brought forward are low demand of the services, problems with providing the target group with information and difficulties to measure the effect on fall injuries.

    A socioeconomic model was constructed for the analysis of costs and consequences of fall injuries. The model includes the large cost items as well as outcomes such as mortality and loss of quality of life when affected by a fall injury. The total direct costs in Sweden for fall injuries has previously been calculated to approximately 5 billion SEK, which includes only the direct costs during the first year of the injury. A calculation exercise was performed and applied to a hypothetical municipality with 50 000 inhabitants. This calculation exercise shows that if only a small amount of falls that lead to serious injuries (fractures) can be prevented by minor home help services, then the costs saved are approximately equivalent to the mean budget of minor home help services with one employed person. Calculations using real data including both costs and effects need to be performed.

  • 2.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sammanfattning. Fixartjänster i Sveriges kommuner: Kartläggning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport redovisas ett delresultat från regeringsuppdraget ”Social innovation i vården och omsorgen om de mest sjuka äldre” som VINNOVA fick i mars 2012.

    Under 2012 fick VINNOVA ett regeringsuppdrag ”Social innovation i vården och omsorgen om de mest sjuka äldre”. Regeringen uppdrog åt VINNOVA att i samarbete med universitet och högskolor och i samråd med andra relevanta aktörer vidareutveckla goda exempel kring sociala innovationer. Mer specifikt innebar uppdraget att genomföra ett fördjupat utvecklingsarbete kring sociala innovationer inom boende, lättare servicetjänster, trygghetsskapande insatser och social samvaro. Social innovation är en viktig del av VINNOVAs nya fokus på att stärka innovationskraften i offentlig verksamhet för att underlätta spridning och användning av innovationer inom kommuner, landsting och statliga myndigheter.Social innovation är en åtgärd som syftar till att öka människors välbefinnande genom att identifiera och möta upp sociala behov.

  • 3.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av försöksverksamhet med service- och signalhundar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar utvärderingen av en försöksverksamhet med ser-vice- och signalhundar som bedrevs mellan år 2009 och 2014. Utvärderingen inkluderar servicehundar, signalhundar samt alarmerande servicehundar (epilepsihundar och diabeteshundar). Totalt 56 ekipage (förare samt hund) ingick i utvärderingsstudien. Data i studien samlades in före samt efter genomgången service- och signalhundsutbildning. Syftet med utvärderingen är att studera hur certifierade service- och signalhundar påverkar förarnas behov av offentliga stödinsatser och de totala samhällskostnaderna. Dessutom studerades hur service- och signalhundar påverkar förarna med avseende på hälsorelaterad livskvalitet, välbefinnande, självförtroende och fysisk aktivitet samt om användningen av service- och signalhundar är kostnadseffektiv ur ett samhällsperspektiv.

      Resultat och slutsatser

    • Service- och signalhundar minskar i genomsnitt förarnas behov av offentliga stödinsatser med 197 000 kronor (6 procent) under en tioårsperiod.
    • Livskvaliteten för personer med behov av service- och signalhundar är låg jämfört med den allmänna populationen i Sverige. Studien visar på en förbättring i livskvaliteten och välbefinnandet för förare med en certifierad hund.
    • Förarnas grad av fysisk aktivitet ökade med en certifierad hund och majoriteten av dem angav att de ökat sin tid utanför hemmet samt att de även ökat sin tid för att delta i sociala aktiviteter tack vare hunden.
    • Förarnas negativa emotionella upplevelser minskar med en certifierad hund.
    • Förarna beskriver själva den certifierade hunden som ett viktigt verktyg för ökad självständighet och trygghet.
    • Den hälsoekonomiska modellen som analyserar kostnadseffektiviteten visar att ett innehav av en certifierad hund är ett dominant alternativ jämfört med att inte ha en certifierad hund. Detta innebär att kostnaderna ur ett samhällsperspektiv under en tioårsperiod är lägre (-103 000 kronor) samtidigt som effekterna i form av vunna QALY (kvalitetsjusterade levnadsår) är högre (+0,15).
    • Finansieringsanalysen visar att förare som har certifierade hundar sparar resurser åt alla aktörer (stat, kommun och landsting) men får själva ökade utgifter på grund av hunden.
    • Studien baseras på ett lågt antal observationer (56 ekipage). Det i kombination med att det är en stor spridning i resursförbrukningen mellan ekipagen medför att det finns en statistisk osäkerhet i resultaten. Slutsatserna bedöms dock som rimliga eftersom de är samstämmiga.
  • 4.
    Aronsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Differences between hypothetical and experience-based value sets for EQ-5D used in Sweden: Implications for decision makers2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 848-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: A number of value sets are available today for converting EQ-5D questionnaire responses to quality-adjusted life year-weights used in health economic evaluations. The aim of this study is to analyse the differences between the commonly used hypothetical UK value set and the newly introduced Swedish experience-based value set and to evaluate health economic implications of such differences on policy decisions. Methods: Differences between the two value sets were studied using two methods: a comparison of health states and improvements as well as an empirical comparison. In the comparison of health states and improvements, the valuations of all EQ-5D states and all pure improvements were compared. In the empirical study, a database of 23,925 individuals was used to identify patient groups that could be affected by the implementation of the Swedish experience-based value set. Results: The comparison of health states and possible improvements showed that only three health states were assigned a lower quality-adjusted life year-weight and most improvements were given smaller absolute values if the experience-based value set was used. The empirical comparison showed that severe conditions were assigned higher values when using the experience-based value set. Conclusions: The Swedish experience-based value set seems to render a higher estimated level of health-related quality of life in virtually all health conditions compared to the hypothetical UK value set. In extension, health-related quality of life enhancing interventions are likely to be given higher priority in decision-making situations where hypothetical values are used to construct quality-adjusted life year-weights. In situations where experience-based quality-adjusted life year-weights are used, life-prolonging interventions would be prioritised.

  • 5.
    Bernfort, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A case of community-based fall prevention: Survey of organization and content of minor home help services in Swedish municipalities2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 643-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to survey minor home help services provided by Swedish municipalities with the main purpose to prevent fall injuries.

    METHODS: If minor home help services were presented on the homepage of a municipality, an initial telephone contact was taken. Thereafter a questionnaire was administered, including questions about target groups, aim with the services, tasks included, costs and restrictions for users, budget, and experienced gains with the services. Municipalities not providing minor home help services were asked about the reason therefore and if the municipality had previously provided the services Results: The questionnaire response rate was 92%. In 191 of Sweden's 290 municipalities services were provided by, or in cooperation with, the municipality. Reasons for not providing the services were mainly financial and lack of demand. Services were more often provided in larger cities and in municipalities located in populous regions. In some municipalities services were performed by persons with functional disabilities or unemployed persons. CONCLUSIONS: BOTH PROVIDERS AND USERS EXPRESSED SATISFACTION WITH THE SERVICES ASPECTS EXPRESSED WERE THAT SERVICES LEAD TO GREATER SENSE OF SAFETY AND SOCIAL GAINS THE EFFECT OF THE SERVICES IN TERMS OF FALL PREVENTION IS YET TO BE PROVED WITH ONLY A SMALL FALL-PREVENTIVE EFFECT SERVICES ARE PROBABLY COST-EFFECTIVE IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE, SENSE OF SAFETY, AND BEING ABLE TO OFFER MEANINGFUL WORK TO OTHERWISE UNEMPLOYED PERSONS ARE IMPORTANT ASPECTS THAT MIGHT IN THEMSELVES MOTIVATE THE PROVISION OF MINOR HOME HELP SERVICES.

  • 6.
    Bernfort, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chronic pain in an elderly population in Sweden: Impact on costs and quality of life2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic pain among elderly people has long been a well-known problem, in terms of both societal costs and the quality of life of affected individuals. To estimate the magnitude of the problems associated with chronic pain in an elderly population, data on both costs and quality of life were gathered. A postal questionnaire was sent out to a stratified sample of 10 000 inhabitants 65 years and older in Linköping and Norrköping. The survey included questions on demographics, habits, and life situation, and different kinds of questions and instruments related to well-being (e.g., quality-of-life and pain-specific questions). In the questionnaire respondents were asked whether they were receiving any help—informal care—from a relative. If they answered yes, they were asked for permission to contact the informal caregiver and to provide contact details. The amount of informal care provided by relatives to persons with chronic pain was investigated by use of a questionnaire directed to the caregiving relatives, containing questions about time spent providing informal care.

    Data on costs were collected from registers of consumption of health care, drugs, and municipal services.

    The results of the study showed a very clear association between existence and severity of chronic pain and societal costs. The study population was subdivided into three groups with respect to having chronic pain or not, and a pain intensity during the last week of 0–4 (mild), 5–7 (moderate), or 8–10 (severe) on a scale of 0–10. Taking all costs (health care, drugs, municipal services, and informal care) into account, persons in the severe chronic pain group consumed on average 72% more resources than persons in the moderate chronic pain group and 143% more than those in the no or mild chronic pain group. Differences were most pronounced concerning municipal services and informal care costs.

    Even more alarming are the results on the quality of life of persons in the different groups. On the EQ-5D index, the average value for persons in the no or mild chronic pain group was 0.82. For those in the moderate chronic pain group the average value was 0.64, and for those in the severe chronic pain group the average value was only 0.38. EQ-VAS resulted in less pronounced but still clearly significant differences.

    It is concluded that this study, reaching a rather large part of the target population, shows that existence and severity of chronic pain among people 65 years and older affects costs to society and the quality of life of affected individuals in a massive way.

  • 7.
    Bernfort, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Severity of chronic pain in an elderly population in Sweden-impact on costs and quality of life2015In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 156, no 3, p. 521-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic pain is associated with large societal costs, but few studies have investigated the total costs of chronic pain with respect to elderly subjects. The elderly usually require informal care, care performed by municipalities, and care for chronic diseases, all factors that can result in extensive financial burdens on elderly patients, their families, and the social services provided by the state. This study aims to quantify the societal cost of chronic pain in people of age 65 years and older and to assess the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. This study collected data from 3 registers concerning health care, drugs, and municipal services and from 2 surveys. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a stratified sample of the population 65 years and older in southeastern Sweden. The questionnaire addressed pain intensity and quality of life variables (EQ-5D). A second postal questionnaire was used to collect data from relatives of the elderly patients suffering from chronic pain. A total of 66.5% valid responses of the 10,000 subjects was achieved; 76.9% were categorized as having no or mild chronic pain, 18.9% as having moderate chronic pain, and 4.2% as having severe chronic pain. Consumed resources increased with the severity of chronic pain. Clear differences in EQ-5D were found with respect to the severity of pain. This study found an association between resource use and severity of chronic pain in elderly subjects: the more severe the chronic pain, the more extensive (and expensive) the use of resources.

  • 8.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    CMT rapport: kostnader och kostnadseffektivitet av ett införande av dabigatran hos patienter med förmaksflimmer2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmaksflimmer är den vanligaste arytmin i Sverige och orsakar stora kostnader inom hälso- och sjukvården. Förutom att patienterna vanligen drabbas av försämrad livskvalitet går det också åt stora resurser för komplikationer i form av tromboembolier och stroke. De flesta behandlingar inom förmaksflimmer kombineras med antikoagulationsbehandling för att förebygga eller förhindra uppkomst av tromboembolier och ischemisk stroke. Vid denna behandling krävs noggrann dosering för att sänka risken för stroke utan att kraftigt höja risken för blödningar. Warfarin har under lång tid varit det mest effektivaantikoagulationsläkemedlet för skydd mot tromboembolier vid  förmaksflimmer. Ett annat behandlingsalternativ är acetylsalicylsyra (ASA). Ett nytt antikoagulationsläkemedel som heter dabigatran (Pradaxa®) har nyligen godkänts som förebyggande behandling av stroke och systemisk embolism hos patienter med förmaksflimmer. Dabigatran har i en stor studie, (RE-LY), visat sig reducera risken för stroke jämfört med warfarin.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna rapport är att beräkna hälsoekonomiska konsekvenser i form av kostnader och kostnadseffektivitet av ett införande av dabigatran (Pradaxa®) som förebyggande behandling av stroke och systemisk embolism hos patienter med förmaksflimmer. I grundanalysen analyseras dabigatran 150 mg två gånger per dag för personer som är under 80 år och dabigatran 110 mg två gånger per dag för personer 80 år eller äldre. Jämförelser görs med warfarin och ASA, och warfarinbehandlingen delas dessutom in i tre subgrupper; välinställda, dåligt inställda samt warfarin-naïva patienter.

    En simuleringsmodell har skapats för att beräkna långsiktiga kostnader och effekter för de olika behandlingsalternativen. Effekterna mäts i antal förhindrade stroke, antal vunna levnadsår samt antal vunna kvalitetsjusterade levnadsår (QALYs). Priset för de båda dagliga doserna av dabigatran (150 mg gånger två och 110 mg gånger två) är 25,39 kronor per dag.

    Analyserna i den här rapporten visar att kostnaden för förmaksflimmer i Sverige beräknas till drygt 4,1 miljarder kronor år 2010. Denna kostnad förväntas sjunka vid införande av dabigatran, till följd av besparingar inom vården av stroke och ett sänkt produktionsbortfall. Kostnaden per vunnet QALY för dabigatran 150 mg / 110 mg jämfört med warfarin, hos patienter som är 65 år gamla och följs upp i 20 år, har beräknats till 74 216 kronor. Vid jämförelse med välinställd warfarinbehandling höjs kostnaden per vunnet QALY till 107 186 kronor. Om dabigatran 110 mg två gånger dagligen jämförs med ASA leder det till lägre kostnader och bättre effekter, vilket innebär att dabigatran 110 mg två gånger dagligen är en dominant behandling för patienter som inte är lämpliga för warfarinbehandling.

    Ett införande av dabigatran leder till kostnadsförskjutningar inom flera olika områden. En ökad kostnad uppkommer för läkemedel, medan  sänkta kostnader uppkommer till följd av färre stroke. För patienten innebär dabigatran lägre risk för stroke och färre besök i sjukvården.

  • 9.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The cost of atrial fibrillation in Sweden (Poster)2010In: Value in Health, Malden: Wiley Periodicals, Inc , 2010, p. 350-350Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Cost of Thromboembolic Events and their Prevention among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation2011In: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation, ISSN 1941-6911, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 00-00Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. People with AF have a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic events, including stroke, and the main treatment is therefore aimed at preventing thromboembolic events via anticoagulation with warfarin or acetylsalicylic acid. However, the development of new anticoagulation treatments has prompted a need to know the current cost of AF-related thromboembolic events, for future cost-effectiveness comparisons with the existing treatments. In this study, we estimated the cost of thromboembolic events and their prevention among Swedish AF patients in 2010.

    Methods: The relevant costs were identified, quantified, and valued. The complications included were ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other types of major bleeding caused by AF. Treatments intended to lower the risk of ischaemic stroke were also included. A societal perspective was used, including productivity loss due to morbidity. Patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or higher were included.

    Results: Among the 9 340 682 inhabitants of Sweden, there are 118 000 patients with AF and at least one more risk factor for stroke, comprising 1.26% of the population. Of these patients, 43.3% are treated with warfarin, 28.3% use acetylsalicylic acid, and 28.3% are assumed to have no anticoagulation treatment. The cost of AF-related complications and its prevention in Sweden was estimated at €437 million for 2010, corresponding to €3 712 per AF patient per year. The highest cost was caused by stroke, and the second highest by the cost of monitoring the warfarin treatment. As the prevalence of AF is expected to increase in the future, AF-related costs are also expected to rise.

    Conclusion: Thromboembolic events cause high costs. New, easily-administered treatments that could reduce the risk of stroke have the potential to be cost-effective.

     

  • 11.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran compared with warfarin for patients with atrial fibrillation in Sweden2013In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with atrial fibrillation have a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic events such as ischaemic stroke, and patients are therefore recommended to be treated with anticoagulation treatment. The most commonly used anticoagulant consists of vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin. A new oral anticoagulation treatment, dabigatran, has recently been approved for stroke prevention among patients with atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran as preventive treatment of stroke and thromboembolic events compared with warfarin in 65-year-old patients with atrial fibrillation in Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA decision analytic simulation model was used to estimate the long-term (20-year) costs and effects of the different treatments. The outcome measures are the number of strokes prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Costs and effect data are adjusted to a Swedish setting. Patients below 80 years of age are assumed to start with dabigatran 150 mg twice a day and switch to 110 mg twice a day at the age of 80 years due to higher bleeding risk. The price of dabigatran in Sweden is Euro2.82 (Swedish kronor 25.39) per day for both doses. The cost per QALY gained for dabigatran compared with warfarin is estimated at Euro7742, increasing to Euro12 449 if dabigatran is compared with only well-controlled warfarin treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDabigatran is a cost-effective treatment in Sweden, as its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is below the normally accepted willingness to pay limit.

  • 12.
    Ekdahl, Anne W.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Helsingborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindh Mazya, Amelie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Milberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Norrköping.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science.
    Wiklund, Rolf
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Long-Term Evaluation of the Ambulatory Geriatric Assessment: A Frailty Intervention Trial (AGe-FIT): Clinical Outcomes and Total Costs After 36 Months2016In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare the effects of care based on comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) as a complement to usual care in an outpatient setting with those of usual care alone. The assessment was performed 36 months after study inclusion. Design: Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, single-center trial. Setting: A geriatric ambulatory unit in a municipality in the southeast of Sweden. Participants: Community-dwelling individuals aged >= 75 years who had received inpatient hospital care 3 or more times in the past 12 months and had 3 or more concomitant medical diagnoses were eligible for study inclusion. Participants were randomized to the intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). Intervention: Participants in the IG received CGA-based care for 24 to 31 months at the geriatric ambulatory unit in addition to usual care. Outcome measures: Mortality, transfer to nursing home, days in hospital, and total costs of health and social care after 36 months. Results: Mean age (SD) of participants was 82.5 (4.9) years. Participants in the IG (n = 208) lived 69 days longer than did those in the CG (n = 174); 27.9% (n = 58) of participants in the IG and 38.5% (n = 67) in the CG died (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.12, P =.026). The mean number of inpatient days was lower in the IG (15.1 [SD 18.4]) than in the CG (21.0 [SD 25.0], P =.01). Mean overall costs during the 36-month period did not differ between the IG and CG (USD 71,905 [SD 85,560] and USD 65,626 [SD 66,338], P =.43). Conclusions: CGA-based care resulted in longer survival and fewer days in hospital, without significantly higher cost, at 3 years after baseline. These findings add to the evidence of CGAs superiority over usual care in outpatient settings. As CGA-based care leads to important positive outcomes, this method should be used more extensively in the treatment of older people to meet their needs. (c) 2016 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.

  • 13.
    Ekdahl, Anne W
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Wirehn, Ann-Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Milberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Norrköping. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Costs and Effects of an Ambulatory Geriatric Unit (the AGe-FIT Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine costs and effects of care based on comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) provided by an ambulatory geriatric care unit (AGU) in addition to usual care.

    DESIGN: Assessor-blinded, single-center randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: AGU in an acute hospital in southeastern Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 years or older who had received inpatient hospital care 3 or more times in the past 12 months and had 3 or more concomitant medical diagnoses were eligible for study inclusion and randomized to the intervention group (IG; n = 208) or control group (CG; n = 174). Mean age (SD) was 82.5 (4.9) years.

    INTERVENTION: Participants in the IG received CGA-based care at the AGU in addition to usual care.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was number of hospitalizations. Secondary outcomes were days in hospital and nursing home, mortality, cost of public health and social care, participant' sense of security in care, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

    RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. The number of hospitalizations did not differ between the IG (2.1) and CG (2.4), but the number of inpatient days was lower in the IG (11.1 vs 15.2; P = .035). The IG showed trends of reduced mortality (hazard ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.988-2.310; P = .057) and an increased sense of security in care interaction. No difference in HRQoL was observed. Costs for the IG and CG were 33,371£ (39,947£) and 30,490£ (31,568£; P = .432).

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study of CGA-based care was performed in an ambulatory care setting, in contrast to the greater part of studies of the effects of CGA, which have been conducted in hospital settings. This study confirms the superiority of this type of care to elderly people in terms of days in hospital and sense of security in care interaction and that a shift to more accessible care for older people with multimorbidity is possible without increasing costs. This study can aid the planning of future interventions for older people.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01446757.

  • 14.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla) Hospital Group, Trollhättan-Uddevalla-Vänersborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heintz, Emelie
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), QRC Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Short-term Resource Utilization and Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Acute Hospital Care for Severely Frail Elderly Patients2018In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 871-878.e2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to estimate the 3-month within-trial cost-effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in acute medical care for frail elderly patients compared to usual medical care, by estimating health-related quality of life and costs from a societal perspective.

    Design

    Clinical, prospective, controlled, 1-center intervention trial with 2 parallel groups.

    Intervention

    Structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care in an acute elderly care unit. If the patient fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and there was a bed available at the CGA unit, the patient was included in the intervention group. If no bed was available at the CGA unit, the patient was included in the control group and admitted to a conventional acute medical care unit.

    Setting and Participants

    A large county hospital in western Sweden. The trial included 408 frail elderly patients, 75 years or older, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n = 206) or control group (n = 202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female.

    Measures

    The primary outcome was the adjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the intervention compared to the control at the 3-month follow-up.

    Results

    We undertook cost-effectiveness analysis, adjusted by regression analyses, including hospital, primary, and municipal care costs and effects. The difference in the mean adjusted quality-adjusted life years gained between groups at 3 months was 0.0252 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0082-0.0422]. The incremental cost, that is, the difference between the groups, was −3226 US dollars (95% CI: −6167 to −285).

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that the care in a CGA unit for acutely ill frail elderly patients is likely to be cost-effective compared to conventional care after 3 months.

  • 15.
    Garpenby, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Hälsoinformation i vår tid - Östgötarnas användning av nya och gamla informationskällor2005Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Garpenby, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hälsoinformation idag och i morgon: Östgötarnas användning av och förtroende för olika informationskällor2000Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Garpenby, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Stort intressen för mer hälsoinformation.2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 2814-2816Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hälsoekonomiska bedömningar i samband med behandling av RA2013In: BestPractice Reumatologi, ISSN 1903-6590, no 14, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Slutsats Sjukvårdens andel av BNP ligger väsentligen oförändrad samtidigt som dyrare behandlingsmöjligheter introduceras på marknaden. Detta skapar ett behov av att fasa ut ineffektiva tekniker samt att motivera om nya metoder är kostnadseffektiva och om de ska subventioneras av samhället. Hälsoekonomiska studier får således en allt större betydelse och det är oerhört viktigt att kunna tolka dessa analyser utifrån hur data använts och på vilket sätt data har analyserats. Det är också alldeles nödvändigt att relatera effekter och nytta av en specifik intervention/teknik till förändringar i samhället. Exempelvis kan sjukskrivning och sjukersättning/förtidspension vara ett effektmått på nyttan av en specifik insats, men kan i lika hög grad spegla effekter av konjunkturläge, arbetslöshet och förändringar i sjukförsäkringssystemet. Detta bör således alltid tas med i beräkningen, eftersom dessa variabler samvearierar i mycket hög grad.

  • 19.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Incidens av förtidspension/sjukersättning hos patienter med reumatoid artrit i Sverige 1990-2010: före och efter introduktion av biologiska läkemedel2012In: BestPractice Reumatologi, ISSN 1903-6590, no 11, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Minskad incidens av förtidspension/sjukersättning på grund av RA sammanfaller i tid med nya behandlingsstrategier, men samtidigt ses motsvarande minskning av FP i populationen hos patienter med alla diagnoser. Rådande politiska och samhällsekonomiska förutsättningar har mycket stor betydelse för nivå av förtidspension/sjukersättning och kan påverka patienter med olika diagnoser på olika sätt. Detta bör beaktas vid analyser av arbetsförmåga i relation till effekt av behandling.

  • 20.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The incidence of permanent work disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden 1990-2010 - before and after introduction of biologic agents.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The incidence of permanent work disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden 1990-2010 - before and after introduction of biologic agents.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The incidence of permanent work disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden 1990-2010: before and after introduction of biologic agents2012In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 338-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To explore the incidence of disability pension (DP) due to RA as an estimation of permanent work disability before and after introduction of biologic drugs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. The annual incidence of DP was derived from the Swedish National Social Insurance Register and rates of DP due to RA were compared with the total amount of new DPs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults.The incidence of DP due to RA has decreased over recent years, coinciding with earlier and more aggressive treatment with DMARDs and biologics. A similar declining incidence of DP was simultaneously seen in patients with all diagnoses in the general population. The decrease in DPs was, however, larger for RA and was evident even before introduction of biologics. In 1990, the proportion of DPs caused by RA was 1.9% out of total amount of DPs, decreasing to 1.5% in 2000 and to 1% in 2009. This may reflect effects of treatment, but may also be due to changing political policies as well as changes in age structure, increasing educational level and less physically demanding jobs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion. The decrease in DPs due to RA coincides with new treatment strategies as well as with decreasing levels of DPs in patients with all diagnoses. Prevailing political and economic conditions have a large impact on permanent work disability and may affect patients with various diagnoses in different ways. To determine if the decline is a true effect of better treatment, there is a need for further investigations, taking possible confounding factors into account.

  • 23.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rheumatoid arthritis is already expensive during the first year of the disease (the Swedish TIRA Project)2004In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1374-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To calculate direct and indirect costs in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to characterize patients generating high and low costs respectively.

    Methods. Two hundred and ninety-seven patients with recent-onset (≤12 months) RA were recruited. Clinical/laboratory data and 'health assessment questionnaire' (HAQ) were registered at inclusion and after 3, 6 and 12 months. After 6 and 12 months, the patients completed a questionnaire concerning health-care utilization and days lost from work. A cut-off point for direct costs was set at 34 000 Swedish kronor (3675) defining one-third of the patients as a high-cost group and two-thirds as low-cost group. Indirect costs were calculated for patients aged <65 yr.

    Results. Two hundred and eleven patients completed the HAQ on both occasions. Indirect costs exceeded direct costs by a factor of 2.3. Sixty three per cent experienced work disability during the first year and were identified as the 'high-indirect-cost group'. Indirect costs accounted for >70% of total costs. Direct costs included ambulatory health care (76%), hospitalization (12%) and medication (9%). Men aged ≥65 yr had low costs compared with younger men and women of all ages. In multiple logistic regression tests, HAQ, high levels of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) and poor hand function increased the odds of entering the high-direct-cost group, and poor hand function and pain increased the odds of entering the high-indirect-cost group.

    Conclusions. Substantial costs were incurred during the first year after diagnosis of early RA, mainly due to work disability. Indirect costs were two to three times higher than direct costs. High levels of IgM RF, high HAQ score, poor hand function and pain increased the odds of entering high-cost groups.

  • 24.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Rheumatoid arthritis is still expensive in the new decade: a comparison between two early RA cohorts, diagnosed 1996-98 and 2006-092016In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 371-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To calculate total costs during the first year after diagnosis in 463 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) included during 2006-09 (T2) and compare the results with a similar cohort included in 1996-98 (T1).

    METHOD:

    Clinical and laboratory data were collected regularly in both cohorts, and patients completed biannual questionnaires reporting health care utilization and number of days lost from work.

    RESULTS:

    Disease activity was similar in both cohorts T1 and T2 at inclusion. Significant improvements were seen during the first year in both cohorts but were more pronounced in T2. Outpatient care increased and hospitalization decreased in T2 compared with T1. Almost 3% of patients had surgery in both cohorts, but in T2, only women had surgery. Drug costs were higher in T2 than in T1 (EUR 689 vs. EUR 435). In T2, 12% of drug costs were direct costs and 4% were total costs. The corresponding values for T1 were 9% and 3%. In T1, 50% were prescribed disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at inclusion, compared to T2, where prescription was > 90%. Direct costs were EUR 5716 in T2 and EUR 4674 in T1. Costs for sick leave were lower in T2 than in T1 (EUR 5490 vs. EUR 9055) but disability pensions were higher (EUR 4152 vs. EUR 2139), resulting in unchanged total costs. In T1, direct costs comprised 29% and indirect costs 71% of the total costs. The corresponding values for T2 were 37% and 63%.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The earlier and more aggressive treatment of RA with traditional DMARDs in T2 resulted in better outcomes compared to T1. Direct costs were higher in T2, partly offset by decreased sick leave, but total costs remained unchanged.

  • 25.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Changes in sociodemographic characteristics at baseline in two Swedish cohorts of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed 1996-98 and 2006-092015In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare baseline sociodemographic characteristics in two rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohorts enrolled 10 years apart, and to examine differences with respect to the general population. Method: Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected in 320 early RA patients during 1996-98 (TIRA-1) and 467 patients in 2006-09 (TIRA-2). Multivariate logistic regression tests were performed and intercohort comparisons were related to general population data, obtained from official databases. Results: TIRA-2 patients were older than TIRA-1 (58 vs. 56 years). Women (both cohorts, 67%) were younger than men in TIRA-1 (55 vs. 59 years) and in TIRA-2 (57 vs. 61 years). Disease activity was similar but TIRA-2 women scored worse pain and worse on the HAQ. Approximately 73% were cohabiting, in both cohorts and in the general population. Education was higher in TIRA-2 than in TIRA-2 but still lower than in the general population. Women had consistently higher education than men. Education was associated with age, younger patients having higher education. In both cohorts, lower education was associated with increased disability pension and increased sick leave. Sick leave was lower in TIRA-2 than in TIRA-1 (37% vs. 50%) but disability pension was higher (16% vs. 10%). In TIRA-1, 9% of women had disability pension compared with 17% in TIRA-2. A similar decrease in sick leave and an increase in disability pension were also seen in the general population. Older age and a higher HAQ score were associated with increased sick leave and being in the TIRA-2 cohort was associated with decreased sick leave. Conclusions: TIRA-2 patients were slightly older, better educated, had lower sick leave and higher disability pension than those in TIRA-1. Similar changes were seen simultaneously in the general population. Belonging to the TIRA-2 cohort was associated with decreased sick leave, indicating that societal changes are of importance.

  • 26.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among two cohorts of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden, enrolled 1996-98 and 2006-09.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Early rheumatoid arthritis 6 years after diagnosis is still associated with high direct costs and increasing loss of productivity: the Swedish TIRA project2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To calculate total costs over 6 years after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    Method: In the longitudinal prospective multicentre TIRA study, 239 patients from seven units, diagnosed in 1996–98, reported regularly on health-care utilization and the number of days lost from work. Costs were obtained from official databases and calculated using unit costs (Swedish kronor, SEK) from 2001. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach (HCA). Costs were inflation adjusted to Euro June 2012, using the Swedish Consumer Price Index and the exchange rate of June 2012. Statistical analyses were based on linear mixed models (LMMs) for changes over time.

    Results: The mean total cost per patient was EUR 14 768 in year 1, increasing to EUR 18 438 in year 6. Outpatient visits and hospitalization decreased but costs for surgery increased from EUR 92/patient in year 1 to EUR 444/patient in year 6. Drug costs increased from EUR 429/patient to EUR 2214/patient, mainly because of the introduction of biologics. In year 1, drugs made up for 10% of direct costs, and increased to 49% in year 6. Sick leave decreased during the first years but disability pensions increased, resulting in unchanged indirect costs. Over the following years, disability pensions increased further and indirect costs increased from EUR 10 284 in year 1 to EUR 13 874 in year 6. LMM analyses showed that indirect costs were unchanged whereas direct costs, after an initial fall, increased over the following years, leading to increasing total costs.

    Conclusions: In the 6 years after diagnosis of early RA, drug costs were partially offset by decreasing outpatient visits but indirect costs remained unchanged and total costs increased.

     

  • 28.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalkan, Almina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rheumatoid arthritis 6 years after diagnosis – still associated with high direct costs and increasing loss of productivity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Early predictors of TNFtargeted therapy in women and men with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis (the Swedish TIRA Project)2010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjukdomsförlopp, kostnader och livskvalitet vid nydebuterad reumatoid artrit2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatoid  arthritis  (RA)  is  a  chronic  progressive  inflammatory   disease, associated with tissue destruction and functional disability. The yearly incidence of RA in Sweden is 25/100 000 and the prevalence is 0.5-0.7%, with women being more often affected than men. The economic consequences of the disease are substantial  for the  individual  and  their  families  and  for the society  as a whole.   Previous   studies   have   reported   that   early   treatment   limits   joint destruction and improves functional outcome.

    In 1996 a multicenter study TIRA was started in Linköping in cooperation with 10 rheumatology units and Center for Medical Technology Assessment (CMT) TIRA is the Swedish acronym for ‘early intervention  in rheumatoid  arthritis’. The   main   goal   was   to   obtain   early   diagnosis,   rapid   multiprofessional intervention  and  a  regular  follow-up.  Further,  the  TIRA  project  aimed  at forming  a research  database  and health economic  evaluation  in patients  with recent-onset RA.

    This study describes disease activity, functional ability, direct and indirect costs as well as self-reported health and quality of life (QoL) in patients with recent- onset RA, during the first 3 years after diagnosis.

    320 subjects were enrolled in the study from January 1996 through April 1998, 2/3  being  women.  At  inclusion  most  patients  had  high  disease  activity  and impaired functional capacity. More than half of patients < 65 were on sick leave and a few were already early retired.

    Highly significant improvements were seen within the first 3 months regarding disease  activity  and functional  ability,  but 15% of the patients  had sustained high or moderate disease activity throughout the study period, despite traditional treatment. The scores of ‘Health Assessment Questionnaire’ (HAQ) were similar for men and women at baseline, but had a less favourable course in women, who also had DMARDs  more frequently prescribed,  suggesting  that women might have a more severe disease.

    At inclusion QoL did not differ between groups concerning different housing, marital   status,   income   or  other  socio-demographic   factors.   Most  patients experienced their health as worse compared with others of the same age. During the first 2 years QoL was improved as well as general mobility and ability to perform activities of daily living. During year 3 a slight deterioration was noted.

    The average direct costs per patient during the first year was SEK 36 000 and indirect costs SEK 89 000 (price level of 2001). All direct costs decreased from year 1 to 3, except costs of drugs and surgery which on the contrary increased. Indirect costs were substantially unchanged over the years. Sick-leave decreased but was offset by an increase in early retirement. Indirect costs were 2-3 times higher than direct costs.

    More than 90% of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with treatment and availability and information from the medical staff in the participating hospitals.

  • 31.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    28-joint count disease activity score at 3 months after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis is strongly associated with direct and indirect costs over the following 4 years: the Swedish TIRA project2011In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1259-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods. Three-hundred and twenty patients with early (1 year) RA were assessed at regular intervals. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and patients reported health-care utilization and number of days lost from work. At 3-month follow-up, patients were divided into two groups according to disease activity, using DAS-28 with a cut-off level at 3.2. Direct and indirect costs and EuroQol-5D over the following 4 years were compared between the groups. Multivariate regression models were used to control for possible covariates. Results. Three months after diagnosis, a DAS-28 level of epsilon 3.2 was associated with high direct and indirect costs over the following 4 years. Patients with DAS-28 epsilon 3.2 at 3-month follow-up had more visits to physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and nurse, higher drug costs, more days in hospital and more extensive surgery compared with patients with 3-month DAS-28 less than 3.2. Number of days lost from work due to sick leave and permanent work disability was also higher in this group. The effect of disease activity on health-related quality of life was highly significant. In regression models, DAS-28 at 3-month follow-up was significantly associated with costs over the following years. Conclusions. Three months after diagnosis, DAS-28 is an important prognostic marker regarding health-care utilization and costs. Achieving remission or low disease activity 3 months after diagnosis is likely to decrease morbidity, increase quality of life and save costs for the patient and for society over the following years.

  • 32.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Costs and course of disease and function in early rheumatoid arthritis: a 3-year follow-up (the Swedish TIRA project)2006In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 325-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To calculate direct and indirect costs and to studydisease activity and functional ability over 3 yr in early rheumatoidarthritis (RA).

    Methods. Three hundred and three patients with early (≤1 yr)RA were recruited during a period of 27 months (1996–1998).Data were recorded during 3 yr to assess disease activity, functionalability, medication, health-care utilization and days lost fromwork.

    Results. Within 3 months, improvements were seen regarding allrecorded variables assessing disease activity and functionalability, but 15% had sustained high or moderate disease activitythroughout the study period. Indirect costs exceeded directcosts in all 3 yr. The average direct costs were € 3704 (US$3297) in year 1 and € 2652 (US$ 2360) in year 3. All costs decreased,except those for medication and surgery. Compared with men,women had more ambulatory care visits and used more complementarymedicine. The indirect costs were € 8871 (US$ 7895) in year 1and remained essentially unchanged; this was similar for bothsexes. Almost 50% were on sick leave or early retirement atinclusion. Sick leave decreased but was offset by an increasein early retirement. The 14 patients who eventually receivedTNF inhibitors incurred higher costs even before prescriptionof anti-TNF therapy.

    Conclusion. Disease activity and functional ability improvedwithin 3 months after diagnosis of early RA. Direct costs decreased,except for medication and surgery. Indirect costs remained unchanged.Fifteen per cent of the patients had high or moderate diseaseactivity in all 3 yr, indicating a need for more aggressiveearly anti-rheumatic therapy.

  • 33.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Costs, disease and function in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis - a 3-year-follow-up (the Swedish TIRA-project)2004In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets riksstämma,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    DAS28 at 3 months after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis is strongly associated with direct and indirect costs over the following 4 years. The Swedish TIRA project (Oral presentation)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hallert, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    DAS28 at 3 months after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis is strongly associated with direct and indirect costs over the following 4 years. The Swedish TIRA project (Poster)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Johansen, Kari
    et al.
    Smittskyddsinstitutet.
    Brytting, M.
    Smittskyddsinstitutet.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundborg (Nikolic), Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tran, A.N.
    Smittskyddsinstitutet.
    Bennet, R.
    Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Eriksson, M.
    Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Estimates of Healthcare and Non-Healthcare Costs due to Severe Rotavirus Infections leading to Hospitalization in Swedish Children (<5 years)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Estimates of economic benefit of rotavirus vaccination depend on the accuracy of calculated country-specific costs related to rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). Transmission of disease to family members adds to the economic burden through loss of caregiver productivity. The aim of this study was to assess costs related to severe RVGE.

    Material and methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted in a large hospital in the Stockholm region, serving a population of 66,222 children < 5 years. RVGE related health care resource use and time off work were collected from a sample of families with hospitalised children due to community- and nosocomially-derived RVGE (n=153). Health care related costs were calculated using 2008 DRG reimbursement for acute diarrhoea and productivity loss using self reported absence combined with 2008 Swedish average cost for a working hour (€28) from SCB/Statistics Sweden.

    Results: Median age of hospitalised children was 15 months. For caregivers, average workday loss due to children's, siblings or own disease was 4.2 days and 1.2 days, respectively. Estimated average total cost per child was €3227, €1949 (60%) for health -care related costs, €1186 (37%) productivity loss and €92 (3%) due to other indirect costs.

    Conclusions: Economic burden of RVGE is primarily driven by costs related to in-patient care, sensitive to unit cost used. However, loss of productivity is also significant in spite of generous parental allowance in Sweden, 12-18 months per child. A limitation of this study is that productivity loss from care for non-hospitalized children and its household members was not assessed.

  • 37.
    Jonsson, Dick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Socioeconomic costs of rheumatic diseases - Implications for technology assessment2000In: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, ISSN 0266-4623, E-ISSN 1471-6348, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 1193-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study the socioeconomic impact of rheumatic illness in Sweden and to discuss the consequences for technology assessment studies.

    Methods: A cost-of-illness study based on data from official statistics and treatment studies.

    Results: The total socioeconomic cost was 52 billion Swedish kronor (SEK) in 1994. The imbalance between direct (10% of total) and indirect costs (90effectiveness of the healthcare sector, the need for new treatment methods, appropriate information systems, and technology assessment studies as well as the institutional arrangements for rehabilitation and basic medical research.

    Conclusions: A discussion of solutions for financial cooperation between county councils and regional social insurance offices should be considered. The new biotechnological pharmaceuticals will increase the cost for drugs in health care about 20 times, but the total socioeconomic cost for society may remain at the same level due to a decrease of inpatient costs and indirect costs for loss of production as well as a decrease of transfer payments from social insurance. It is unavoidable that the new pharmaceuticals require priority discussions and active resource allocation in health care and in other sectors of society.

  • 38.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Costs of rheumatoid arthritis 1990-2010: A register based cost-of-illness study in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Costs of rheumatoid arthritis 1990-2010. A register based cost-of-illness study in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Costs of rheumatoid arthritis during the period 1990–2010: a register-based cost-of-illness study in Sweden2014In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to analyse the total socio-economic impact of RA in Sweden during the period 1990–2010 and to analyse possible changes in costs during this period. The period was deliberately chosen to cover 10 years before and 10 years after the introduction of biologic drugs.

    Methods. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness study was conducted based on data from national and regional registries.

    Results. There was a decrease in the utilization of RA-related inpatient care as well as sick leave and disability pension during 1990–2010 in Sweden. Total costs for RA are presented in current prices as well as inflation-adjusted with the consumer price index (CPI) and a healthcare price index. The total fixed cost of RA was €454 million in 1990, adjusted to the price level of 2010 with the CPI. This cost increased to €600 million in 2010 and the increase was mainly due to the substantially increasing costs for pharmaceuticals. Of the total costs, drug costs increased from 3% to 33% between 1990 and 2010. Consequently the portion of total costs accounting for indirect costs for RA is lowered from 75% in 1990 to 58% in 2010.

    Conclusion. By inflation adjusting with the CPI, which is reasonable from a societal perspective, there was a 32% increase in the total fixed cost of RA between 1990 and 2010. This suggests that decreased hospitalization and indirect costs have not fallen enough to offset the increasing cost of drug treatment.

  • 41.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hallert, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Physician Preferences and Variations in Prescription of Biologic Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Register-Based Study of 4,010 Patients in Sweden2015In: Arthritis care & research, ISSN 2151-464X, E-ISSN 2151-4658, Vol. 67, no 12, p. 1679-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The prescription of biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients has varied considerably across different regions. Previous studies have shown physician preferences to be an important determinant in the decision to select biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) rather than nonbiologic, synthetic DMARDs (sDMARDs) alone. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physician preferences are an important determinant for prescribing bDMARDs for RA patients in Sweden. Methods. Using data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, we identified 4,010 RA patients who were not prescribed bDMARDs during the period 2008-2012, but who, on at least 1 occasion, had an sDMARD prescription and changed treatment for the first time to either a new sDMARD or a bDMARD. Physician preference for the use of bDMARDs was calculated using data on each physicians prescriptions during the study period. The relationship between prescription of a bDMARD and physician preference, controlling for patient characteristics, disease activity, and the physicians local context was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. When adjusting for patient characteristics, disease activity, and the physicians local context, physician preference was an important predictor for prescription of bDMARDs. Compared with patients of a physician in the lowest preference tertile, patients of physicians in the highest and middle tertiles had an odds ratio for receiving bDMARDs of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.13-3.68) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57), respectively. Conclusion. Physician preference is an important determinant for prescribing bDMARDs.

  • 42.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sobocinski, Piotr Doliwa
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Division of cardiovascular medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kull, Viveka Frykman
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Division of cardiovascular medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Friberg, Leif
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Division of cardiovascular medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Mårten
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Division of cardiovascular medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Davidson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for silent atrial fibrillation after ischaemic stroke.2015In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 207-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of two screening methods for detection of silent AF, intermittent electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings using a handheld recording device, at regular time intervals for 30 days, and short-term 24 h continuous Holter ECG, in comparison with a no-screening alternative in 75-year-old patients with a recent ischaemic stroke.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The long-term (20-year) costs and effects of all alternatives were estimated with a decision analytic model combining the result of a clinical study and epidemiological data from Sweden. The structure of a cost-effectiveness analysis was used in this study. The short-term decision tree model analysed the screening procedure until the onset of anticoagulant treatment. The second part of the decision model followed a Markov design, simulating the patients' health states for 20 years. Continuous 24 h ECG recording was inferior to intermittent ECG in terms of cost-effectiveness, due to both lower sensitivity and higher costs. The base-case analysis compared intermittent ECG screening with no screening of patients with recent stroke. The implementation of the screening programme on 1000 patients resulted over a 20-year period in 11 avoided strokes and the gain of 29 life-years, or 23 quality-adjusted life years, and cost savings of €55 400.

    CONCLUSION: Screening of silent AF by intermittent ECG recordings in patients with a recent ischaemic stroke is a cost-effective use of health care resources saving costs and lives and improving the quality of life.

  • 43.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kostnader och effekter vid förskrivning av hörapparat2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at investigating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hearing aid fitting. Especially, two types, i.e. linear one-channel AGC (simple) and nonlinear multichannel AGC (advanced), were compared. Randomised cross-over design was used, blinded through similar shells of the devices without any identifications of type. Outcome measures were “speech in noise”, problem solving ability (IPPA, PIRS) and health related quality of life (EQ-5D, HUI3). In addition, the users’ preferences with regard to final choice of hearing aid with and without information on costs were studied.

    The study was a collaboration with hearing aid centres in the county councils of Östergötland, Kalmar and Jönköping in the southeast of Sweden. During 2002 and 2003, 161 users were recruited to the study, mean age was 70 years, 60 % were men and 40 % women. The intervention was fitting of hearing aids to first time applicants, bilaterally “behind the ear” model, if no contra-indication for bilateral fitting was present.

    Free choice of equipment without any information on costs resulted in prescription of about 60 % of simple and and 40 % of advanced hearing aids. With information on costs the corresponding figures were 50%/50 %. The costeffectiveness, measured as cost per quality adjusted life years gained (cost/QALY) was 80 000 SEK based on EQ-5D and 17 300 SEK based on HUI3 Assumptions were an improvement of quality of life which was sustainable over five years. The costs included visit to physician, audiogram, assessment and construction of two earmolds and investment costs for the devices. Without information about costs 88% choose bilateral fitting and 12% unilateral. With information of costs these figures changed marginally to 87% and 13%, respectively.

    The advanced device performed significantly better in the “speech in noise” test (p=0.004) and problem solving ability measured through IPPA (p=0.044). Quality of life showed significantly lower results (p=0.009) of the use of the advanced device.

    Only a small fraction, 12 persons, changed their decision on device after cost information, 11 of these changed from advanced to simple device and one from bilateral to unilateral fitting (still advanced). The additional costs between bilateral and unilateral fitting amounted to about 8000 SEK, which seems to be an amount which the main group of users were willing to pay. No adjustment to household incomes was made.

    It has been shown that hearing aid fitting for first time applicants has a high (favorable) cost-effectiveness. The advanced device yields an improved speech recognition in noise in comparison with the simple device. The measurements of quality of life indicate difficulties to discriminate between types of devices. It could be that subgroups’ value the two types differently. An hypothesis, which has not been tested, is whether people with better cognitive ability prefer the advanced device to a higher extent than do users with lower cognitive ablity.

  • 44.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Borg, Erik
    Danermark, Berth
    Gullbrandsson, A.
    Hellbom, Gunn
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Cost-effectiveness of a new regimen for rehabilitation at hard of hearing2004In: Health Technology Assessment Internationel HTAi,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Hellbom, Gunn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro Universitet.
    Borg, Erik
    Ahlséns forskningsinstitut.
    Gullbrandsson, Ann
    Karlstad sjukhus.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Cost-effectiveness in rehabilitation of hearing impaired people.2005In: Assistive Technology: From Virtuality to Reality AAATE 2005 / [ed] Alain Pruski and Harry Knops, IOS Press , 2005, p. 750-754Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The title of this book points towards the difficulty encountered in research and development carried out by laboratories to reach the users. From Virtuality to Reality aims at alerting  developers so that they pay a particular attention to the outcome of their work. Inventive research as well as new technologies which have a very high potential in the field of assistive technology are described in this publication. Despite the fact that recent products take more and more frequently into account the specific needs of the handicapped people, there remains a long road ahead until these products become available to everyone. Assistive technology has to adapt to today’s fast technological developments. Because new technologies are developing too rapidly, there is no choice but to adapt to this ceaseless evolution. The elderly or handicapped people are facing more and more difficulties in interacting with the assistive technology experts. Technology is an essential component of the activity but it is even more important to take into account the human factor if the aim is to enable users to benefit from assistive technologies. As a consequence, developers must work with a unique objective based on a user-centered approach. This requires a multidisciplinary collaboration  which is one of the prime movers of their research and also one of the keys of success.

  • 46.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Can we rely on QALYs for assistive technologies?2012In: Technology and Disability, ISSN 1055-4181, E-ISSN 1878-643X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In decision making on the adoption of health care programmes, assistive technologies (ATs) and AT services for people with disabilities, cost-effectiveness analysis is increasingly important. The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), which incorporates quality of life as well as survival, has become a standard unit of comparative efficacy, although there are methodological challenges in its use. The applicability of the concept of cost per QALY gained through intervention was investigated in one study of rollators and one of hearing aids. It was shown that two widely used instruments for deriving QALYs, HUI3 and EQ-5D, yield differing results, which may also differ depending on the type of disability. Because the magnitude of these differences could affect decision makers' willingness to provide reimbursement, the variability of cost-effectiveness results due to methodology should be considered in the policy-making process.

  • 47.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Advanced Signal Processing in Single and Bilateral Hearing Aids - User Benefits2006In: the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Persson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hellbom, Gunn
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fries, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kostnader och effekter vid förskrivning av rollatorer2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation by means of walkers for persons with restricted mobility (fourwheeled walkers). The walkers were of a number of different brands and models.

    The study group included 205 first time users with several different diagnoses. The study was designed as a pre/post study with follow-up three months after the delivery of the walker. The “functional diagnosis” of the user the walker models prescribed and labour time used by thew staff were reported by the prescribing staff (physiotherapists and occupational therapists). Background data and various outcomes were reported through questionnaires by the users themselves.

    The users reported a number of positive effects of the intervention:

    • less need for help on a daily basis,
    • increased possibilities to participate in "activities outside home",
    • less problems in carrying out daily activities,
    • significant improvement in generic quality of life, measured by means of the instrument EuroQol (EQ-5D).

    The average cost of the walkers amounted to SEK 1 300. In addition, there were labour costs related to examinations and the delivery of the walkers, amounting to SEK 300. The direct costs per case amounts to about SEK 1 600 on average.

    The only indirect cost where a change due to the delivery of the walker could be expected was “special transport service”. There was a slight, although nonsignificant, increase in this cost, after delivery of the walkers.

    With the estimated gain in quality of life of 0,07 (on the scale of EQ-5D, ranging from 0,0 to 1,0), we derived a cost per quality adjusted years gained (cost/QALY) of SEK 24 000. This means a very favourable balance between costs and effects, supporting high ranking in priority lists.

  • 49.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effekter av sjukvårdsrådgivning per telefon: En analys av rådgivningsverksamheten 1177 i Östergötland och Jämtland2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2001, Sweden’s Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the organizationthen known as the Federation of Swedish County Councils explored thefeasibility of a nationally coordinated health care hotline and in 2003 publishedtheir findings in a report titled “Vårdråd direkt – Sjukvårdsrådgivningar isamverkan” [Health care hotline – collaborative effort for medical advice].Jämtland has had a health care hotline unit since 2001 while ÖstergötlandCounty Council launched theirs in late 2003. By 2008, Östergötland andJämtland were two of the six county councils in the national health care hotlinenetwork that used the telephone number 1177. In 2009 the national hotlineadvisory service will essentially be complete, involving 16 health careauthorities and their affiliated units.

    National coordination offers several advantages. Neighbouring units can helpeach other in cases of overload, units with specialized expertise can provideadvisory services to others, and a common data and medical recordsmanagement system provides a good overview with efficiency gains. The nurseshave access to a computer-based decision support system to assist them in theiradvisory capacity. The 1177 telephone hotline service gives patients increased,round-the-clock access which provides professional, documented advice withthe aim to direct the patients to the most suitable care option, as well as givingappropriate advice on self-care.

    In cases where advisory services lead to a level of care that differs from the levelpatients initially expected, resources can be freed for other purposes. The“Vårdråd direkt” report refers to a potential for efficiency gains with suchpatient flow management, estimated at SEK 3 billion, or SEK 300 per inhabitantfor a fully established national advisory service. A few units have carried outhealth economics studies since 2001 which have shown a successfulredistribution of patient flow via the health care hotline. However, these studieshave had certain limitations in method and selection, which would justify furtherstudies of the effects of the advisory service.

    Method: The present study uses three independent data sources to study patient flow inÖstergötland, based on calls registered during 1 week in October 2008 and thenotes entered in each patient’s chart. All patients who called the hotline duringthat week have been checked against the health care data warehouse 1 weekbefore and 1 week after the call. A total of 660 of these patients were selected toparticipate in a questionnaire study including questions such as what level of care they expected before making the call, how they felt about the treatment theymet with, and the quality of the advice. The study also includes all patients inJämtland who called the hotline that same week in October; 670 patients fromthis patient population were selected for inclusion in the questionnaire study. Wedid not match patient data before and after the call for the Jämtland patients. Thenet response rate was the same in Östergötland and Jämtland, about 49 per cent,and the response rate varied from 30 to 60 per cent in the different age groupswhere older patients had a higher response rate than younger.

    Results and conclusions: In Östergötland the health care advisory hotline had about 200 000 calls where ajournal was recorded to a cost of SEK 20 million. The health care advisoryhotline determines level of care in 42 per cent of all documented cases(confidence interval, CI 38–46 per cent). In about 20 per cent of cases theadvisory service resulted in a less urgent level of care than the patient expectedwhile in 13 per cent of cases the patient was advised to obtain medical care at ahigher level than they had expected. Calculations in terms of number of doctorvisits were carried out in these two groups while the other 9 percent resulted in avisit in primary health care without any particular savings. In Östergötland,callers were advised to exercise self-care and/or schedule a visit to a nurse orpublic health nurse, rather than visit the doctor as they had planned, in 15 percent of cases, corresponding to a savings of 24,000 doctor visits annually.

    According to our assumptions about the cost of different types of medical visits,the gross effect in Östergötland was SEK 240 per capita per annum equal to 97million per annum. Based on these figures, calculated for the entire country (i.e.about 92 per cent of the population, since not everyone will be affiliated with thenational advisory service) the gross effect will be SEK 2 billion to a cost of SEK425 million. This is about half of the savings estimated in 2003.

    It can be difficult for a health care authority to demonstrate visible effects of anadvisory hotline in terms of savings in number of doctor visits. The effectsshould be most apparent the first years after the telephone advisory hotline isimplemented; once the hotline has been in operation for a number of years, thehealth care services would be adapted and optimized to the resource gainsprovided by the advisory services and the savings fully achieved. Someindications suggest that the health care hotline in Östergötland had an effect onthe statistics for doctor visits in 2004, when it began on a full scale. There was arelatively large decline in the total number of doctor visits in 2004 and asrecently as 2007, the total number of visits had not yet returned to the 2003 leveldespite an population increase that motivates another 25 000 visits.

    Our conclusion is that the health care hotline influences patient flow in a largenumber of cases, positively affecting resource utilization. Return on investmentfor the advisory service is good in terms of fewer health care encounters and anincrease in the percentage of encounters at the appropriate level of care, as wellas relevant self-care advice.

    Nevertheless, other parts of the health care system have not experienced anynotable relief from the health care hotline, as noted in discussions with referencegroup members that have experience of many parts of the health care system.For example, in Östergötland the patient calls to primary care centres hasincreased a bit the last year, despite a substantial increase in the number of callsto 1177. We hope that future studies will be able to provide an explanation forthis finding.

  • 50.
    Schmidt, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samhällsekonomiska kostnader för reumatiska sjukdomar2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reumatiska sjukdomar drabbar många människor och är förknippade med såväl lidande som stora belastningar på samhällsekonomin.

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att skatta bördan av reumatiska sjukdomar på samhällsekonomin i Sverige. Detta med avseende på såväl konsumtion av sjukvård (direkta kostnader) som produktionsbortfall till följd av arbetsoförmåga (indirekta kostnader). En redovisning görs även av kvinnors och mäns respektive andelar av kostnaderna.

    Studien är en sjukdomskostnadskalkyl (cost of illness analysis). Kostnader för sjukvårdskonsumtion har beräknats med hjälp av Socialstyrelsens nationella patientregister vad gäller slutenvård samt Apotekets Diagnos-Recept undersökning gällande läkemedel och öppenvård. Beräkningar av kostnader för produktionsbortfall i form av sjukskrivningar och förtidspensioner/sjukbidrag har baserats på Riksförsäkringsverkets diagnosklassificerade urvalsstatistik.

    De totala kostnaderna för reumatiska sjukdomar i Sverige år 2001 beräknades till ca 36,4 miljarder kronor. Av dessa bestod 31,3 miljarder kronor (86%) av indirekta kostnader (produktionsbortfall), medan direkta kostnader (vård och läkemedel) uppgick till 5,1 miljarder kronor (14%). Kvinnornas andel av kostnaderna var ca 2/3 (för såväl direkta som indirekta och totala kostnader). Försäkringskassans utgifter förknippade med reumatiska sjukdomar uppgick till totalt ca 12,5 miljarder kronor. Detta var ca 16% av de totala utgifterna för samtliga diagnoser.

    Sammanfattningsvis är den samhällsekonomiska bördan av reumatiska sjukdomar i Sverige mycket omfattande. Relationen mellan direkta och indirekta kostnader gör det rimligt att benämna reumatisk sjukdom (de diagnoser som ingår däri) en socialförsäkringssjukdom, vilket också visar sig i stora utgifter för Försäkringskassan. I förhållande till kostnadernas totala omfattning konsumerar dessa patienter relativt begränsad mängd sjukvårdsresurser.

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